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which long baffled the inquiry of historians and which became manifest only the other day from a letter discovered in the British Museum by the former Canadian Archivist, Mr. Brymner. Half of Henrietta Maria's dowry had been left unpaid; the King, Stuart-like, cared nothing for the glory and honour of his country in comparison with pecuniary benefit to himself--and it was to secure the payment of this money that Charles agreed to cede Quebec to its former masters. Disregarding the claims of Kirke and the Merchant Adventurers, he seems to have gone so far as to sequestrate not only the furs taken in Quebec at its capture but also those obtained by trading at Quebec and Tadoussac.

Some historians, English and Canadian, regret the loss of Quebec to England in 1632; a regret I do not share. În my view, had Canada remained under the English flag in the then condition of her population, few and sparsely settled, she would have been filled by English immigrants and not French—her condition would have differed in no respect from that of the English colonies to the South—and when the time came, as in the existing conception of colonial government it must needs come, for the colonies to repudiate the rule of a King and Parliament beyond the sea, Canada would have made common cause with the thirteen colonies. That was not to be-Canada to fulfil her high destiny must necessarily remain French for a time..

The time had come to get rid of all but the two nations in the northern part of the Continent. The Dutch at Manhattan at the mouth of the Hudson, notwithstanding the warning of Argall, had continued to fly the flag of the Netherlands; they had spread into New Jersey and on the Delaware displaced the Swedes; but in 1664, Admiral Lawson and Colonel Nicolls took possession of New Amsterdam which then became, as it has ever since continued, New York—and except for a couple of years, 1673-4, when the Dutch rule was again established, New York remained English and British until the American Revolution. The Spaniards further south were then negligible, and the English and French divided between them the Continent of North America, north of Mexico. And whether the mother countries were at war or peace, with but little interruption the colonies carried on a kind of war-petite guerre—the Englishmen and Frenchman, if they did not themselves carry the musket, each supplied his Indian with arms and ammunition to commit havoc on the settlements of the other. Perhaps the French were the worst, for captives were delivered over to the mercy of the savage and his tender mercies were cruel.* Hundreds of English settlers were slain and scalped, and scores of women met an even worse fate. I have elsewhere said: “In the decade, 1680-1690, both English and Dutch in New York endeavoured by presents, and especially by furnishing gratis guns, powder, and lead, to induce the Iroquois to war against the French-and it was only the view of the Iroquois that it would be better first of all to destroy the Christian Indians, allies of the French-Canadians, that saved New France from a most devastating and horrible warfare at that time. The subjects of James II hesitated themselves to attack the subjects of his French friend; but they had no compunctions about doing by Indians what they would have liked to do in person. Qui facit per alium, facit per se, does not always apply internationally.”

After the abdication of James II, when England reasserted herself and joined in the Grand Alliance of Continental powers against Louis XIV, the hand of the Canadian French appeared openly and without concealment. The projected attack on New York by way of Albany and the Hudson had indeed to be abandoned, but expeditions with a smaller number of men were made against the hated "Bastonnais”—the double purpose in

* How the New Englander hated and at the same time feared the French-Canadian may perhaps be appreciated from a consideration of a passage in The Wonders of the Invisible World, by the Rev. Cotton Mather, published at Boston "in New England" in 1693. He says: “Tis Beelzebub; 'tis he that is the Devil, and the rest are his Angels or his Souldiers. Think on vast Regiments of cruel and bloody French Dragoons with an Intendant over them, overrunning a pillaged neighbourhood, and you will think a little, what the Constitution among the Devils is.” The French are not compared to Devils, but Devils to the French!!

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view was to strike terror into the English and to blood their Indian allies and please them with plunder, human and otherwise. One expedition from Montreal, half French, half Indian, fell upon Schenectady; another from Three Rivers under Hertel ravaged the Village of Salmon Falls (Berwick) in New Hampshire; Portneuf led a third from Quebec, his victim being Fort Loyall, now Portland, Maine. Most of the inhabitants were toniahawked on the spot and the remainder carried off to a captivity—to many worse than death.

On the other part, the Schuylers led invading forces into Canada in two successive years, killing and taking scalps of men and women, French and Indian.

