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is show nalso by a similar passage in Smollett's Humphrey Clinker, p. 20 : ' By this time the company began to hold their noses; but the doctor, without taking the least notice of this signal, proceeded to show that many fetid substances were not only agreeable but salutary; such as asafoetida, and other medicinal gums, resins, roots, and vegetables, over and aboue burnt feathers, tan-pits, candle-snuffs, &c.'

5. 1. 16. Vrinall-Judgement. Professional judgment. Doctors diagnosed disease by examination of the urine; see Bourne, Scatalogic Rites of all Nations, chap. 40. This chapter is called Urinoscopy, or Diagnosis by Urine.

5. 1. 25. For the metre, see notes on 1. 2.9; 1. 1. 28. But in | a toy; 1 Squire Needle, | comes i' | my nódle now.

5. 2. 1. For the metre, see note on 3. 4. 62.

O! ġi' | you joy | Madam | oisell | e Cóm passe ! 5. 2. 2. You are his Whirle-poole now. I find it impossible to give an adequate paraphrase of this metaphor. As Jonson suggests the hospitality and graciousness of the mistress of the house by the name Loadstone, so he insinuates an idea of the fascination which Pleasance exerts over Compass by comparing her to a whirlpool which draws him irresistibly.

5. 2. 2. all to be married. See line 12, the variant to line 12, and the note on 1. Ch. 21.

5. 2. 10. Ember-weeke! See the Glossary. 5. 2. 18. foure-pound Beaver hat. See the note on 3. 3. 61.

5. 2. 20. Cristall Spectacles. Crystal glass is that which has a very high degree of transparency. Rock crystal was used in magic art.

5. 2. 23. silver Bels to gingle. Golden or silver bells were sometimes given as the prize in races or other contests. 5. 2. 26. For the metre, see note on 1. 2. 47.

She does | deserve as mán y pen | sións,

5. 3. 26.

5. 3. 3. For the metre, see note on 1. 2. 32. To chafed Más | ter Prác | tise. Who I would thinke 5. 3. 14. And make your profits of. Iro. Which are (in

deed)

The ends of a gown'd man. See 5. 3. 24; also 2. Ch. 4, and note.

And will save charges Of Coaches, Vellute Gownes, and cut-worke Smocks. The extravagance of the age, and, on account of it, the incommodity of a wife, were often satirized. Stubbes gives three chapters (3-5) to the extravagance of dress in England. For an actual letter sent by a bride to her husband, see Gifford's Massinger, 4. 43–4:““ Alsoe, I will have 3 horses for my owne saddle, that none shall dare to lend or borrowe; none lend but I, none borrowe but you. Alsoe, I would have two gentlewomen, least one should be sicke, or have some other lett. Alsoe beleeve yt, it is an undecent thing for a gentlewomen to stand mumpinge alone, when God hath blessed their lord and lady wth a greate estate. Alsoe, when I ride a huntinge or a hawkeinge, or travayle from one house to another, I will have them attendinge; soe for either of those said woemen, I must and will have for either of them a horse. Alsoe, I will have 6 or 8 gentlemen; and I will have my twoe coaches, one lyned with velvett to myselfe, wth 4 very fayre horses, and a coache for my woemen, lyned wth sweete cloth, one laced wth gold, the other wth scarlett, and laced with watched lace and silver, wth 4 good horses. Alsoe, I will have twoe coachmen, one for my own coache, the other for my woemen. Alsoe, att any tyme when I travayle, I will be allowed not only carroches, and spare horses for me and my women, but I will have such carryadgs, as shal be fittinge for all orderly; not pestringe my things wth my woemens, nor theirs wth either chambermayds, or theirs wth wase maids. Alsoe, for laundresses, when I travayle I will have them sent away before wth the carryadgs to see all safe, and the chambermayds I will have goe before wth the groomes, that a chamber may be ready, sweete and cleane. Alsoe, for that yt it undecent to croud upp myself wth my gentl. usher in my coache, I will have him to have a convenyent horse to attend me either in city or country. And I must have 2 footemen. And my desire is, that you defray all the chardges for me.'

5. 3. 33. an Action of Choke-baile. See the Glossary. .

5. 3. 35. The metrical irregularity of this line may be explained by the custom of placing ejaculations out of the regular verse (Abbott, $ 512).

5.4. 14. This verse is irregular, being a tetrameter. 5. 4. 16. For the metre, see note on 1. 3. 16. But here has | a noise | beene since, I she was delive r'd 5. 4. 21. For metre, see note to 1. 3. 16. The in / firme mán, | I was sent | for, Squi re Need : le ? 5. 5. 2.

dousets. “This term of venery occurs again in the Sad Shepherd, p. 251, and in the Gipsies Metamorphoses, vol. VII, p. 383.'—C.

