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readings, however, saz'ifur-afi-kantdh, “ exceedingly beloved by the sun.” Cf. Sela, 41 : “ Sparsanukula iva suryakantas tadanyatej o ’bhibhavadvamanti. ” “That (energy), like sun crystals (whichare) cool to the touch, they put forth from (being acted upon) by the opposing influence of other forces.”—M. Williams, S'ak., p. 74.
39. With this siloka begins the section relating to riches. Abhijana means, in this passage, “caste,” or, according to Telang, “nobility of birth,” as in Sakuntald: “Abhijanavato bhartuh élaghye sthita grihinipade,” “Stationed in the honourable post of wife to a nobly-born husband.”-sak., Mon. Williams, p. 17 5, note.
For the idea contained in this sloka, cf. Prov. x. 15. The éilam éailatatdt, “one’s virtue may fall from a mountain slope,” is contained a play upon the words é1'ld, a “stone,” éaila, “ stony,” and éilam, “ disposition.”
42. Saizga, translated “society,” with the idea of “attachment to objects of sense,” the detachment from all worldly desires being the devotee’s chief aim.
44. Mada-kshtzto-ndgalr, “the elephant is weakened by the flow of mada.” All the things mentioned do not lose their beauty or glory through the diminution of their powers or their resources; a noble man who has given away his riches is not less noble because he is poor in consequence of his liberality.
45. Spflhayati, “longs for,” followed by dative prasrite, which the commentator explains by tusha, which means “grain,” but the ordinary meaning of prasflte is a “handful.” The meaning of this éloka, as explained by Telang, is as follows :—“ Since in different states of life the same things are regarded as great or small, therefore it must be concluded that it is the state of life which causes the things to appear so.” The word kalayate (Ical) means in this place “ to consider or reckon.”
46. The comparison between the earth and a cow is a common one among the Hindiis ; in fact, the word go means both the earth and a cow (cf. 7%). Among other passages the following may be referred to :—“. . . Yathaiva mama Kamadhuk,” “Just as Kamadhuk is mine.”—-Nala, ii. 18, where Kamadhuk, the cow of plenty, is a figurative way of speaking of the earth which supplies all desires. And “Dudoha gétm sa yajnaya éasyaya maghava divam,” “He milked (exhausted) the earth for the sake of sacrifices, Indra the heaven to give the people food.”—Raghuv., i. 26. Tera is used as correlative to yadi by an unusual construction (Telang).
47. This éloka occurs in Hit0padeéa, Mitrabheda, 182. Bohlen in his note on this passage refers to the character of Vasantasena in the Mrichchhalcafikri as a well-known typical character among the Hindus, equally famous with Phryne, Lais, &c., of the Western world.
49. Man’s life is predestined by fate, and the amount of enjoyment that he has is in proportion to his own capacity for enjoyment. Mount Meru is the Hindu. equivalent for Olympus. It is generally used as a synonym for a wealthy place. “ Vittavatsu kripanam vrittim vritha mé. krithal.1,” “ Do not vainly act an envious part towards the rich.” Cf. “ Kuru priyasakhivrittim sapatnijane,” “Act the part of a dear friend towards thy fellow-wives.”—Sak., M. Williams, p. 173 and note.
50—51. A dialogue supposed to take place between the chataka, a bird fabled to live solely on the drops of rain, and the rain-cloud. The moral of the fable is contained in the last line of éloka 51. It is no use to ask favours of mean persons.
52. The section with which this sloka begins sets forth the characteristic marks of the wicked man.
53. Of. Hitopadeéa, Miiraldbha, 90, for this éloka. .
54. “Branded,” arilcitah. The virtues of the good are branded as vices by evil-disposed persons. Of. the Greek proverb, “ <l>aoiv xax/arou; of sremgoi red; xa}.oi:;.”
55. Cf. éloka 18. The general drift of these two slokas appears to be the same. For the sentiment in line 4— “Apayas’o yad asti kim mi-ityuna'!” “ If there be disgrace, what need of death?” i.e., one should prefer death to disgrace, Cf. Hor., Car. iii. 5 (the speech of Regulus).
56. “These are the seven thorns in my mind.” Sal;/ameaning a “dart,” “arrow,” “thorn,” and secondarily “em
barrassment ” or “ distress,” is not uncommonly used to express this idea. Cf. English proverb, “A thorn in one’s side; " also 2 Cor. xii. 7. Mukham-anaksliaram srdkriteh, lit. “the inarticulate mouth of (one having) a handsome form.”
58. This s’loka occurs in Hitopadeéa, Mitrabheda, 25.
60. With this éloka may be compared Prov. iv. 18.
62. \Vith this siloka the section begins in which the characteristics of virtue are described.
