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held to intend: first, a sentence by a court of competent jurisdiction, and second, a sentence of such court either in the country of the enemy or an ally, and not in a neutral country.
The right of postliminium terminates by the Terminationat j i . • nght of post
declaration of peace, between the country of the Uminium.
enemy and that from which the prize was taken. Therefore, it has been held, that a ship which has been sold to a neutral, after an illegal condemnation by a prize court, and which would not have been considered as a valid transfer of a legal title in time of war,—by the intervention of peace, was to be deeiued a legitimate possession in the neutral's hands, and cured of all defects of title. "Otherwise," observed Lord Stowell, "it could not be said that the intervention of peace would have the effect of quieting the possessions of the enemy, because if the neutral possessor was to be dispossessed, he would have a right to res5rt back to the belligerent seller, and demand compensation from him; and as to a renewal of war, though that may change the relations of those who are parties to it, it can have no effect on neutral purchasers, who stand in the same situation as before."1
Where a transfer has been made in good faith by a hostile captor to a neutral, at the time of the assignment, the title of the assignee will not be affected by his subsequently becoming an enemy.2
The rules which have been stated are those which, by the geueral law of nations, govern the right of
1 The Sophie, 6 Rob., 142.
postliminium, and are considered of binding force where the interests of neutrals are concerned. In cases, however, affecting only the citizens or subjects of the nation, some peculiar modifications of the general principle have been introduced by special statute provisions, both in England and in the United States.
By acts of Parliament1 it is provided that the right of postliminium, as between British subjects, shall continue even to the end of the war; and, therefore, the ships or goods of the subjects of that country, taken at sea by an enemy, and afterward retaken at any indefinite period of time, and whether before or after a sentence of condemnation, are to be restored to the original proprietors. An exception, however, is made as to ships which the enemy have set forth as vessels of war; these are not subject to restoration to the* original owners, but belong wholly to the recaptors. But if the property recaptured was, at the time of the original capture, employed in an illegal trade, this works a divesting of the original right, and the former owner will not be admitted to restitution from the recaptors.* The right of The United States government, by act of Con
postliminium . . . 0 _ , T. . ..
by tho laws gress, expressly continues the juspostlimimi, until states! Umtcd a divesting of the title to captured property by a sentence of condemnation. It also directs a restitution of recaptured property to the foreign and friendly owner on the payment of reasonable salvage. But the provisions of the law are declared
1 13 Geo. n, c. iv.; 17 Gco.IL, c. xxxiv.; 19 Geo. II., c. Xxxit.: 43 Geo. III.,*, clx.; 2 Bun-., 1198; 1 Black. Rep., 27.
* The WaUinyham Packet, 2 Rob., 77.
• March 3d, 1800, U. S. Laws.'
not to apply where the property has been condemned as prize by a competent court, before recapture, nor when the foreign government would not restore the goods or vessels of citizens of the .United States, under the like circumstances. This last provision of the statute law of the' United States is understood to be the rule in England. In a case involving the right of postliminium between the subjects of Great Britain and her allies,1 Lord Stowell says: "The actual rule I understand to be this: that the maritime law of England having adopted a most liberal rule of restitution with respect to the recaptured property of its own subjects, gives the benefit of that rule to its allies, till it appears that they act toward British property on a less liberal principle. In such a case, it adopts their rule, and treats them according to their own measure of justice."
The obligation of recaptors to restore the property General right to the original owner, is, as a general rule, connected restitution by with the right on their part to be paid a compensa- recaPtor8tion or reward given for saving or recovering the property: and this is denominated salvage; and to distinguish it from the ordinary salvage known to the commercial law, it is called military salvage.
The extent of this compensation is usually fixed Rate of comby legislative enactments, and the rates vary with pensaUon' varying circumstances, and in some cases the amount is within the uncontrolled discretion of the court.3
'The Santa Cruz, 1 Rob., 49; vide also The San Francisco, 1 Edwards, 279.
'The Dickenson, Hay and Mariott, 48; The Betsy, ib., 81; The Two Friends, 1 Rob., 279.
To sustain a claim for military salvage, there must be first, a lawful original capture; and second, a meritorious service in effecting a recapture. Right of sal- The right of military salvage is not limited to asEweii To68 cases of recapture, it is extended equally to the cuTaa°ofr». case °f tne recovery of captured property by rescapture. cue. this, however, is confined to the rescue, strictly so called—that is, to the rescue effected by the rising of the captured party and the recovery of the property after the capture has become complete, and the possession of the enemy virtually absolute. Salvage is never awarded in cases of rescue by the arrival and assistance of a fresh succor, before the property has been subjected to the possession of the enemy.
"No case has been cited," says Lord StowelL "and I know of none in which military salvage 'has been given, where the property rescued was not in the possession of the enemy, or so nearly, as to be certainly and inevitably under his grasp. There has been no case of salvage, where the possession, if not absolute, was not almost indefeasible, as where the ship had struck, and was so near as to be virtually in the hands of the enemy.1
In principle, the actual performance of the service of recapture, is sufficient to establish the claim for salvage, even though it were not the primary intention, or in the immediate contemplation of the recaptors to perform the service and effect the recovery.2
No commis- As no commission or letter of marque is requifor%erapture, site to the performance of the service of recapture,
1 The Franklin, 4 Rob., 14V. 1 The Progress, Jidwards, 211. so, of course, the recaptors are entitled to salvage, ^-"fore not
'. . , x . , ... ri'inusitetoen
whether acting with or without a commission. title to salvage.
Salvage is not due to a national Vessel for the Salvage not
_/. T i j- ,i duo to a na
service performed by a recapture from the enemy, tionai vesa«i of another vessel employed in the public service. °° a^XrTaThis rests upon the obvious principle that the per-tional vesseL formance of such a service is not only the duty and obligation of the vessel-of-war, but is in the direct line of the business to which it is devoted on behalf of the nation, and does not differ in principle from the service rendered by one ship of war to another in battle.2 In order to entitle the recovering party to sal- No hazard
■ • • 1 i • i i i T nee<* b° en
gage, it is not essential that any risk should have countered to
been encountered in the service. Therefore, a claim to 831
to military salvage is due where a vessel taken by
the enemy is purchased at sea, and brought into port
for restoration to the owner.8
It has been held, that where a vessel of the enemy Every person is taken by the adverse belligerent, lost again by a rescue has "a cruiser of the enemy, and subsequently recaptured, y^101 sal' the recaptors are entitled to the entire property.4
Every person aiding and abetting and assisting has a lien on the thins: saved. He has his action in personam, also, to recover for his meritorious service, but his first and proper remedy is in rem.
In the case of a recapture, where the property is again taken by the enemy, and followed by con
'The Helen, 3 Rob., 224; The Urania, 5 Rob., 148; The Process, Edwards, 211; The Hope, Hay & Marriott, 216.
* The Belle, Edwards, 66.
s The Henry, Edwards, 162.
* The John and Jane, 4 Rob., 217 and note.