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there is a passage in Antipodes 2. 2 that is an undoubted imitation of Hamlet's advice to the players in Hamlet 3. 2. To these examples may be added one more. The scene in the City Wit (3. 2), in which Pyannet assumes the part of the prince, so that her husband may practise bargaining the sale of his jewels, may be compared with the famous one in which Falstaff takes the part of the king (1 Hen. IV. 2. 4).

Brome seems to have been indebted to Shakespeare also for a half dozen of his characters. Garrula, in the Lovesick Court, is one of the numerous imitations of the Nurse in Romeo and Juliet. The likeness is especially close in Act 1, scene 2 (p. 98); cf. Romeo and Juliet 2. 5.2 Swinburne suggests another imitation of Juliet's nurse in Closet, ' an old Crone, Nurse-keeper,' in a Mad Couple well Matched. In the same play, the ‘Methodicall, Grave, and Orthographicall speaking friend Mr. Saveall, that cals People Pe-o-ple ’4 seems to be a faint reminiscence of Holofernes, 5 but the resemblance is more in this description than in the later working out of the character himself. Andrea, the faithful fool, in the Queen and Concubine, who follows his mistress into exile, is very like the Fool in Lear ; the parson with his scraps of Latin is another repetition of Holofernes ; and the misuse of words by Lollio and Poggio suggests Dogberry and Verges.

There are, moreover, three or four verbal reminiscences of Shakespeare in Brome. The parallel passages from the City Wit and Timon of Athens, alluded to before, are as follows :

'All things rob another : Churches poule the People, Prices pill the Church ; Minions draw from Princes,

i Quoted in Appendix I.
3 Fortnightly 57. 502.
5 Koeppel, op. cit., p. 42.

3 Koeppel, op. cit., p. 45. Mad Couple well Matched 1. 1, p. 5.

& Koeppel, op. cit., p. 47.

Mistresses suck Minions, and the Pox undoes Mistresses ; Physicians plague their Patients ; Orators their Clients ; Courtiers their Suitors, and the Devill all. The water robs the earth, earth choakes the water : fire burns ayre, ayre still consumes the fire.

Since Elements themselves do rob each other,
And Phoebe for her light doth rob her brother,
What ist in man, one man to rob another.'

(City Wit 4. 1. p. 341.)

I'll example you with thievery:
The sun's a thief, and with his great attraction
Robs the vast sea : the moon's an arrant thief,
And her pale fire she snatches from the sun :
The sea's a thief, whose liquid surge resolves
The moon into salt tears ; the earth's a thief,
That feeds and breeds by a composture stolen
From general excrement ; each thing's a thief :
The laws, your curb and whip, in their rough power
Have uncheck'd theft. Love not yourselves : away,
Rob one another.

(Timon of Athens 4. 3, 438 ff.)

A simile in the English Moor may be compared with one in 1 Henry IV :

This alters not thy beauty,
Though for a time obscures it from our eyes.
Thou maist be, while at pleasure, like the Sun ;
Thou dost but case thy splendour in a cloud,
To make the beam more precious in it shines.
In stormy troubled weather no Sun's seen. ...
But let the roaring tempest once be over,
Shine out again and spare not.

(English Moor 3. 1, p. 38.)

Yet herein will I imitate the sun,
Who doth permit the base contagious clouds

1•when':

To smother up bis beauty from the world,
That, when he please again to be himself,
Being wanted, he may more be wondered at,
By breaking through the foul and ugly mists
Of vapours that did seem to strangle him.

(1 Henry IV. 1. 2, 221 ff.).

These two parallels have been discovered by Professor Koeppel. Dr. Faust1 compares the opening lines of the Queen and Concubine,

The clouds of Doubts and Fears are now dispers’d,
And Joy, like the resplendent Sun spreads forth
New life and spirit over all this Kingdom
That lately gasp'd with Sorrow,

denale nth isu kispreads forth

with the beginning of Richard III.

