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fections and sin. And God's displeasure exercised towards man as a sinner, is by no means inconsistent with a love of pity exercised towards him as his offspring; such as influenced him to give his son to die for him, and ransom him from woe.

But we shall now return to his main principle, that there is no salvation rom the punishment due to sin. And first, we remark that the principle appears to us inconsistent with what he has said in other places. His similes are either directly against him, or they speak the most palpable absurdity. "We say of a man that is taken out of the water half dead, and then resuscitated, that his life is saved, and our meaning is understood, he is saved from drowning. We say of a man that is taken from a building in flames, that he is saved, and we mean that he is saved from being burned to death." Now these similes applied to the subject under discussion imply deliverance from the punishment consequent upon sin, as well as from sin itself, or they speak this absurdity, the man taken out of the water must still drown--The man taken out of the fire must still burn to death! So his similes either overtbrow his main principle, or they speak the grossest absurdity!!! The following sentiment may accord with his similes, but how it accords with his principles we cannot see. "There is no salvation but a salvation from sin, and when we are saved from this we are saved from all punishment, all distress, and evil of every kind." Here he expressly asserts salvation from punishment! upon which we observe:

1st. This is certainly contrary to his main principle, which denies salvation from punishment altogether. 2d. It identifies the time of salvation (so he calls it, but it certainly cannot be a salvation from punishment if the punishment is suffered,) from sin, punishment, distress and evil of every kind. Now this goes to say that we may be saved from distress and evil of every kind, now in this life, which is contrary to fact,-or that there is no present salvation from sin, which is contrary to scripture.

Secondly, The gentleman's theory, is as inconsistent with scripture and reason, as it is with itself. We object to it, 1st. Those passages of scripture which make mention of salvation from that which must certainly be con sidered as the punishment of sin. That whosoever be

lieveth on him should not perish," (John iii, 15, 16. "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law. (Gal. iii. 19.) “We shall be saved from wrath through him," (Rom. v. 9.) "He that believeth is not condemned." (John iii. 18.) Here is salvation from perishing, the curse of the law, wrath, and condemnation. And what is this but salvation from the punishment of sin?

2d. It destroys the doctrine of pardon, or the forgive ness of sin. The two ideas of enduring all the punishment due to sin, and the pardon of sin, can never be associated in the mind If a man for some misdemeanor is sentenced to pay five hundred dollars, and endure twelve month's imprisonment, when he pays the fine and endures the imprisonment, he is free. But who would say that he was pardoned? None surely!

sd. It makes salvation depend on our own sufferings, (i. e.) enduring all the punishment due to sin. Consequently it is not of grace. Hence the universalist will bring forth the head stone of his spiritual building, with shoutings, not grace, grace, unto it but punishment, sufferings, torment, the horrors of conscience, and the pains of hell unto it!!!

Finally, this gentleman, in common with his brethren, assumes that all punishment is amenditory. He says, "God punishes the sinner for his good," the punishment of sin is a means of salvation." Upon this we observe, 1st. That God, as a kind father, does in this probationary state administer corrections, that is, he often chastises us for our good. 2. The punishment he will inflict in his judicial capacity, in a state of retribution will be exemplary-not amenditory- As Sodom and Gomorrah are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eter nal fire. (Jude 7.) And we have no grounds from scrip ture, or facts, with which we are acquainted, to believe, that sufferings have any tendency, of themselves, to change the heart of man, but have many instances, both in saered and profane history, where they have had the opposite effect. Without the grace of God sanctifying them, they have a tendency to excite a thousand unholy dispos sitions, to blow to a flame the principles of malice, envy and revenge. Nor have we any encouragement to expect the assistance of grace, in the future world, if we die in unbelief! Consequently if we have no hope but what rests


upon our suffering the punishment due to sin, we must be in a forlorn case.

No. II.-In which the true notions of the nature-the grounds-and the conditions of salvation are stated and


Having in the preceding number noticed some things on the plan of salvation, which we consider erroneous, in this, we shall give what we conceive a true and scriptural account of it. Considering 1st the nature, 2d the grounds, and 3d the conditions of salvation.

1st then, we shall give our views of the nature of salvation.

