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she was clothed, and presenting herself before him in a plain cottage dress, proposed to relieve him of her presence. This act, however, served only the more securely to bind him in his chains, and a reconciliation took place. By her connexion with Mr. Greville, she is reported to have had three children, named Eliza, Ann, and Charles. She always passed for their aunt, and took upon herself the name of Harte. In the splendid misery in which she lived, she hastened to call to her her mother, to wliom she was through life most affectionate and attentive, and she passed by the name of Cadogan.
In 1789, the changes produced by the French Revolution, operated upon Mr. Greville's affairs, and he was under the necessity of reducing his establishment and making arrangements with his creditors. A separation became necessary. The Right Honourable Sir William Hamilton, K.B., and Ambassador to his Britannic Majesty at Naples, but now in London, at this time (probably not before) became acquainted with her, was passionately attached to her, and prevailed upon her to accompany him to Naples, whither she went, together with her mother, and he devoted still further attention to the cultivation of her mind and accomplishments. It is only charitable to suppose Sir William to have been ignorant of his nephew's connexion with Emma, but there have not been wanting reports, that the condition of the engagement between Sir William, and the lady, was the payment of his nephew's debts. Sir William Hamilton was a native of Scotland, born in 1730, and was Minister at Naples for the long period of thirty-six years. He was a distinguished antiquary, remarkable for his taste in, and appreciation of the Fine Arts He possessed, also, scientific acquirements, and had some knowledge of mineralogy. He was a Trustee of the British Museum, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a VicePresident of the Society of Antiquaries. He was, also, a distinguished Member of the Dilletanti Club, and appears among the portraits, in their room of meeting, at the Thatched House Tavern. A portrait of him by Sir Joshua Reynolds, one of his intimate friends, may be seen in the National Gallery. He is known as an author by his works.1 With the King of Naples, he was a great favourite, and largely shared with him the enjoyment of the chase and other sports, to which the Sovereign is well known to have been egregiously addicted. which she now moved, she became distinguished for her great accomplishments, and the dulness of fashionable life us greatly relieved by her displays as a singer, and as an actress. The admiration she excited was universal. Mr. Richard Payne Knight, writing to Lady Hamilton, January 21st, 1795, says, "I frequently see and hear from Lord Moira. He is among the most constant and fervid of your admirers; for he scarcely ever writes or converses without saying something in your commendation. The having heard you sing, he reckons an epoch in his life, and often says, that you gave him ideas of the power of expression in music, which he should never otherwise have conceived."
1 Antiquites Etrusques, Grecques, et Romaines, tiroes du Cabinet de M. Hamilton; with Introductory Dissertations in English and French, by M. D'Harcanville, Naples, 1765-75. 4 vols, folio. A smaller edition was published at Paris, in 1787, in 5 vols. 8vo. by M. David.
Observations on Mount Vesuvius, Mount .<Etna, and other Volcanoes of the Two Sicilies, London, 1772, 1774, 8vo.
Already familiarised to the studies of the painter, and according to Romney, and his biographer, no mean judge of the arts; with Sir William, she had, in Italy, many opportunities of displaying her taste, of improving herself, and also of imparting her knowledge. This she is said to have practically evinced, for with a common piece of stuff, she could so arrange it, and clothe herself, as to offer the most appropriate representations of a Jewess, a Roman matron, a Helen, Penelope, or Aspasia.2 No character seemed foreign to her, and the grace she was in the habit of displaying, under such representations, excited the admiration of all who were fortunate enough to have been present on such occasions. The celebrated Shawl Dance, owes its origin to her invention; but it is admitted to have been executed by her with a grace and elegance, far surpassing that with which it has ever been rendered on the stage of any of our theatres.
Under the tuition and governance of Sir William Hamilton, she improved so greatly, and obtained such complete sway over him, that he resolved upon making her his wife. They came to England, and on the 6th of September, 1791, she writing the name of Emma Harte, he married her at the Church of St. George, Hanover Square, resolving to return with her to Naples, that she might there be recognised by the Neapolitan Court. But prior to quitting London to return to Naples, she was doomed to experience disappointment; for although she had, through the position of Sir William Hamilton, and his high connexions, together wiih her own attractions and accomplishments, gained admission into a very high circle of society, she was very properly refused admission to the Court of St. James's, which Sir William, in vain, endeavoured most assiduously to effect. In the society, however, in
Campi Phlegrtei; or Observations on the Volcanoes of the Two Sicilies, English and French, Naples, 1776-7, 2 vols, folio. A Supplement: being an account of the Great Eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in August, 1779, folio.
