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Dr. John S. Billings,

M. &. Are

BY

GEORGE W. MANYPENNY,

COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS FROM MARCH, 1853, UNTIL MARCH, 1857;

AND CHAIRMAN OF THE Sioux COMMISSION OF 1876.

AGREE-

" IS NOT THE GOVERNMENT STRONG ENOUGH TO KEEP ITS
MENTS WITH US ? "-Chief Ouray.

CINCINNATI:
ROBERT CLARKE & CO.

1880.

I HENEW YORK
Pi

ARY
T0:

TINDAUNS.

1847.

COPYRIGHT.

GEORGE W. MANYPENNY

1880.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTORY...

vii

CHAPTER I.
THE RECEPTION OF THE EARLY EXPLORERS BY THE NORTH AMERICAN Indians.

-THE CONDUCT OF THE FORMER TOWARD THE LATTER.-GRANTS BY Eu-
ROPEAN POWERS TO THEIR SUBJECTS.—THE LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.-
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE PEQUODS, ETC..

1-15

CHAPTER II.
THE INTERCOURSE AND DEALIXGs of William Pern with THE INDIANS.—THE

IMPRESSION MADE UPON THEM.—Penn's DESCRIPTION OF THE INDIANS AS
HE FOUND THEM.......

16-32 CHAPTER III. EVENTS IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING AND FOLLOWING THE TREATY OF PARIS, IN

1763.-Cessions by FRANCE AND SPAIN OF THEIR RIGHTS TO TERRITORY
EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI.—CONSPIRACY OF Pontiac.---TROOPS RAISED IN
PENNSYLVANIA AND VIRGINIA.-BOUNTY FOR INDIAN SCALPS.-WHITES
OCCUPY THE OHIO VALLEY.-ENTER KENTUCKY AND THE NORTHWEST
TERRITORY.—RUPTURE BETWEEN Great BRITAIN AND HER COLONIES. —
BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, ETC...........

33-51
CHAPTER IV.
EVENTS FOLLOWING THE TREATY OF PEACE.—THE EFFECT UPON THE INDIANS.—
THE FRONTIER POSTS REMAIN IN THE HANDS OF THE BRITISH.—COMPLICA-

1.-MILITARY EXPEDITIONS AGAINST THE INDIANS.—INTERVIEW AT NIAGARA BETWEEN UNITED STATES COMMISSIONERS AND DEPUTATIONS FROM THE INDIAN NATIONS, ETC....... 52-72

CHAPTER V. St. Clair's DEFEAT COMMUNICATED TO CONGRESS.- ANOTHER CAMPAIGN PRO

JECTED.-Gex. WAYNE ASSIGNED TO COMMAND IT.—THE INDIANS DEFEATED. -TREATY OF GREENVILLE.-A BOUNDARY OR DIVISION LINE ADOPTED.MORE TERRITORY DEMANDED FROM THE INDIANS.—SUBSEQUENT TREATIES AND THEIR EFFECT.-RUPTURE BETWEEN TECUMSEH AND Gex. HARRISON.–BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE.-TECUMSEH JOINS THE BRITISH, AND IS KILLED AT THE BATTLE OF THE THAMES, ETC.......

73-91

TIONS RESULTING THEREFROM.

CHAPTER VI.
EARLY TREATIES WITH THE CHEROKEES, CHOCTAWS, CHICKASAWS, AND CREEKS.-

MESSAGE OF PRESIDENT MONROE, AND VIEWS OF John C. Calhoux, SECRE-
TARY OF WAR, RECOMMENDING THE REMOVAL OF THE INDIAN NATIONS RE-
SIDING EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO THE WEST SIDE.— Views OF
JAMES BARBOUR, SECRETARY OF WAR, ON THE SAME SUBJECT.-MESSAGE OF
PRESIDENT JackSOX RECOMMENDING THIS REMOVAL._ACT OF CONGRESS PRO-
VIDING FOR THE SAME PASSED MAY 28, 1830..........

.... 92–110

CHAPTER VII. DEDICATION OF THE COUNTRY WEST OF THE MississipPI RIVER FOR A PERMANENT

HOME FOR THE INDIANS RESIDING EAST OF IT.-GUARANTEES THAT THIS

NEW HOME SHOULD NEVER BE EMBRACED WITHIN THE LIMITS OF ANY OR

STATE

TRIBES

GANIZED
OR TERRITORY.- The

THAT EMIGRATED.-THEIR
“LOST MONEY.”—THE ANNEXATION OF TEXAS AND OTHER ACQUISITIONS.—The
EFFECT UPON THE INDIANS.-DEMANDS THAT THE COUNTRY SHOULD BE OPENED
TO THE SETTLEMENT OF THE WHITE PEOPLE.-ORGANIZATION OF THE TERRI-
TORY OF KANSAS.—ITS EFFECT ON THE EMIGRATED TRIBES,

-TREATIES OF 1854.- INTRUSION OF THE WHITES.-MILITARY OFFICERS AT Fort LEAVENWORTH SYMPATHIZE WITH THE ' SQUATTERS.”—THE RESERVATIONS OF THE CHEROKEES, CHICKAsaws, ChoctawS, ETC..........