We shall not attempt to give the various acceptations of the term salvation; but shall observe generally that it signifies being delivered from evil, actually endured, or threatened. The gospel salvation is a deliverence from sin, and that impending ruin which is the consequence of it. In this salvation we shall mark several stages which shall be established by scriptures

1. It is a deliverence from that immediate destruction which man merited by the first transgression, and restoration to a state of gracious probation, which affords all the means necessary for his final happiness. This was effected on the first promise of a saviour, and secured the original pair, and all their posterity, from final condemnation for the original offence, and placed them in a salvable state. This is called by some divines initial salvation. We shall refer to a few of the passages which support it. As by the offence of one, judgement came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. (Rom. v. 18.) For the grace of God which bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,'-(Tit. ii. 11.) Who is the saviour of all men.' (1 Tim. iv. 19.) Observe 1. The salvation spoken of in these passages is general or the salvation of all men. 2. It is actually received the free gift came upon all men. The grace of God hath appeared to all men and he is now the saviour

of all men. 3. This salvation is unconditional. Nothing is said of any conditions to be performed by us, in order to the salvation referred to in these passages. Upon this ground we may conclude that all who die without actual transgression, will be eternall happy. But still something further is necessary for those who have actually offended, that is,

20. A deliverance from actual and personal sin. The penitent goaler inquired. sirs, what must I do to be saved?' and they said believe in the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved. (Acts xvi. 30, 31.). And Jesus said to the woman-(John vii. 50) and to the blind man -(xviii. 42.) thy faith hath saved thee."

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Again, he is the saviour, especially of them that believe' (1 Tim. iv. 10.) This salvation is also called jus tification, regeneration, being born again, sanctification, &c. And as to it we observe 1. That it appears from the above passages, to be a special benefit not the common property of all. nay of none but those who believe.-2. That it is a present benefit, to be received on our compliance with the conditions.

But 3d. Complete salvation implies deliverance from all the consequences of sin, and the enjoyment of a perfect state of happiness. Though we may receive the pardon of our sins, the regeneration of our souls, and be made the sons of God in this life. yet owing to the infirmities of our natures, and the circumstances with which we are surrounded, the highest state of holiness and happiness at which we can possibly arrive here, compared with our triumphant state. is imperfect. It is when we are glorified, that we expect to be free from all evil of every description. He that endureth to the end,' saith our Lord (Mat. x. 22, xxiv. 13.) shall be saved.' We have seen what is the nature of salvation begun, carried on, and consummated. We pass to consider,

2d. The grounds or the meritorious cause of it. The meritorious cause of salvation is the mediation of Jesus Christ. In the character of mediator he, by the sacrifice of himself made an atonement for sin-which implies so to satisfy the demands of divine justice for it, that it may be pardoned by divine mercy, in a way consistent with that justice, on certain conditions. "St. Paul teaches this doctrine with great precision, (Rom. iii. 24. 26.)


justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ; whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his rightcousness for the remission of sins that are passed through the forbearance of God; to declare I say at this time his righteousness; that he might be just and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.' From this passage we may remark 1. That the grace of God, as taught in the scriptures, is not that kind of liberality which socinians and deists ascribe to him, which sets aside the necessity of satisfaction. For grace according to Paul requires a propitiation even the shedding of the saviour's blood, as a medium through which it may be honorably communicated. 2. Redemption by Christ was accomplished not by a satisfaction that should preclude the exercise of grace in forgiveness, but in which the displeasure of God against sin being manifested, mercy to the sinner might be exercised without any suspicion of his having relinquished his regards for righteousness. In setting forth Jesus Christ to be a propitiation, he hath declared his righteousness for the forgiveness of sin. 3. The righteousness of God was not only declared when Christ was made a propitiatory sacrifice, but continues to be manifested in the acceptance of believers through his name. He appears as just while acting the part of a justifier towards every one that believeth in Jesus. 4. That which is here applied to the blessing of forgiveness and acceptance with God, is applicable to all other spiritual blessings; all according to the scriptures are communicated through the same distinguished medium, and are not less the blessings of grace on that account.'* (See also Rom. v. 11. Eph. v. 2. John iv. 18.) But our blessed Lord hath not only made an atonement for sin by the offering of himself but hath ascended into heaven to make intercession for us. • But this man,' saith the apostle, (Heb. x. 10.) ' after he' had offered one sacrifice for sins, forever sat down on the right hand of God.' We are then not only in virtue of the sacrifice forgiven, but in virtue of the intercession admitted to favor and grace.


*Gospel its own witness.-See the works of the Rev. Ans drew Fuller, Vol. III. P. 156.

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