Various Papers in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, and in the Archasologia of the Society of Antiquaries.
Sir William Hamilton died at the age of 72, on the Cth of April, 1803. His estates at Swansea, which he acquired by his former wife, were willed to his nephew, Charles F. Greville, with a charge of j£700 per annum, as an annuity to Lady Hamilton, for her life. He was buried at Milford Haven, in Pembrokeshire, and from a letter before me from Mr. Greville to Lady Hamilton, April 7,1807, it appears that Lady Hamilton, presented to the chapel at Milford, a piece of the wreck of L'Orient, the French vessel that was blown up at the Battle of the Nile. 1 See Vol. i. p. 406, ante.
It is said, that at first, upon the return of Sir William to Naples, there was some difficulty in the way of her introduction to the Queen, not having been received at the Court of her own country; that, however, was soon removed, and in a short time, she maintained the most confidential intercourse with her Majesty. That the Queen of Naples, should have become intimately attached to Lady Hamilton, cannot be a matter of surprise, when we recollect the calamities her family had sustained by the French Revolution. To seek consolation in the bosom of the wife of the English Minister, the Minister of that country which almost stood alone in its opposition to the principles and conduct of the French Revolution, seems natural. Friendship is often created by sympathetic asso ciations, called forth under the pressure of affliction, and is sustained by the consolations of hope, derived from them. There are many letters in my possession, from the Queen of Naples to Lady Hamilton, breathing the most ardent attachment, the most unbounded friendship, and expressing eternal gratitude to her. The following letter, accompanied by u portrait of the Dauphin, will be read with interest:—
"February 9, 1793. "My dear Lady, "I am very grateful for the interest you took respecting the execrable deed the infamous French have committed. 1 send you the portrait of that innocent child, who implores assistance, vengeance, or if he is also sacrificed, his ashes, united to those of his parents, cry to the Eternal for speedy retribution; I rely the most on your generous nation to accomplish it. Pardon these distracted sentiments, of my afflicted heart, your attached friend,
1 The Queen of Naples, who exercised so much influence upon, and took so active a part in the political affairs of the kingdom, as detailed in many of the
Sir William Hamilton was remarkable for the hospitable manner in which he received visitors ut his mansion, and the
letters printed in the preceding biography, was Maria Caroline, daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, known as one of the handsomest women of her day, and descended from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Her husband, Francis Duke of Lorraine and Bar, commonly known as Francis the First, Emperor of Germany, was also very handsome, and they had many children, among whom may be mentioned Joseph II., Leopold II., Maximilian, Ferdinand, Caroline, Marie Antoinette, Maria Amelia, Christina, Marianna, and Elizabeth.
On the accession of Charles III. to the throne of Spain, October 5th, 1759, Ferdinand, his son, who was born January 12th, 1751, ascended the throne of Naples, and April 7th, 1708, married Maria Caroline of Austria. She partook in no little degree of the beauty of her mother, and shared with her also in pride and haughtiness, which has been attributed to the tuition she received at the Austrian Court. All, however, admit her to have possessed a masculine understanding, to have had great natural and acquired powers of mind, a cool head in council, and great knowledge of men and manners.
