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tion is given of Rice Lake, Lake Simcoe and other waters, not very far from the truth, as well as of the Mountain Lake* in Prince Edward County on the top of a mountain 200 feet high.

It is a matter of regret to read that “in some parts of Upper Canada through which I passed, the people did not appear to pay the least respect to the Sabbath day. I have frequently seen women churning butter and baking bread, and men chopping wood and attending to divers other employments the same as on week-days, but they got their deserts, these Sabbath-breakers, for they have only "a substitute for coffee

viz., dry crusts of bread put on the fire and burnt black, then pounded fine and boiling water being poured upon it, it is suffered to rest for awhile when it is pronounced fit for use." Provisions of all sorts were “very scarce and dear. In. . Halifax beef was upwards of twenty cents per lb., turkey was fifty cents per Ib., wheaten meal, though sour, was twenty-four dollars per bbl.”

We leave Captain White at home in Adams County: our sympathy goes out to him on learning that when, at Boston, he called on the Pay Master for his pay, he could not get cash, but must take due bills—cashing these at the brokers he had to allow a discount of twenty per cent., some even twenty-five per cent. He took some Philadelphia paper, and when he went to pay his stage fare five per cent. more was deducted, thus “calculating the ten per cent. we paid at Halifax for borrowed money, twenty per cent discount for cash at Boston, and five per cent deducted by the stage proprietor made in all an allowance of thirty-five per cent. which we were compelled to pay.” It must have been at least some satisfaction that the hated and despised Britisher got only ten of this, while those "who professed republican principles” got the lion's share of the prey.

* It is of this little lake (or another near it) that Smith in the work cited says : “ It is very smooth. At different times the inhabitants have in the morning seen tracks, as if a large log had been drawn along from the bay to the lake. This was supposed to have been done by snakes.”



An Address by Col. THE HONOURABLE Sam HUGHES, Minister of Militia and. Defence, Ottawa, before the Empire Club of Canada, Nov. 14, 1913. Mr. President and Gentlemen,

When I became Minister of Militia there were two or three courses which I might pursue. One was to leave the management of the department to the distinguished officers here and there across the country who were in many respects capable of carrying out a certain line of policy. Another was to pursue the policy of drift, and another was to seek to carry out some ideas I happened to have of my own in regard to the upbuilding of the militia of the country. Being in power, I chose the last course. (Applause.) I thought I did not have the very best respect for the views of some of my officers all over the country, but for many, many years I have held that the money spent on the militia was more or less wasted; men were taken out to camps at ages when their characters and their muscles were formed, and when it would be almost impossible to train them to bring a rifle to the shoulder with the facility that is necessary in a proper soldier. So I conceived the idea of establishing the cadet corps on a universal basis throughout the Dominion. I was warned it would be futile, that Quebec would not tolerate it; but Quebec has taken it up, and now Quebec has nearly as many cadets in that province as all the rest of the Dominion of Canada put together. (Applause.) So much for the prophets of evil. What is more, Quebec is going ahead with leaps and bounds in establishing cadet corps throughout every centre in their borders, as all the other parts of the Dominion of Canada are also, but Quebec leads. Second, I found that all over the Dominion of Canada the custom had grown up, as is found in many countries, that the youngsters run the streets at night uncontrolled, and I have never yet seen very much good come to the youth of the land by running the streets in the evening. I felt if we could have drill halls established in every city and town and village, where the young