63. This siloka is given in Hitopadeéa, Mitraldbha, 32. Vdkpa.tuld=“skill or ability in speech,” “eloquence.” “The desire of glory.” The readings differ between abhirdte and abhiruehi. Bohlen makes a distinction between these two words, but they both contain the same idea of pleasure in a thing—desire after it. The Scripture, Sruti, “that which has been heard or revealed,” as the Veda; the Sm_riti, “that which has been handed down by tradition ;” such as the laws of Manu.
64. “Cheerful hospitality to strangers” (sambhramaridhili), lit. “preparations conducted in a hurried manner, with the view of honouring a guest.” Upakritili, “assistance,” “favour,” meaning here the favours which others have granted, in opposition to kritra priyam, “the kindness one has done oneself.” Asid/zdrd rratam, “ the vow to stand on the edge of a sword,” used as a proverb to express a task which is impossible. .
65. Prakriti-mahat, “great in nature" (tat purusha comp). Cf. Srutimahat (Sale, 199), “great in the knowledge of the Veda.”
66. For the sentiment contained in this sloka cf. Prov. x. 25, “The righteous is an everlasting foundatiou;” also Hor., Car. iii. 3
“ J ustum ac tenacem propositi virum
Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae,
Mah6,éaila-éild-sanghdta-kakaréam = hard as the collected stones of a large mountain.
67. Svdte = Arcturus, also any conspicuous constellation. The disposition of men is ranged in three degrees of an ascending scale, developing or the reverse according to their surroundings and the atmosphere in which they live: first, the disposition which produces no results is like the drop of water on hot iron, which leaps off the instant it touches the metal; next, the moderately good disposition is compared to the drop of water on the lotus-leaf, a beautiful object to look at; and lastly, the very good disposition to the pearl which is not only beautiful, but valuable. The ideas in this éloka rather suggest the parable of the talents (St. Matt. xxv. I 5).
68. Cf. ProV. x. I.
69. Khydpayantali, translated “display,” means “to declare,” “make known.” The second half of the line appears to mean “ those who make the fact of their own virtues evident by the manner in which they estimate the virtue of others.”
70. This éloka commences the section treating of liberality and benevolence.
This éloka occurs in Sakunlald, M. \Villiams, p. 19 5, where, instead of udgamaih, the word dgamai/ft is used : there is perhaps no difference in their meanings.
71. Cf. sloka 55. The ideas contained in these slokas may suggest I Pet. iii. 3, 4, also Prov. i. 9.
73. The idea and simile expressed in the first line of this éloka is to be found in Sale, M. Williams, p. 213 : “Kumudanyeva sasankah savita bodhayate pankajanyeva,” “ The moon awakes (expands) the night-lotuses only; the sun, the day-lotuses only.” The “ kumuda” of this passage in Suleimtald corresponds with the kaisava (a lotus blossoming by moonlight) of Bhartrihari ; pankaja with padma, the word used by Bhartrihari. The lotus called pankaja or padma is red, while the kumuda or kaisava is white. Bohlen on this passage refers to Hit., Mitraldbha, 63: “Na hi samharate jyotsnam chandrascliandalaveémani,” “The moon does not withhold light even from the house of a Char.1dala;” cf. also St. Matt. v. 45.
75. The bond of friendship is represented in this éloka under the figure of milk and water. The water, by itself tasteless, receives sweetness of flavour from the milk, and therefore, as if in return for this benefit which it has received, is the first to boil over and rush into the hostile flames. The milk then follows the water, and, combined together‘, they extinguish the fire, their enemy. So friends acting together may overcome an enemy, even at the loss of their own lives. In Hit., Mitraldbha, 89, occurs the line: “Sutaptamapi paniyam éamayatyeva pavakam,” “Water though well warmed extinguishes the fire,” i.e., the water, though it has received heat from the fire, returns the kindness by extinguishing the flame, that is, by evil conduct.
76. The sleep of Keéava or Vishnu is referred to in Mahdimya Devi, Bk. i. s’.loka 49: “Once the adorable lord Vishnu, at the end of a kalpa, had spread out S'esha for his couch on the world, which was covered with water, and was wrapped in the sleep of meditation.” For the ocean as the refuge for the mountains, v. Niii Sataka, éloka 29. The firmness of the
“The fire of the wrath of S'iva burns in thee like the submarine flre in the ocean.” Also Raghua, ix. 82—
“ Antaruivishtapadam atmavinasahetuin
“ He bore the curse, having a place in his mind, the cause of his death, even as the ocean (bears) the submarine fire flaming (in its interior)”
The legend relating to the submarine fire, as given in the Harivansa, is as follows :——A sage called Aurva produced by means of magic power a devouring fire from his thigh. In consequence the earth was in flames, when Brahma, to save creation, allotted the ocean to the son of Aurva (the fire) as a suitable dwelling. The ocean was also the abode of Brahma, and from it, he and the submarine fire come forth at the end