Then the English colonies determined upon an invasion on a large and, it was hoped, decisive scale, and William Phips was sent to reduce Quebec. He had captured Port Royal, but Quebec proved too much for him. Indeed, it is undoubtedly true that brave as the English colonists were, for any such task it required the skill of regular soldiers from across the sea and also the unifying power of the Home Government to keep the several colonies in a uniform policy.

Canada was not to be conquered by colonists: Boston and New York were not to have anything to say in her government. She was to be kept French against the day when her hatred of the English colonist would become a tower of strength to the British cause.

Even the great effort in 1711 by Home and Colonial authorities failed. Admiral Hovenden Walker and General “Jack Hill” were sent by the Harley-St. John administration to drive the French out of Canada. A more disgraceful calamity had never befallen the British or the English arms than that which followed. We have to go forward to the incompetent leaders against the revolting colonists seventy years after, before we meet its like. I can find nothing in the past of Admiral Walker which can account for it-one can hardly say that his abstemiousness had anything to do with the disaster (for he is said, at least in his later years, to have drunk nothing but water and eaten nothing but vegetables). No doubt some would consider this rather suspicious amid a time of beef and beer.

But "Jack Hill” owed his appointment to a gross piece of favouritism. He was the brother of Abigail Hill, Lady Masham, the favourite of Queen Anne, and related to Sarah Churchill, the Duchess of Marlborough. She says of him that he was no use as a soldier. It was through the influence of Mrs. Masham that Queen Anne was induced to insist on the appointment of Hill to the command; much against his will and his better judgment, Marlborough made him a General and, a little later, Harley gave him command of the army of the Quebec expedition.

Through stupidity and carelessness, transports were cast away on the rocky Northern shore of the St. Lawrence; eight vessels were wrecked and nearly a thousand soldiers drowned. Hill quailed before this misfortune and resolved to abandon the undertaking—the "society man” who shone at dinners and routs was no Wellington to try again and again; he bent before the first blast of misfortune, and Quebec was again saved for France and against the great day to come toward the end of the century.

The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 prevented any further attempts at that time on the part of Britain. Great Britain had been formed in 1707 by the Union of England and Scotland, and hereafter we must speak of British arms, etc.

For fifty years the French increased in Canada: increasing in numbers, they did not become more friendly to the American-English to the south of them. The time came at length for the British colours to fly on every French fort, post, and garrison; James Wolfe was commissioned to conquer Quebec; the almost perpetual state of warfare in the Lake Champlain district was at last to cease.

How the gentle, kindly, delicate Wolfe accomplished his allotted task all know: he died happy in the knowledge that Canada was British at last.

By the Treaty of Paris, roth February, 1763, France renounced all claim to our country.

Shortly thereafter came what might have been foreseen, what had been foreseen by a few, and openly pre

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dicted by at least one. The Colonies to the south, relieved from the ever haunting fear of an attack from the north, began to take up more continuously and persistently their grievances against the Home Government. Arrogance and stupidity on the one hand, insolent demand on the other led to an open revolt; and unequalled incapacity on the part of the British generals led to unparalleled disaster to British arms and to humiliation which was tolerable only because it had been inflicted by English hands.

The revolting colonists did not forget Canada--they always desired that Canada should join them and so round off the Union. An address to the Canadians was printed in French and distributed amongst them, but while the Canadians had not yet quite reconciled themselves to British rule, Sir Guy Carleton kept them from open revolt by pursuing a policy diametrically opposite to that of the Royal governors in the other colonies.

I am wholly persuaded that had it not been for the difference in language and creed, and for the traditional and hereditary enmity of the French toward the English colonists, even Carleton would have failed. Second, nevertheless, among our Canadian heroes—and second only to Wolfe—we should ever hold Sir Guy Carleton, Lord Dorchester.

American invasion was repelled by his energy and skill, coupled with the loyalty of the French-Canadian; and Benjamin Franklin and his colleagues failed in their attempt, when sent to Montreal for that purpose, to win the Canadian to the American cause.

There had been some discontent by reason of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 introducing the civil as well as the criminal law of England into Canada, but this was allayed by the Quebec Act of 1774 which re-introduced the old Canadian civil law, although it left the English criminal law in full force and effect. This the Canadian did not object to—cruel and barbarous as it was, in our more enlightened view, it was less so than his own.

It is true that the malcontents in the thirteen colonies described this Act as intended to establish in Canada "a religion that has deluged Britain in blood and dispersed

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