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"Sed juris rationibus convenientius Videtur, ovum proavumvc defuncti, а fratribus ejus germanis in successione excludi: quia impcrator in dicta Novella 11H. emphatice dixit, fratres et sórores cum proximis gradu ascindeiUibvs vocari; qualis meni\o proximorum цгиАи inutilis plane ac superflua esset, si non per grudu próximos denotarentur illi, qui in primo linea? ascendentis gradu surit; cum juris certi atque indubilati sit, nunquam in ascendente Гшеа locum esse juri repraisentationis, per quod remotior subintraret in locum proximioris defuncti; atque adeo sufFecisset, si generaliter expressum esset, fratres cum ascendentibus vocari. No dicam hoc ipso, quo in linea ascendente reprœsentatio persona? proximioris udmissa non est, fieri non posse, ut avus vcl proavus de functi, qui a patre vel matie defuncti certo ccrtius excluditur, concurreret cum fratribus, qui cum patre matreque defuncti concurrunt. Quibus acccdit, quod srntentia, de avo defuncti cum germanis ejus fratribus concurrente, ad absurda ducit. Si enim verum est, quod in casu quo fratres et sórores cum proximis gradu ascendent ibus ita coiicurrant, ut ha'reditas inter eos secundum personarum numerum dividenda sit, ac ascendentium et fratrum singuli a?qualem habeant portionem secundum d. Nov. 118. cveniret necessario, nt remotiorcs ascendentes ob defectum proximiorum cum fratribus defuncti concurrentes plus fratribus nocituri essent, quam proximiores; dum, positis duobus fratribus germanis defuncti, pater et mater conctirrens duns tanlimi partes n-quales auferendo efficerent, ut fratres singuli quartam hœroditatis fraterna- partem capiant; quatuor autem avi aviœque existentes, viriles totidem partes oceupando, non nisi sextam sin^nlis defuncti fratribiiM relicturi essent; sicuti tanlum partem decimam duo fratres singuli essent habituri, si cum proavis atque proaviabus (qnnlfs octo esse possunt) deberent concurrere. Quam autem a ratione id alicnum tit, ut magis aliis concursu suo noceant remotiores, quam quie jusdem linea1 proximiores sunt, nemo, ut opinor, non sponte satis ngnosnit. Denique tantum concursum esse fratrum cum patre et matre, non vero cum aliis ascendenlibus remotioribns, ubi pater materque deficit, aperte probant verba Novel

la? 118. dum illic diserte cautum, si cum ascendentibus inveninntur fratres »ut sórores ex utrisque parentibus conjunct! defuncto, eos cum proximis gradu ascendtntibvs rocuri, si aul jiatcr ant mattr J'uerint: unde sequitur,eos non omni casu, nee promiscué cum omnibus asneudentibus, venire; sed si pater aid mater fitcrint: ideoquc mox igitur subjicitur, in hoc casu patrem nullum usvm, ex filiorum out ßliarum portione, posse sibi penitus vindicare, nulla avi facta mentione \ cum tamen id aro aqua interdicendum fuissel, si et avus cum defuncti nepotis fratribus succedere potuisset, dum fratres Buccedentes u-que potuissent in avi quam in patrie potentate esse. Ut proinde nihil in contrarium efiiciat, quod, in jure, proximus dicatur, quem nemo antccedit; cum id turn demum admitti debí at, quando nulla inde abusurditas profiuit; prout in hoc casu futurum, supra monstratum est. Vid. Joannis Voct. coin, ad Pandectas, torn. 2 lib. 38. t. 17 § 13.

Bnt this question seems now to be settled in England in consequence of three determinations; the first of which was given in the Exchequer in the case of Poole v. Wilshaw on the 9th of July, 17(18 the second in the case of A'orbnry v. Vicars, before Mr. Fortescue7 master of the rolls in November 1749: —and the third was delivered on the 14tli January, 1754, in the case of Evclin v. Evelin, by the lord chancellor, who decreed in favor of the brother in exclusion of the grand-father, having founded his opinion partly in deference to the former determinations; partly in consideration of the present common law computation of degrees, relative to real estates; and partly upon the benefit, which must accrue to the public by preferring a younger man to an older, the brother of a deceased person to the grantl-lVitlier, propter spem accrescertdi.

