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5. Sas'am'shdzza, “the horn of a hare ;” proverbial for that which does not exist. Cf. the following, given by Telang in his note on this passage—

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“The son of a barren woman goes along, wearing a crown
made from flowers that grew in the sky, bathing in a mirage,
carrying a bow made of hare’s horn.” Bringing together all
the most impossible things. With this sloka may be com-
pared Prov. xxvii. 22, and Ecclus. xxi. and xxii.

6. V;/dla may be translated either “elephant” or “ serpent.”

7. This stanza is the one in which the author shows the highest knowledge of the world. It is merely an elaborated form of the English proverb, “Speech is silver, silence is gold.” .The same idea runs through a good many verses of the Proverbs of Solomon, e.g., x. 19, “In the multitude of words there wanteth not sin.” So also xiii. 3, xvii. 27. Cf. Ecclus. xx. 18, 19, 20. Orientals always seem to have regarded talkativeness as an evil and a sign of folly. “The empty pitcher makes the most sound.”

8. Kirichid-jna, “knowing somewhat,” is explained by Telang to refer not to the speaker’s estimate of himself at the time of his “blindness,” but to the view he takes of himself after his “intoxication” has left him. “When I knew (that which now I know was but) a little,” is the idea to be conveyed.

9. As a dog prefers the carrion which he has before him to any sight however magnificent, so the fool keeps his eyes fixed on himself and his small acquirement, and

10. Continually falls lower and lower in the scale of intellect.

I2—13. Cf. Ps. xlviii. 20 (Vulg.) : “Homo, cum in honore esset, non intellexit ; comparatus est jumentis insipientibus, et similis factus est illis.” For bhuvi bhdrabhzitdh, cf. Iliad, xviii. 104 : a’70J fi,ua1 -vragd mudi 5'.rdmov ‘Z7690; égobgn;.

14. Cf. Prov. xvii. 12.

15. With this éloka begins the section or chapter relating to wisdom. Cf. Hitopadeéa, Mitrabhedah, 66, 71, 72, for ideas similar to those contained in the last line of this sloka.

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16. Kalpa-ante, the end of a kalpa, the destruction of the world. A kalpa is supposed to be a day and night of Brahma, and to equal 4,3 20,000,000 years of men. After the creation of the world, it is supposed to remain unaltered for one of BrahmQ.’s days, a period of 2,160,000,000 years of men. The world, and all that it contains, is then destroyed by fire, only the gods, sages, and elements surviving. On Brahmzifs awaking after his night, which lasts an equal number of years with the day, he repeats the process of creation. This goes on continually until his existence of a hundred years is brought to an end, when he, the gods, the sages, and the whole universe are resolved into their constituent elements.

1 7. Abhi-nova-mada-Zekhxtéydma-gandh-a,-sthahdndm t'd1'(M.'L(indm, “Elephants, the surface of their cheeks dark through the lines of mada (flowing freshly).” Abhinara, &c., Bahurrihi comp. qualifying vdrcmdndm.

18. The Scholiast says on this siloka, “ Yo yasya svabhavikah sadgunah tad gunam na ko ’pi hartum s’aknoti,” “ N O one can take away the virtue of him who is virtuous in his natural disposition.” Bohlen says, “Deus ipse sapienti adimere non potest doctrinam ; . . . Brahma ipse nil valet adversus fatum (vidhi) et unum ipsi negatum est, ut infecta reddat qnae ¢umu'5; menti quasi fuerint inusta.” The latter part of this xéloka refers to a supposed faculty of the swan for separating milk from water which has been previously mixed in the act of drinking it, which has passed into a proverb. Regnaud remarks, “Préjugé sur l’erreur duquel il est inutile d’insister.” Of. Sale., “ Hanso hi kshfram adatte tanmisra varjayatyapah,” “For the flamingo extracts (takes) the milk (and) leaves behind the water that is mixed with it.” The Hindfls imagine that the hansa or flamingo has the power of separating milk from water (S‘alc., Mon. \Villiams, p. 266 note). Prof. M. Williams quotes this s’loka of Bhartrihari in his note in Sale, and continues, “ This reference is probably to the milky juice of the water-lily, which would be its (the hansa’s) natural food, and to which allusion is often made by the Hindu poets.”

19—20. Cicero (pro. Arch, c. 7) has a sentiment somewhat similar to that contained in these élokas: “ Haec studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant,

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adversis p.erfugium ac solatium praabent; delectant domi, non
impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rustican-
tur.” Cf. Prov. xii. 1.

21. Some editors have mchanena, “ what is the use of
words 2” If the reading kavachena be taken, it means, “ what
is the use of armour? ” trans. by Regnaud, “la patience est une
cuirasse.” The man who has enemies within, 1I.e., the passions,
can have no worse enemies to fear. The passions or faults of
the mind are six in number—desire, wrath, covetousness, be-
wilderment, pride, and envy. Shad-vargo, the aggregate of six
things, is the appellation given to them (Mon. Williams’ Lex.,
under Shad-varga). The end of the last line, sukavitd 3/adasli
rdjyena kim? “If there is good poetry, what need of a kingdom?”
seems to mean that the man who is learned and intelligent
has no need of external things to produce or add to his hap-

22. Enumerates the virtues which a man must practise if he would live happily. Kald, in l. 4, signifies here “qualities,” referring to the virtues enumerated in the preceding lines.