men might feel at home with the various cadet corps or militia organizations, great good would be done. The drill halls in Canada have done more good-I will not drag in the churches—have done more good to the young manhood of the country than any other buildings, possibly the churches alone excepted. There is a type of manhood here that is a credit to the Dominion of Canada. Military training, I always felt, made better boys, developed them physically, mentally and morally, gave them that discipline, that observance of law and order, and the responsibility that goes to the upbuilding of noble manhood; all these things being developed, it made them better citizens for spiritual matters, and in every sense I have always maintained that if war might be wiped off the face of the earth and we are going to wipe it off in the next week or two, or month or two at the celebration of the century of peaceI would still go in for training the boys in the cadet system, because the boy trained along those lines is a better man, other things being equal, than his brother not similarly trained. (Applause.) We have been in only two years, but we have the wheels fairly well rolling. I like being recognized as energetic—(referring to Chairman's remarks)—it is far easier to keep moving than it is to sit still, and at my time of life unless a fellow keeps moving he soon drops out. It is all right for young fellows to be able to lie around, but an old fellow must keep going or he soon loses that energy and physical power that are necessary to keep him in his proper place. I conceived the notion of inspiring the proper spirit throughout the length and breadth of the country, and one of the things I set to work on was to remove the prejudice in the minds of the best class of men in the community,-I refer to the clerical class and I refer to them not as a profession but as individuals, because we have our tiffs with them - occasionally—to remove the wrong impression that was in their minds regarding the militia of the country, and let me say I succeeded in doing it, and to-day ninety-eight per cent. of the clergy of Canada are right at our backs for the cadet and militia system all over the land. I also found others in the country prejudiced against the system, and let me say, with all due regard to the friends properly prejudiced against the volunteer system, no mother wants to see her boy go out and come back after the first drill smelling with the fumes of liquor or reeling with intoxication. I make no apology here or any other place for banishing liquor from the training camps of the country. (Applause.) And let me say, as long as I am Minister of Militia it is going to stay banished. I am not going to go and keep it out, but the officers who cannot keep it out are going to get out of the service, as a number of them have got out already. I make no apology; it is a straight business transaction; we are training the boys and we are going to carry it out. Nobody would dream of ordering a canteen in the Collegiate Institutes of the City of Toronto, and yet we might just as reasonably demand that the canteen should be established in the various Collegiate Institutes throughout Ontario as to demand that they should be carried into our militia or cadet camps of training; and the officer who cannot do without his drop for the sake of example to his men had better get out of the service.

I conceived that it would be a good thing to inspire the officers with what is done in other countries, and we made the experiment of having a number of officers cross the water to the British maneuvres, and last year some went to the French mancuvres.

It was a very valuable experience. Let me point out that I happen to represent the most unpopular department, that is, the one most open to attack of any in the Governmentthe Militia Department. We meet people who come around and say, “You don't want to train our boys to be murderers." No, I don't, but I want to train every boy so that he is ready to defend his mother in case his land is invaded. They tell us it is waste money, that we are going to have peace all over the universe. It looks like it, with the Christians and the Turks murdering each other in the Balkans ! Mexico has been carrying on open butchery for some years, and before long our friends across the border who have been agitating peace, are likely going to be into it up to their elbows in trying to pacify Mexico by cutting the throats of their neighbours. I find I am invited to every peace celebration. The programme of the peace celebration next year is to be a monster display of the armed forces of the United States and Canada along the border. I would be almost afraid to bring them together at the peace celebration, because when the peace delegates met at the Hague some years ago to talk peace, they had to call in sixty policemen to keep them from fighting, and if we had the vast armies of Canada and the United States celebrating a hundred years of brotherly love and affection, something might turn up and we would be at each other in dead earnest.

I brought the boys across to Britain and France last year, and let me say the money was well expended. If there is never any worse expenditure of public money than in having the best officers go abroad—that does not mean that many of the officers left behind were not equally good—when I brought the best men across they came back broadened, developed, inspired and instructed, and no better expenditure of money was ever made in the Dominion of Canada, and I make no apology for it.

This year I conceived the notion, having made the experiment last year, of taking about two officers this year on the average from each division. From the City of Toronto I think Col. Mercer was about the only representative, and he is a very worthy representative. The officers that were selected were typical Canadians, and splendid citizens and magnificent soldiers.

We reached the Old Land, and after being there a day or two we struck for the Continent. The route traversed was the border land, the old historic fighting ground along the borders of France and Germany,—Cambray, St. Quentin, Sedan, Gravelotte, Mars la Tour, Metz, and then the garrison centres, such as Nancy, Chalons, Laon and Toul. These were all visited; then we went

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