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(2. I) also bears some resemblance to that in the Antipodes (2. I, p. 258).

Marmion, I think, has undoubtedly been drawn on by Brome for two scenes. The resemblance of the English Moor 1. 3 to the Fine Companion 2. 4 and 3. 5 is quite apparent. In both plays an avaricious father tries to make his young and unwilling daughter submit to a most unattractive, wealthy, old husband. The similarity of the recitals of the cures of the celebrated doctor in the Fine Companion (5. 2) and in the Antipodes (1. I, p. 234) is too close to admit much doubt of borrowing on Brome's part.

From May's Heir (5. I) the dénouement of the Sparagus Garden (5. 12), in which the heroine's pregnancy is found to be due to a concealed cushion, is evidently borrowed. 2

Finally, the Lord Sycophant, in the old play Nobody and Somebody, seems to have been the prototype of Horatio, one of the new characters in the Queen and Concubine, not taken from the source.3

After glancing over these many pages of borrowings and influences of all sorts, many of them doubtful, I must admit, one gets the impression that Brome's work is a mere mosaic of filchings from his predecessors, and one may be inclined to agree with Faust that ' Er ist, auch in Hinblick auf die Stoffe, vielleicht der am wenigsten selbständige dramatische Autor der Zeit.'4. However, if a study of such material were made for any other minor dramatist of the decadent period, Brome would hardly be found the worst plagiarist in an age in which plagiarism was neither considered a crime, nor thought of as furnishing dry bones for future scholars to gnaw.

1 See Appendix I. 2 Genest, op. cit., 10. 40. 3 Koeppel, Quellen-Studien 2. 209. 4 Faust, op. cit., p. 37. APPENDIX

To give a more adequate idea of the character of Brome's work, and to show more fully to what an extent he is a follower of Jonson in satire, I have added a special study of a single play, the Antipodes. This is undoubtedly Brome's most original and most interesting play. It is also quite characteristic in the use of sources, in the humor, and in the type of the satire. In structure, however, it is totally unlike the rest of Brome's plays, and, is in fact, almost unique in drama. The plot is as follows :

Peregrine, a young man, the son of old Joyless, has lost his wits through the reading of books of travel, so popular during the seventeenth century. He has become so demented through thinking of nothing but strange countries and customs—like those described in Sir John Mandeville's Travels, that he has forgotten everything else, even his duties toward his young wife, Martha. To cure his son, Joyless has brought him up to London to consult Hughball, a famous doctor, who undertakes the case. The doctor lives with Letoy, ' a Phantasticke Lord', who, for his own amusement, keeps a well equipped private stage, and a body of followers who are trained actors. The doctor has these actors present a series of scenes from the antipodes before Peregrine, who is persuaded to believe that he is really there. Most of the second, third, and fourth acts is taken up with these scenes. In the antipodes, gentlemen in debt force sergeants to arrest them, servants rule masters, children rule their parents, poets are wealthy and Puritanical, lawyers refuse fees except from beggars, courtiers quarrel like clowns, and watermen and sedan-men have the manners of courtiers. A tradesman sues a judge to have a gentleman put into prison, because the gentleman has refused to intrigue with the trademan's wife ; an old woman who is very fond of bear-baitings is harshly reproved by a young maid, a Puritan, who reads devotional tracts. In the next scene, the maid accosts a man on the street, but her advances are repelled A ‘man-scold’ is ducked by a crowd of women. A statesman is solicited by a crowd of projectors with fantastic projects. In the midst of these scenes, Peregrine invades the property-room, and, after a fight with the pasteboard monsters, etc., makes himself king of the Antipodes. He proceeds to reform their manners, is persuaded to take his wife, Martha, as queen, and is finally cured of his madness. The love-melancholy of Martha is also cured by the long deferred consummation of her marriage.

Another interest in the plot is the curing of Joyless's jealousy of his young wife, Diana. This is the chief interest of the fifth act, though the jealousy is the cause of much humorous dialogue all through the play. The means of cure is crude. Joyless is placed in a position from which he overhears Lord Letoy make violently amorous proposals to Diana, who repulses him by stoutly maintaining her love for Joyless. Joyless is further convinced by the fact that Letoy is proved to be the father of Diana, who has been brought up from infancy by old Truelock, to whom Letoy had confided her. After these explanations, the play ends with a masque of Discord and Harmony.