.111-133

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CHAPTER VIII.
THE REMOVAL OF INDIAN TRIBES.—THE STORY OF ONE REMOVAL SUBSTANTIALLY

THE STORY OF ALL.—THE REMOVAL OF THE SANTEE Sioux AND WINNEBAGO
INDIANS.—THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO AND SMALL GAME.—ITS EFFECT
ON THE INDIANS OF THE PLAINS.........

.134-150

CHAPTER IX.
The IndiaNS ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE, Texas, New Mexico, AND THE TERRITORY

EMBRACED IN Utah, NEVADA, IDAHO, MONTANA, WYOMING, COLORADO, ARI-
ZONA, AND PART OF DAKOTA.—THE INCURSIONS OF WHITES PREVIOUS TO ANY
ARRANGEMENT WITH THE INDIANS.—COMPLICATIONS, WARS, AND TREATIES.-
DESTRUCTION OF LIEUTENANT GRattan's COMMAND.-HARNEY'S CAMPAIGN.
OPERATIONS OF LIEUTENANT DUxx AND MAJOR DowLixg.Black KETTLE's
VISIT TO DENVER.–Chivington's ATTACK ON HIS VILLAGE. DESTRUCTION
of Colonel FETTERMAN'S COMMAND.-CAMPAIGN OF GENERAL HANCOCK.-
BURNING OF THE CHEYENNE VILLAGE, ETC.....

...151-172 CHAPTER X. MILITARY OPERATIONS AGAINST THE INDIANS IN NEW MEXICO AND ARIZONA IN

1862, 1863, 1864, and 1869.- DELIBERATE ATTEMPT TO EXTERMINATE THEM.— MASSACRE OF Apaches in 1871 AT CAMP GRANT, ETC..................175-193

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CHAPTER XI. A BOARD OF PEACE COMMISSIONERS CREATED BY Congress.-TREATIES MADE

WITH THE Kiowa, Comanche, CHEYENNE, AND ARAPAHOE, Sioux, AND OTHER INDIAXS.-FIVE HUNDRED TIIOUSAND DOLLARS APPROPRIATED TO CARRY THEIR PROVISIONS INTO EFFECT.—THS DUTY CONFIDED TO GENERAL SHERMAN-TRANSFER OF GENERAL SHERIDAN TO THE DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOURI.—HE CONDEMNS WHAT THE PEACE COMMISSION HAD DONE.—Holds THAT THE INDIANS SHOULD HAVE BEEN PUNISHED.-GENERAL SHERMAN COINCIDES IN THIS OPINION.--ACTION OF THE COMMISSION AT CHICAGO.CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE HOSTILE INDIANS SOutu OF THE ARKANSAS,'' ETC.

..........194-216

CHAPTER XII. GENERAL SHERIDAN'S OPERATIONS.—MOVEMENTS OF GENERAL CUSTER.-His

SURPRISE AND DESTRUCTION OF Black KETTLE's village, CALLED BY THE MILITARY "THE BATTLE OF THE WASuita."- HIS RETURN TO GENERAI. SHERIDAN'S HEADQUARTERS AT CAMP SUPPLY.-- INCIDENTS AND EVENTS OF THE MARCH OF THE COMMAND, FROM THENCE, VIA THE BATTLE-GROUND, TO FORT COBB .....

.217–242

CHAPTER XIII. CORRESPONDENCE AND OFFICIAL REPORTS of Gen. SHERIDAN AND GEN. HAZEN,

TOUCHING THE STATUS OF THE CHEYENNES AND ARAPAHOES.-AN EXAMINATION OF THE CONTENTS OF THESE.—THE OPERATIONS OF Gex. HARNEY AND Gex. Hazen, ACTING AS INDIAN AGENTS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF GEN. SHERMAN..

.243-271 (***

CHAPTER XIV. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN MONTANA IN 1869 AND 1870.—THE DESTRUCTION OF

TAE PIEGAN INDIAN CAMP BY COL. BAKER.—MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTS TOUCHING THE CAMPAIGN...

...... 272-293

......

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