23. Sifichate vdche sat;/am, “pours truth into the speech,” or “ impregnates the speech with truthfulness.”

24. Kavtévardh, “learned poets;” lit. “kings of poets.” Cf. éloka 12. Rasa-siddhdh=well versed in or conversant with the poetical msas or affections, accomplished in poetry (Mon. Williams’ Lex., Rasas). The poetical msas are ten: sflngdra, love ; vim, heroism ; bibhatsa, disgust ; mudm, anger; hdsya, mirth; bhaydnaka, terror; kamzza, pity; adbhuta, wonder ; Mata, tranquillity; vdtsalya, paternal fondness.

27. This stanza is quoted in Mudrdrdkshasa, act ii. (p. 79, Majumd:§.r’s series), trans. by Wilson :—

. . . “Obstacles foreseen
Deter the poor of spirit from an enterprise;
Some, more adventurous, but not all resolved,
Commence, and stop midway; but noble minds
Like thine, by difficulties warned, defy
Repeated checks, and in the end prevail.”

28. Even in adversity the foot must be constant; vipady

uchchaih stheyam = one must retain dignity .in rnisfortune (Telang) ; uchchaih-steya = firmness of character.

30. This éloka occurs at Hit0p., Sub,ridbheda, 39.

31. Vadana-udarwdaréanam-kurute, “makes the showing of the interior of his mouth.” Cf. Hitop, SubridbhZda, 40.

32. Parivartin-i samsdre, “while he passes from one birth to another,” or while transmigrations go on ; parivahfirii means “ revolving, constantly recurring.” This sloka occurs in Hit0p., Introd., 14, the order of the lines being reversed. On this Bohlen remarks in his notes to the Niti Salaka, that in the Arabic translation of the Indian fables known as Kalilah and Dimnah, there verses have been altered to avoid suggesting the doctrine of metempsychosis. Cf. Hitopadesa, Miiraldbha, 1 14.

33. Also Uttarardmacharita—

“ N aisargiki surabhi1.1al.1 kusumasya siddhé‘. mfirdhni sthitir na charanair avat5.danani.” “The fitting place for the sweet-smelling flower is on the head, not to be trodden under foot. ”— Uttararamacharila, act i. (p. 10 of Majumdara’s series, Calcutta, 1874).

34. The fable to which this sloka refers is as follows :—-After the deities had produced the amrita by churning the ocean, Rahu by a stratagem introduced himself among them, and drank some of it. The deities of the sun and moon discovered the theft, and told Vishnu, who cut off his head. The am.rit had, however, made him immortal, and he was therefore placed among the stars, where he periodically shows his displeasure at the way in which the sun and moon behaved by swallowing them. This is supposed to take place whenever an eclipse occurs of either the sun or moon.

35. Phand-phalakaathitam, “ placed on the flat surface of his hood.”

36. The explanation for this stanza may be supplied from the fable which represents Indra as cutting off the wings of the mountains. Mainaka, the son of Himalaya, took refuge in the ocean and so escaped. In the Ramciyana he is supposed himself to relate the circumstance to Hanuman :—

“Formerly the mountains were winged, and flew through the heaven as swiftly as the wind. And as they fiew hither and thither, gods and men were filled with fear lest they might fall. Then Indra, filled with wrath, cut off the wings of the mountains with his thunderbolt. And as he approached me, brandishing his weapon, I was cast down into the ocean by the mighty Pavana. And my wings being concealed, I was helped by your father and took refuge in the ocean.”——Ramdyana, v. 8.

In the Bha.t.tikarya, viii. 8, the line occurs—“Pitra samrakshitam sakrat sa mainakadrim aikshata,” “ He (Hanuman) saw the mountain Mainaka which had been saved from Indra by his own father.”

Cf. also Raghur.—

“ Pakshachchhidia‘. gotrabhidattagandhah

éara1.1yam enam éataso mahidhrah

nripa ivopaplavinah parebhyah

dharmottaram madhyamamz§.érayante.” “The mountains by hundreds fled to him for refuge when their pride had been taken from them by Indra, when he cut off their wings; as kings assailed by enemies fly to that king among them who is distinguished for his honour.”— Raghuu, xiii. 7.

Of. also—“ Pakshachchhedodyatam éakram éiliivarshiva parvatah,?’ “As a mountain sending forth a shower of stones (attacks) Indra who is approaching to cut off its wings.”Raghua, iv. 40.

Of. also Kamara Sambhava—-“Asflta sa nagavadhupabhogyam mainakamambho nidhibaddha sakhyam kruddhe’ pi pakshachchhidi vritrasakravavedanajnam kulis’akshatanam,” “She brought forth Mainaka, the delight of the daughter of the serpents, who made an alliance with Ocean, and so, though the enemy of Vritra was angry, knew not the stroke of the thunderbolt when the wings of the mountains were cut ofi'.”— Knm. Sam, i. 20.

Bhartrihari in this stanza appears to bring forward Mainaka as an example of want of firmness. It would have been better for him to meet his fate with resignation and firmness than to have fled, since his father Himalaya had been overpowered.

37. Saritur-ina-kdntah. Ina, from root in, means “powerful,” “mighty,” “glorious:” so a name of the sun.. Some

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