I. SOURCES OF BROME'S ANTIPODES The scientific fact of the existence of the antipodes and of people inhabiting there seems to have been known to Aristotle, and to many other writers of classical antiquity.1 Cicero, Pliny,and Ptolemy supported the theory ; Lucretius and Plutarch opposed it. The conception persisted as a heretical belief throughout the Middle Ages, so that the Fathers felt it necessary to suppress it whenever it appeared. A good summary of the controversies of the church on the subject is given by Andrew D. White in his Warfare of Science and

1 The Pauly-Wissowa Real-Encyclopädie des Class. Altertums, under Antipodes, gives a long array of references.

Natural History, Bk. 2, oh. 65.

Theology (p. 103). A very interesting old book that Brome might have seen, José Acosta's Natural and Moral History of the Indies, translated by Edward Grimeston, London, 1604,1 has two curious chapters on the existence of the antipodes. He says : “Seeing it is manifest that there is firme land upon the South part or Pole Antartike, wee must now see if it be inhabited ; the which hath been a matter very disputable in former times. Lactantius Firmian and S. Augustine mocke at such as hold there be any Antipodes, which is as much as to say, as men marching with their feete opposite to ours. But although these two authors agree in these jeasts, yet doe they differ much in their reasons and opinions, as they were of very divers spirits and judgements. Lactantius followes the vulgar, seeming ridiculous unto to him that the heaven should be compassed in the midst thereof, like unto a ball, whereof he writes in these tearmes : “What reason is there for some to affirm that there are Antipodes, whose steppes are opposite to ours ? Is it possible that any should bee so grosse and simple as to believe there were a people or nation marching with their feete upwards, and their heades downwards, and that things which are placed heere of one sort, are in that other part hanging topsie turvie ; that trees and corne growe downwards, and that raine, snow, and haile, fall from the earth upward.” Then, after some other discourse, the same Lactantius useth these words : “ The imagination and conceit which some have had, supposing the heavens to be round, hath bene the cause to invent these Antipodes hanging in the aire. So as I know not what to say of such Philosophers, whoe having once erred, continue still obstinately in their opinions defending one another.” But whatsoever he saieth, wee that live now at Peru, and inhabite that part of the world which is opposite to Asia and their Antipodes (as the Cosmographers do teach us) find not our selves to bee hanging in the aire, our heades downwards and our feete on high. Truly it is strange to consider that the spirit and understanding of man cannot attaine unto the trueth, without the use of 1 Reprinted by the Hakluyt Society, 1880.

Bk. 1, Chaps. 7 and 8.

imagination.' Acosta then goes on to refute St. Augustine's attack, which was based upon the authority of Scripture. This view the Church considered final until Magellan in 1519 disproved it by circumnavigating the earth, and seeing the inhabitants of the antipodes.

None of these ancient ideas on the subject, however, as far as I have been able to discover, include the suggestion of topsyturvydom upon which Brome has based his comedy. Moreover, I have not been able to find that any such idea was ever associated with the antipodes before the date of this play. The following definition, quoted from a dictionary of the seventeenth century, shows that the belief accepted then was in the same form as we hold it to-day, without any fantastic notion accompanying it': ' Antipodes, (Gr.) people dwelling on the other side of the earth with their feet directly against ours, so as a right line drawn from one to the other passeth from North to South, through the centre of the world. They are different 180 degrees, which is half the compass of the earth. They differ in all things, as seasons of the year, length of days, rising and setting of the sun, with the like. Heyl. [Dr. Heylyn]. In eighteenother uses of the word that I have chanced upon in reading in the period, there is no hint that the idea suggested anything more than this definition implies. One further indication of the same view is the fact that Sir Thomas Browne, who alludes to the antipodes, has no hint of the reversal of the ordinary relations of life, or of physical phenomena. If the conception back of Brome's play were known to Browne, it would represent a vulgar error that it would have delighted him to refute. The only suggestion of such an association with the word occurs in a poem of 1657, called the Parliament. 3 The passage reads :

1 Glossographia, by T. B., 1656.

2 These references occur in plays, poems, letters, and pamphlets from 1590 to 1650.

3 Printed from a MS. in Huth's Inedited Poetical Misscellanies, 1584–1700.

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