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early days and at last they achieved a University of Toronto and, after a while, one in Kingston, and then one in Montreal, and that is about the end of it. What do we see in the West? There is the immediate product of wealth,-a University in Winnipeg, a University in Saskatoon, a University in Edmonton, and a University in Vancouver, and all with such a scant population. This is a striking evidence of the truth of what I have said of the product that comes at once in the finer and more delicate side of life from what you may call the coarse, materialistic soil of mere money.

In the United States take the names of McCormick, Rockefeller, Carnegie. The money may be made in steel, but it blossoms in literature. The same thing is true of museums and art palaces, as of Universities. Witness the case of Montreal, enriched by the great benefactions of two men who made their money in the most prosaic way, but who have spent it in the most artistic way. In your own city of Toronto what do we see? I was going along College Street, when I was struck with that building of wonderful length and breadth and depth, that great edifice sacred to the healing of the human body, as truly a cathedral as any in England or in Rome that ever lifted their domes to catch the benediction of the rising sun. Could we have had that unless there had been the accumulation of wealth in the hands of some men? In regard to Art, Science, Medical Research, witness these various commissions in Great Britain and in the United States. I think we have reason to be thankful that the tendency, on the whole, all over our country, is to a reverent use of wealth. I think that is increasing; we are in that perilous and delicate state when we are just learning how to use money. One of the trying things in the life of any country is getting the tools, the edged tools, into our hands.

To revert again to the lower classes; this is always to be remembered, that just in proportion as the scale goes up with the rich it ascends in a corresponding ratio with the poor. You will find unconsciously the poor imitate, until if the rich man has a victrola, some one a scale lower has a graphanola, and another a pianola; this man

may have only an organ, and that an old-fashioned melodeon, and another a concertina or a jew's harp; some one has a canary bird, or at least a Singer sewingmachine (laughter) which as you will admit has a melodious name. It is true, I think, that in proportion as the scale goes up with the rich, there is, perhaps following it afar off, a corresponding rise on the part of the poor. It is one of the striking things in our Canadian homes. These two tokens go hand in hand and we should rejoice in the one as much as in the other. I shall not keep you longer except to say that such tokens as these should fill our hearts with a fine sanguineness, not with dolorous predictions of dolorous futures.

This Dominion of ours, nestling, as Dufferin said, at the feet of a mother, is majestically dreaming a dream and framing a destiny of which no one has yet an adequate conception. Separated from the old feudal grave clothes that are now hampering the Mother Land, casting wide open the golden door of privilege and advantage to the son of a peasant or the son of a prince, and waiting for the development, of the wealth of mine and lake and field and forest, I feel that these twain—our rich and our poor-working hand in hand, and heart in heart, and hope in hope, will upbuild this nation in that righteousness which alone exalteth it, in that peace and comfort, which is a perpetual joy and blessing. (Applause)


An Address by the HONOURABLE W. E. ANDREWS, Auditor for the United States Treasury, before the Empire Club of Canada, on March 27, 1913

Mr. President and Gentlemen,

I remember very distinctly a delightful visit that I had in Newport, Vermont, on the 4th of July, 1898, my first visit to that portion of Vermont. When I arose in the morning and looked out upon the scene I saw that the principal entertainment was to be carried on near the window of my hotel. About 8 o'clock, I saw the boat coming down the lake from the Canadian side crowded with passengers to the rail. Wagons from both sides of the line poured into the city for hours. I never saw so large a crowd spend a celebration day in more cordial spirits than we had that 4th of July on the border of the two countries. (Hear, hear) In the evening, just as it was growing dark, people in their carriages and wagons crowded the streets wherever they could secure a good view of a canvas that was stretched on the end of a large building on one of the principal streets of the city. They watched with anxiety for the beginning of the stereopticon exhibition. What was the first picture thrown upon the canvas ? A life-size bust of that splendid patriot and wise statesman, William McKinley, our martyred President. The people cheered to the echo and you could not discover the lines of nationality. (Hear, hear) They watched for the second picture. What was it? A life-size bust of Queen Victoria. God bless her memory! (Applause) Without any distinction as to nationality that audience from both sides of the line cheered again and again to the echo. I said to myself then, as I say every time I think of it, what an uplift for the people of the two great nations when characters like those of President McKinley and Queen Victoria guide the thoughts and the aspirations not only of men and women in mature years but especially the young men and women that have the long race yet to run. Friends, we cannot over-estimate the importance of such influences. While the nation rests upon fundamental principles of justice and equity, we trust in all instances, yet the multitudes look for the reflection of those principles in the characters of the men and women that lead the way. Measure that in business, measure it in government, and you have the important responsibility laid upon the conscience of every person who wields a ballot in the determination of the great policies of government and the selection of those who are to lead the way. But let me direct your attention to another scene which is alike interesting to me and which will help to suggest the body of the sentiment upon which I will dwell for a few moments at this time.

Frequently I go to the western steps of the Capitol building in Washington and watch the beauty of the scene as the sun descends the western sky on a cloudless day. The eyes turn towards the east and I behold the golden dome of the Congressional Library shining like an unfading torch of intellectual light. I turn a little further and I behold the outlines of the Capitol building bounded on the south and north by the Hall of Representatives and the Senate Chamber, sometimes in our country facetiously called the Cave of the Winds. (Laughter) In the midst of the building is situated our supreme judicial tribunal. As the eyes pass around the circle of vision to the north, the west, and the south, historic scenes are recalled with profound interest. The great departments of government appear clustering about the White House as the Executive centre of the American Republic. On such occasions my mind runs back hastily through history to the builders, and I ask this question: “What were the purposes ? What were the motives of the great architects and builders of nations?” When I see in history the struggles of the race under this form of government and under that, and I see the shifting of the scenes, and the conflict of ideas, I ask another question: “What was the chief corner-stone of survey ?” Changing the figure a little, I again ask: "How much of selfish ambition was there in the hearts of the architects and the builders ? On the other hand again, how much of the high purposes of humanity actuated their lives?” As I reviewed history, I saw that various cornerstones of survey had been taken, various plans appeared, the lines crossed and recrossed, resulting in the conflict of ideas and the conflict of arms. Then I recalled the Battle of the Pyramids, I recalled the Battle of the Nations on the field of Austerlitz. In the midst of those great contests, I see the firm qualities and calm judgment of the Iron Duke of Wellington rising to victory on the field of Waterloo. (Applause) Thus, as I review one by one, the great struggles on immortal fields, I realize that the earth has trembled many times beneath the tread of contending armies, and that, out of those conflicts, have come the governments of the present day. What do they possess ? Take the history of the British Empire. Place its present in contrast with its history of centuries ago. How much of transformation has taken place in the forms of government, the methods of administration, and the expression of the voice of the people. Take it in my own country within the comparatively brief period that the American Republic has lived among the nations of the earth. But after recasting this wide field of conflict and study, I see this: not until the architects and builders of nations found the true corner-stone from which to make that survey, the true foundation upon which to build, did civilization begin to move aright and keep peace with accelerated motion. But what was it? The individual human soul with its God-given rights to liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and the open field to make out of itself all that God had designed it to be. (Applause) Right there I find the thought of the great men and women of later years, centreing with men like Gladstone, McKinley, and others, standing out in the history of the world to recognize the God-given rights of the individual. Fraternity brought that, and that is the spirit and that is the doctrine underlying the genuine progress of modern times in the unfolding of the

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