General Pepe says (Memoirs, Vol. i. p. 9), that "although in the prime of youth, her mind was of the most powerful stamp, and her wit of the highest order. By nature she was both proud and haughty, and she nourished within her bosom the most inordinate love of power." Of Ferdinand, he says—" He was both by nature and education weak, strongly addicted to pleasure, and utterly incapable of opposing himself to the strong mind of the young Queen, who soon discovered the character of her husband." He further says, " She soon claimed the right of sitting in the State Council, and of having a voice in its deliberations." To this, it must be observed, she was entitled by the laws of Naples, having given birth to a son. This had been established from 1776, and was in conformity with the marriage treaty. Ferdinand IV. is well known to have thought of little else than pleasure, principally derived at excursions in hunting. Sir William Hamilton says in a letter, what is expressed by Lord Nelson in another to the same effect: "The King has killed eighty-one animals of one sort or other to-day, and amongst them a wolf and some stags. He fell asleep in the coach, and awaking told me he had been dreaming of shooting. One would have thought he had shed blood enough." Sir John Acton is reported to have said of Ferdinand, that he was a good sort of man, because nature had not supplied him with the faculties necessary to make a bad one.
The Queen gave more attention to state business than her husband. The active part she took, and the knowledge of the power she possessed is shewn by her letters in these volumes, and by the letter Napoleon Buonaparte addressed to her. Great hatred was entertained between these two Sovereigns, Buonaparte calling the Queen " Fredcgonda,"1 and she him, '' Murderer of Princes, and Corsican tyrant." The condition of Naples during the whole of the revolu
1 Fredegonda was mistress, and afterwards wife of Chilperic I. King of the French, in the middle of the sixth century, whose reign was remarkable for cruelty, to which he is said to have been instigated by Fredegonda, who was also suspected of causing the assassination of the King himself. See, Sismondi Histoire des Franijais, torn. i. p. 371
fascinating powers of Lady Hamilton, tended much to render the society agreeable and entertaining. His Royal Highness
tionory period, was very remarkable. Botta, an excellent authority, in his " History of Italy during the Consulate and Empire of Napoleon Buonaparte," says: "In coming to speak of Naples, I know not how to furnish myself with adequate expressions; for the people are like the climate, on the one side an extreme of benevolence, that borders on ideal virtue, on the other an extreme of hatred that borders on ferocity i conspiracies, civil war, foreign wars, conflagrations, devastation, treachery, executions of the virtuous, and of the infamous; but the sword of the executioner fell more frequently on the just than the unjust. To these we must add acts of heroism, of invincible courage, of perfect friendship even in misfortune, civic moderation even in want, the gentlest thought of happy humanity, the purest desires for the common good; now a kingdom agitated by conspiracies, now a republic contaminated by rapine, now a kingdom full of cruelty, and now the theatre of rapine also; Ferdinand twice driven away, again restored; a republic the slave of France, a monarchy the slave of England; a republic established by force through the agency of a soldier, a monarchy restored by force through the agency of a priest;1 the first accomplished by an immense slaughter of Lazzaroni, the latter by an equal number of republicans. The same individuals who had fawned on Championnet the republican, and on Ferdinand the king, now crouched to the monarch Joseph; and on the other side might be beheld on the same field the cross of Christ in close alliance with the crescent of Mahomet. Altogether these things form a tale so marvellous, that when the eyes and the ears of those who have seen them, and have heard them, shall be closed, none could be found to give them credit, were not testimonies multiplied by the press."— (Vol. ii. p. 25.)
The course of affairs in Naples up to the time of the battle of Trafalgar has been traced in the preceding pages. Lord Collingwood visited Palermo, after the death of Lord Nelson, whom he succeeded as Commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. He gives a melancholy picture of the state of Sicily, Calabria, and Naples. Of the first he says, "It is as weak as it can be. It is a kingdom that has nothing in it which constitutes the strength of a country; but divided councils ; a king, who ought to rule, a queen who will; no army for its defence; its military works ruinous; without revenue, except just enough to support its gaieties; a nobility without attachment to a court, where foreigners find a preference; and a people, who, having nothing beyond their daily earnings, are indifferent as to who rules them, and look to a change for an amelioration of their condition. Every cause of weakness in a country is to be found here; factions alone are abundant." Of the King he speaks as having the appearance and manner of a worthy, honest country gentleman, living generally in the country, and amusing himself in planting trees and shooting. The Queen he describes to be "penetrating into the souls and minds of every body that comes near her, would be thought a deep politician, yet all her schemes miscarry."
The breach of neutrality on the part of Ferdinand, in admitting an English and Russian force into Naples in November, 1805, during the absence of General St. Cyr, in Upper Italy, carrying on operations with Marshal Massena,