And it was also declared to be the opinion of the court, that, if the point in question had been res integra, and solely determinable by the ¡loman law, the decree would still have been the вате; which declaration, from so high an authority, must have great weight in ascertaining of the Novel, and must incline civilians in general to think more favorably for the future of Vaet's arguments, which were particularly quotedand much relied upon by the court.

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CAP. IIb

De successione ex latere vtñientium.

Si igilur defunctus ñeque descendent tes ñeque ascendentes reliquerit, primös ad haereditatem vocamus fratres et sórores ex eodem patre et ex eadem raatre natos, quos etiam cum patribus ad hœreditatein voeavimus. His autem non existentibus, in secundo ordine illos fra-' tres ad hiereditatem vocamus, qui ex uno parente conjuneti sunt defuneto, sive per palrem solum, sive per matrem. Si autem defuneto fratres fuerint, et alterius fratris aut sororis prœmortuorum filii, vocabuntur ad bœreditatem isti cum de patre et matre thiis, masculis et fœminis: et, quanticunque fuerint, tantam ex hœrcditate percipient portionem, quantam eorum parens futurus esset aceipere, si superstes esset. Unde consequens est, ut, si forte prsmortuus frater, cujus filü vivunt, per utrumque parentem nunc defunetm personas jungebatur^ superstites autem fratres per patrem solum forsan aut matrem ei jungebanlur, proïponantur istius filii propriis thiis, licet in tertio sint grada, (sive a pater sive a matre sint thii, et sive masculi sive fcEmina:,) sicut eorum parens prœpoueretur, si viveret. Et ex diverso, siquidem superstes frater ex utroque parente conjtmgitur defuneto, prœmortuus autem per unum parontem jungebatur, hujus filios ab hœreditaie excludimus, sicut ipse, si viveret, ab hsCreditate excludebatur. Hujusmodi verö Privilegium in hoc ordine cognationiá eolia ргжbemuR fratrum masculorum et fcem'tnarum filüs aut filiabas, ut in snorum parentum jura succédant; rfulli eriim alii omnino persons, ex hoc ordine venienti, hoc jus largimur. Sed et ipsie fratrum filiis tunc hoc beneficium conferimus, quando cum propriis judicantur thiis, masculis et fœminis, sive paterni

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CHAPTER III.

OF THE SUCCESSION OF COLLATERALS.

If a man leaves neither descendants nor ascendants at the time of his death, we first call his brothers and sisters of the whole blood, whom wc have also called to inherit with the futhers of deceased persons.

But, when there are no brothers of the whole blood with the deceased, we call those, who are either by the same father only, or by the same mother. And, if the deceased leaves brothers and also nephews by a deceased brother or sister, these nephews shall be called to succeed with their uncles and aunts of the whole blood to the deceased; but, however numerous these nephews are, they shall be entitled only to that share, which their parent would have taken, if alive. From whence it follows, that, if a man dies and is survived by the children of a deceased brother of the whole blood, and also by brothers of the half blood, then his nephews, [that is, the children of his brother, by the whole blood,] are to be preferred to their uncles and aunts; for, although such nephews are themselves in the third degree, yet they are preferred, as their parent would have been, if living. And, on the contrary, if a man dies, and is survived by a brother of the whole blood, and by children of a brother of the half blood deceased, these nephews are excluded, as their father would have been, if ho had lived. But among collaterals wu allow the privilege of representation to the sons and daughters of brothers and sisters, and no farther; and we grant it only to brothers and sisters' children, when they concur with their uncles or aunts, paternal or maternal: for, when ascendants are called to inherit, we by no means permit the children of a deceased brother or sister to share in the succession; although the father or mother was of the whole blood with the deceased brother. But we have so far allowed the right of representation to brothers and sisters' children, that, ueing only in the third degree, they arc called to inherit with those, who are in the second; and this is evident, because brothers and sisters' children are preferred to the uncles and aunts of the deceased, paternal as well as maternal; although they are all in the third degree of cognation.