5.5.8. A fine she spirit it is, an Indian Mag-pie. In these scenes (5 and 7), ridiculous from the modern point of view, Jonson takes the opportunity to satirize a number of superstitions; demoniacal possession in the case of Needle; the pretended power of exorcism of the doctor; and the belief that birds could act as the medium of spiritual revelation-a survival, doubtless, of the idea of the transmigration of souls. Preposterous as the situation seems to us, it would not to an age that took seriously astrology, alchemy, witchcraft, and all sorts of magic. For a similar case, take the following account of treasure finding quoted in the Gentleman's Magazine Library, pp. 199–200: ““Many attempts have been made by poor workmen, who frequently left their daily employ, to discover money supposed to be hid near this chapel, without success; it was therefore proposed, that some person should lodge in the chapel, for a night, to obtain preternatural direction respecting it. Two farmers, at length, complied with my wishes, and ventured one night, about nine, aided by strong beer, to approach the hallowed walls: they trembled exceedingly at the sudden appearance of a white owl, that

flew from a broken window of the building, with the solemn message, that considerable treasures lay hid in certain fields of the barton; that if they would carefully dig there, and diligently attend the labourers, to prevent purloining, they would undoubtedly find them. The farmers attended to the important notice, instantly employed many workmen in the fields described, and I was lately informed had discovered the valuable deposit.” The folly and superstition which so strongly mark this story should have passed unnoticed, had not the author affected, in other parts of the work, to possess a mind superior to the prejudices which influence the great bulk of mankind.'

Shakespeare also satirized the belief that a human soul could inhabit a bird (Twelfth Night 4. 2. 52–62) :

Clo. What is the opinion of Pythagoras concerning Wilde-fowle ?

Mal. That the soule of our grandam, might happily inhabite a bird.

Clo. What thinkst thou of his opinion ?

Mal. I think nobly of the soule, and no way aprove his opinion.

Clo. Fare thee well : remaine thou still in darknesse, thou shalt hold th' opinion of Pythagoras, ere I will allow of thy wits, and feare to kill a Woodcocke, lest

thou dispossesse the soule of thy grandam. For popular superstitions respecting the magpie, see Brand's Popular Antiquities 3. 214–6. The three chief birds of omen are the owl, the raven, and the magpie. There is a superstition that the chattering of magpies betokens the approach of guests or strangers to one's house. Of the belief that human souls could inhabit magpies, there is an example in Ovid's Metamorphoses 5. 293: 'The Pierides, the nine daughters of Pierus, King of Emathia, having challenged the Muses to a contest of song and suffered defeat, were changed by them into magpies. Also, a recent literary use of the same tradition is found in John Galsworthy's allegory of Sacred and Profane Love.

5. 5. 17. i' the Clothing, or the Bevy. Mrs. Parrot was a member of one of the Livery Companies or guilds of London. For accounts of the clothing of the companies and other facts of interest, see Stow's Survey of London (Kingsford's ed., 2, 188–95); Herbert's History of the Twelve Livery Companies ; and Heath's Some Account of the Grocer's Company.

5. 5. 21. Doo-little Lane. “Now called Knightrider Court, City, a passage of half a dozen houses between Carter Lane and Knightrider Street.'—Wheatley and Cunningham 1. 510.

5. 5. 26. For the metre, see note on 1. 1. 61. You are l a foule | mouth’d, purg | ing, áb | surd Doct or ;

5. 5. 30. your plaister of Oathes. Medicine was involved in those days with alchemy, astrology, magic, and all sort of superstitious practices; cf. 3. 2. 32:

Com. The doctor is an ass then, if he say so,
And cannot with his conjuring names

Cure a poor wench's falling in a swoon. According to Compass, the physicians still had faith in charms, incantations, and oaths. For the relation of medicine to various superstitions, see Hathaway, edition of The Alchemist, Introduction, pp. 49–60; and W. G. Black's Folk Medicine.

5. 5. 36. Bet'lem. Betlem or Bedlem is a corruption of Bethlehem. The hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem was founded in 1246 by Simon Fitz Mary, one of the sheriffs of London, as a refuge for the insane.

5.7. There is a similarity between this scene and The Puritane Widdow ; in both the pretended conjurers discover treasure which they themselves have concealed.

5.7.5-11. It ... rest. The old anatomists divided the brain into three ventricles; the third ventricle, the cerebellum, connected the brain with the spinal marrow and the rest of the body. Intoxication or frenzy was caused by fumes rising from the stomach and collecting in the brain; cf. Macbeth 1. 7. 64:

When Duncan is asleep,

his two chamberlains
Will I with wine and wassail so convince,
That memory, the warder of the brain,
Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason
A limbec only.

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