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sight of a cross on a church because it is an idolatrous painted image,' and is as hypocritical as Tribulation Wholesome. In the Mad Couple well Matched (1.1), a character is described as a ‘Methodicall, Grave and Orthographicall speaking friend, Mr. Saveall that calls People Pe-o-ple.

The Puritan in the Antipodesfurther follows Jonson's precedent. The sober young maid objects to her grandmother's interest in bear-baitings, and calls them 'prophane and Diabolicall courses.' 'Let me entreat you,' she continues, 'Forbeare such beastly pastimes, th' are Sathanicall.' This young Puritan also reads devotional books. But in spite of this godly exterior, the 'blood rebells against the spirit,' and in the very next scene she accosts a man on the street. Here we have the hypocrisy of which Jonson accuses the Puritans. Besides the ridicule in these scenes, there are scattered allusions with the same purport. The poeta turns the 'godly life and death of Mistris Katherine Stubs' into metre for an alderman's son to woo an ancient lady with. In the antipodes 'all their Poets are Puritanes '3; Joyless' fear that his wife may fall in love with an actor at the play4 is exactly the Puritan attitude.

In all the things satirized by Brome that we have mentioned thus far, he is ridiculing rather obvious follies, without any evident endeavor to reform them. In his satire on the projectors, however, he is dealing with a serious abuse of his time, the satiric treatment of which may have contributed to its reform. The monopoly system, to which these projectors belonged, was the granting to certain individuals the right of manufacture of and exclusive trade in certain things, often articles of the most common utility. For instance, among the monopolies granted in the reign of James I, are those on flasks and cartridge-boxes, for the transportation of horns for twenty-one years, to buy and bring in anise seed for twenty-one years, to buy and transport ashes and old shoes for seven years, to make spangles, to print the Psalms of David,

1 4. 1, 2, 3. 2 3.2, p. 277. 3 1. 6, p. 254. 42.9, p. 272. 5 E. N. S. Thompson, op. cit., p. 229. 04. 9.

to sow wood in a certain number of shires. Of course the granting of royal patents for such articles brought large revenues to the Crown, but also great abuses to the public. As the result of protests from Parliament, the monopolies were twice abolished in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., but the system persisted, and continued to be a matter of contention, for many years afterward.2

Dr. W. S. Johnson, in the introduction to his edition of the Devil is an Ass, gives a rather full and very excellent discussion of the system, which is the chief object of satire in that play. Other satiric treatments of the theme mentioned by him are :

Randolph's Muses' Looking-Glass (Dodsley 9. 180).
Marmion's Holland's Leager 1. 5.
Brome's Court Begger.
Wilson's The Projectors.
Taylor's The Complaint of M. Tenterhook, the Projector,

and Sir Thomas Dodger, the Patentee.

Dr. Johnson says that that in the Devil is an Ass (1616) is probably the earliest dramatic representation of the projector ; and, moreover, that the later appearances in the plays just mentioned lack ‘the timeliness of Jonson's satire, and the conception must have been largely derived from literary sources.' Now it is undoubtedly true that Brome and the rest are following Jonson in this point of satire, 4 which appears again in a slighter form in the character of Sir Politick Wouldbe in Volpone, and also in the Masque of Augurs. However, in saying that monopolies were no longer a political

1 E. Lodge, Illustrations of British Hist. (1838) 3. 6. Price (see note 2) gives lists of monopolies in Appendices B to G.

3 Dr. W. H. Price’s English Patents of Monopoly, Boston, 1906, is a complete setting forth of the whole subject from the historical and economic point of view. It says nothing of the satire of the dramatists.

8 P. viii.

4 Cf. the list of projects in the Devil is an A88 : draining the drowned lands, turning dog-skins into Spanish leather, bottling of ale, making wine of raisins or blackberries.

issue, Dr. Johnson is undoubtedly mistaken. Gardner states that the monopoly act of 1621 had merely done away with private projectors, corporations being distinctly excluded from the incidence of the act. The king, therefore, had it in his power to create monopolies, by placing the sole right of manufacture in the hands of corporations. From 1631 to 1635 the monopoly on soap actually became an issue in affairs of state. It was doubtless the wrangle caused by this that made the satire of Brome and other late dramatists timely. For the purpose of dramatic presentation, or perhaps as the result of the establishing of a type of humor-character by Jonson, the individual projector continued to be brought on the stage, though he now represented a corporation.

Shirley introduces into his masque, the Triumph of Peace (1633/4), a number of projectors, the same broad caricatures that Brome employs. Dyce's note from a contemporary source, Whitlock's Memorials, shows that monopolies were still a great abuse, which statesmen were trying to reform. After describing the antimasque in some detail, Whitlock says3 : ' Several other Projectors were in like manner personated in this Antimasque ; and it pleased the spectators the more, because by it an information was covertly given to the King of the unfitness and ridiculousness of these projects against the law ; and the Attorney Noy, who had most knowledge of them, had a great hand in this Antimasque of the Projectors.' Strafford's Letters (1. 167), cited by P. Reyher, 4 show further the persistance of the monopolies at this same time.

For proof that the Antipodes is not even three or four years late in its satire, we have Gardner's further statement that there were more corporations erected in 1636.5 This caused great discontent, which brought about the finishing stroke to monopolies, dealt by the Long Parliament in Nov., 1640.6

1 Personal Government of Chas. I. 2. 165–171. 2 See also Price, op. cit., pp. 118–128. 3 Memorials, p. 20, b. ** Les Masques Anglais, p. 251. The whole subject of projectors is excellently treated here.

5 Gardener, op. cit. 2. 313. Price, op. cit., p. 45.

Brome has made use of this theme in a few other plays. There are two bare allusions in the Damoiselle (1.1, p. 380) and the Queen's Exchange (3. 1, p. 502). But his most important treatment of the subject is the Court Begger, which seems to have been written during the very year that preceded the final abolition of the abuse. This play centres chiefly in a projector, and treats the theme with much wit and cleverness.

Other treatments of the projector by contemporaries, not yet mentioned, are Massinger's Emperor of the East ; The President of the Projectors (1631) ; Strode's Floating Island 3.4 (1636); Newcastle's Captain Underwit 2.3 (c. 1640) ; A Projector being lately Dead, which is a non-extant play mentioned in A Collection of Judgements upon SabbathBreakers (1636) ;1 and Thomas Herbert's Newes out of Islington ; or, a Dialogue very merry and pleasant betwixt a knavish Projector, and honest Clad, the Ploughman. With certain Songs of the late fall of the new Beare-garden ; and for the fall of Projectors (London, 1641). And finally, The Stage Player's Complaint? (1641) has a passage worth quoting : ‘For Monopolies are downe, Projectors are downe, the High Commission Court is downe, the Starre-chamber is downe, and (some think) Bishops will downe.'

1 Fleay, Biog. Chron. 2. 339. · Ashbee's reprint, p. 4.

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