Now is the winter of our discontent
Made glorious summer by this sun of York ;
And all the clouds, that lower'd upon our house,
In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.

I should like to add one more verbal reminiscence from the prologue to the Damoiselle :

Bayes will buy no Sack,
And Honour fills no belly, cloaths no back.

This is an echo of Falstaff's soliloquy on the same subject (1 Henry IV. 5. I).

In general, the influence of Shakespeare on Brome differs from that of Jonson in that it consists wholly of details, rather than of principles or point of view. Whether many of these details are genuine cases of influence I am extremely doubtful.

i Op. cit., p. 100.

INFLUENCE OF DEKKER Prefixed to the first edition of the Northern Lass, Brome's first publication (1632), are the following lines :

To my Sonne Broom and his Lasse.
Which, then of Both shall I commend ?
Or thee (that art my Son and Friend)
Or Her, by thee begot? A Girle
Twice worth the Cleopatrian Pearl.
No, 'tis not fit for me to Grace
Thee, who art mine ; and to thy Face.

Yet I could say, the merriest Maid
Among the Nine, for thee has laid
A Ghyrland by; and jeers to see
Pyed Ideots fear the Daphnean Tree ;
Putting their eyes out with those Boughs
With which she bids me deck thy Brows.

But what I bring shall crown thy Daughter
(My Grand-child) who (though full of laughter)
Is chaste and witty to the time ;
Not lumpish-cold, as is her Clime.
By Phoebus Lyre, thy Northern Lasse
Our Southern proudest Beauties passe :

Be Jovial with thy Brains (her Mother)
And help her (Dick) to such another.

Tho. Dekker.

The presence of these verses, with such an intimate title of address, doubtless gave the hint to Fleay that Brome may have been influenced by Dekker. He does not say what this consists in, but merely says it is apparent in the City Wit.1 Schelling mentions that Dekker 'appears to have imparted some of his easy humor, although no scruple of Dekker's subtler gift, that of poetry, is discoverable in the verses of Brome.' 2 Bayne even goes so far as to say that Brome is more truly a 'son' of Dekker than of Jonson. His best and happiest

1 Fleay, Biog. Chron., 1. 36.

2 Schelling, Eliz. Drama 2. 269.

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work is in the vein of Dekker.' He attributes the gaiety and lightness of touch of parts of Brome to this influence.'

But all this is very vague, and easily overestimated. I doubt whether we should have heard so much of the influence of Dekker had he not written the prefatory verses quoted above. However, if we may safely attribute to Dekker the occasional un-Jonsonian touches of idealism or of pathos that we find in Brome, there are a few that are worth pointing out. In the Northern Lass (4. 3, p. 75), Constance Holdup, a harlot, laments the wretched condition of her class in a way that is strongly reminiscent of the Honest Whore,2 though there is no verbal parallel. Another bit of pathos, the most effective in all the plays, is the scene in the Damoiselles in which Phillis, ' a poore Wench,' talks of her mother and her lost father. This is the sort of thing that Jonson's harsher nature never attempted. The first two scenes of the Sparagus Garden have the easy humor that Schelling mentions, and some of the finer imagination of Dekker in the passages in praise of love and poetry. This sort of thing, as Bayne says, makes a strange contrast with the rough Jonsonian manner and crass realism of the greater part of Brome.4

It is a curious fact that the part of Dekker's work that shows most definitely in Brome is his worst. Northward Ho and Westward Ho, by Dekker and Webster, are the two plays that are most like Brome's, and that represent the lowest depths of grossness in Jacobean drama. These two comedies of manners are quite the same in type as Brome's, but without the humor-studies. They

i Cambridge Hist. Eng. Lit. 6. 255--6.
· Especially Pt. 1, sc. 9. Dekker's Works (ed. Pearson, 2. 50—54).
3 4. 1, pp. 443 ff.

4 The dialogue and jokes of the scenes at the shop of Candido in the Honest Whore, Pt. 1, are in a manner that Brome frequently tries, but there is no direct influence apparent.

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