But, if a deceased person leaves neither brothers nor brothers' children, we then call all the other collaterals according to the prerogative of their respective degrees, preferring the nearer to the more remote; and, if many are found in the same degree, the inheritance must be divided according to the number of persons; and our laws distinguish this manner of dividing an inheritance by calling it a division in capita.

17{ionovç тгло; Ti¡r xl.iftovmitav. Primos ad hEereditatein vocamus.] We must here observe in relation to the distinction between the whole blood and the half blood, that in England the rules of law are different, according to the nature of the estate, which is to be taken; for, in case of lands the whole blood is always preferred, and the half blood is no blood inheritable by descent. 1 Co. inst. 14. a. But, in respect to personal estate, the law has not aîways been fixed and certain; inasmuch as the statute of the 2:id of Car. II. [for the better settlement of the estates of intestates] takes no notice of this distinction between the whole blood and the half blood, but direct», that distribution shall be made among all those, who are in equal degree of kindred to the intestate. But, it being certain, that brothers and sisters of the half blood are in the same degree with brothers and sisters of the whole blood, it hath been the general opinion, that brothers and sisters of the half blood were entitled, by virtue of the statute,

to an equal share of the intestate's estate, with the brothers and sisters of the whole blood, although there are several precedents of judgments given, since the statute, allowing the half blood to have but an half share. But the law in this respect has been fully settled ever since the decree of the house of lords in the case of Walts and others versus Crooke, upon an appeal from a decree in chancery, which had been given in favor of the half blood, and was affirmed by the house. Vid. Showers's Cases in Par. 108. and Stratum's Domat. СЙЗ. 2 Mod. 204. Harris.

Oiliêrt туо.тш. Nullo modo ] "Saneimus, ut, si quis moriens relinquat ascendentium aliquem et fratres, qui poseint cum parentibus vocari, et alterius prœmortui fratris filios, cum ascendentibus et fratribus vocentur etiam priemortui fratris filii, et tantam aeeipiant portionem, quantum eorum futurus erat pater aeeipiere, si vixisset." Vid. Nov. exxvi. cap. 1. Harris.

NOTES

AND

REFERENCES

PROEMIUM, OR PREFACE.

DE CONFIRMATIONE INSTITUTIONUM page l.

This amounts to an imperial constitution, giving a Sanction, to this compilation by Tribonian and his associates.

In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi. This is elsewhere used, as in the second and third confirmations of the digests, in the confirmation of the code and of several of the novels. In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, ad omnia consilia omnesque actus semper progredimur. Cod. 1. 27. 2. pr. Hence the usual solemn form of beginning last wills and testaments, In The Name Of God, Amen. That the ancient Romans, seldom entered on a business of importance sine consilio deorum et ope invocata, I am aware; but I suspect this practice, was rather of Christian origin: 3 Coloss. 17. "Whatever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God, and the father by him." See Dr. Taylor's observations on the proemium of the Institutes, Elem. Civ. Law. qto. 28. This form of testamentary introduction, cannot be necessary, unless under some precise and positive institution; of which I know none in the English or American law. I refer to Taylor, (loc. cit.) for a full dissertation on the titles assumed by the emperor, of which the following is a concise account.

Emperor. Imperator. Originally conferred on victorious generals, but first assumed as an imperial title by Augustus Cœsar.

'Casar. A name that belonged to the family of Julius Cœsar as a *402 Cognomen; and adopted by the emperors from Augustus to Nero. It was then given to the next in succession (destinati imperio) who were denominated nobilissimi Casares: it was reagsumed by the emperors, on the removal of the government from Rome to Byzantium.

Flavius. Borrowed from the Vespasian family, and retained by many of the

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