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spirit of service to the body politic through the profession, through industry it may be, in practical politics it may be, almost in any line of activity, and Lord Rosebery laid the stress there for the Empire. Let me quote another sentence of his: “No one who observes the signs of the times can fail to see,”—I think this is a remarkable statement of his, - that it will be increasingly difficult to maintain the Empire in its entirety and cohesion without an intensity of character and a devotion which it must be the task of the universities pre-eminently to maintain.” (Applause) Public service there. Another from Lord Curzon. He says that “Oxford and Cambridge are not mere venerable relics of an obsolete past, but they are sanctuaries of a spirit that never dies." I think that is one of the best sentences of Curzon's I have seen. He says, “I should like to record my belief that in the college system as it exists in the older universities and in the life and teaching of those institutions as a whole are to be found the best guarantees for that character which in the conduct of government and the daily business of administration is more precious than rubies and more potent than regiments of armed men. And he said in prefacing that remark, “I speak as a man that has administered a great empire." He is looking, then, to the universities to provide men who will take their place in public life and share the burden, the tremendously heavy burden which the public man always has to shoulder. The same thing was said by Mr. Harcourt. I need not however detain you long with that if you will let me read one sentence. He made a plea for the younger universities to produce at least one man who will become the historian of his country and his race. Looking abroad he said to us in Canada, “Produce your historian,” to Australians, "Produce your historian; you Universities, send up your man who will put your life into an expression which will become the song of your heritage. You can only do it for yourselves; we look to you to do for yourselves what the older Universities have done for the older sections of the country. And so,” he says, “with the triumph of your abounding commerce and the material and deserved rewards of commercial prosperity, you will associate the flavour of ancient culture with the recorded glory of a young race.”

These in general are the impressions—though I am afraid I have given expression to them in a very disjointed way—that I gathered from this remarkable gathering. One came home heartened, very decidedly heartened; a new impulse and a new enthusiasm came to us of the younger countries to develop on our own lines, preserve our own individuality, produce our own thinkers, work out our own problems, and yet to do it all as a young people with an ancient past, a young people linked in close contact with the peoples from whom we come in the older lands.

These opportunities are to be repeated. The Congress is to meet once every five years. Meantime it is hoped that a Bureau will be established which will serve as a means of interchange of ideas and information which may be useful to us all, so that when we gather five years after this, those of us who go will find that some things that are now vague have become more concrete and definite. Enthusiasm, impulse, culture, education are so much of a spirit that possibly it will be difficult to crystallize them to a very great extent, but even already we have reaped a great result from this Congress. (Applause)

SOME ASPECTS OF

ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL VALUE
TO THE CITY OF TORONTO
OF THE PROPOSED HARBOUR

IMPROVEMENTS

An Address by Mr. R. S. GOURLAY, before the Empire Club of Canada, January 16, 1913 Mr. President and Gentlemen,

I desire to express my appreciation of the kind words of your President, and also of the honour accorded me in being asked to address you on this question of the harbour improvement plan.

I have some little diffidence in dealing with the matter because it has become in a measure an old story with some of you, and I would like at the outset to ask you to bear with me while I give you some statistical facts that refer to Toronto's position to-day industrially and commercially. But before doing so I would direct your attention to these two plans (indicating two large drawings). The plan as you see it here is an accurate survey of the city waterfront on the scale of 300 feet to the inch. From one end of the plan to the other you have twelve miles in view. The entire area, you will see, is covered with small figures which indicate the 8,000 soundings that have been taken all over that entire waterfront. The larger figures indicate three hundred borings. That was the first work done by the Commission, getting an accurate topographical and hydrographical survey of the waterfront of which there had been no accurate record in existence at any previous time in the history of Toronto. There had been plans of sections and parts, according to changing conditions, but when you came to relate them they were found to be incorrect; therefore the first work was to obtain data as to the basic condition of the city's waterfront as it is to-day. The second plan shows the proposed changes, and just at this point I want to indicate what the colours represent. Every

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thing you see in black or white or gray is transferred from this plan (indicating first plan). What you see in pink is the development contemplated, largely industrial or commercial, with the exception of two sites for aquatic sports, club houses, and buildings of that character (indicating two points respectively on the Island and in the neighbourhood of Ashbridge's Bay). The yellow indicates the roadways or boulevards; the red indicates the outline of breakwater that is suggested; the light green shown in park treatment indicates the new park areas that are suggested. The dark green here and elsewhere (indicating north shore of Island) indicates the new made park land in connection with the Island. With these colours kept in mind, you will have at the outset some conception of what is suggested by the improved harbour plan.

I would like, in discussing the matter with you to-day, to discuss it from a threefold standpoint, namely, the value of the harbour improvement plan from an industrial, a commercial, and a home-living standpoint.

Taking up the industrial first, may I call your attention to the fact that in 1890 the census indicated the population of Toronto as over 181,000, while in 1910 it had grown to over 376,500. The annual value of the industrial products of Toronto twenty years ago was just about $45,000,000; in 1910, two years ago, it had reached $155,000,000. So that the population development was in the ratio of 109%, and the industrial development was in the ratio of 243%. When you realize that the census of 1910 places the value of Montreal's industrial output at only $11,000,000 more than Toronto, and also indicates that its growth was only in the ratio of 145% in the last twenty years, you will realize how rapidly Toronto is becoming pre-eminently the industrial centre of Canada. (Applause) In the foregoing I have given you one view-point of the industrial development of the city. Another view-point, as ascertained from the census, is as follows: The census of 1910 indicates that in Canada there are 300 different classes of manufactures produced. Out of these 300 classes, we, to-day, manufacture 176 in Toronto. In 92 of these classes there is considerable competition; with the number of competing factories varying from 3 up to 67 (the 67 being for foundry and machine-shop products). In 84 classes we have only one, or, at most, two enterprises. Altogether we have in these two divisions, 176 out of the 300 various industries of Canada represented in Toronto's industrial life.

Again the census returns indicate that covering these 176 classes, we have at the present time 1,104 establishments with a working population of more than 65,400. Dr. Blue, the Government statistician, says it is a very modest estimate to assume that for every employee in a factory there are at least two others dependent on that employee's earnings; therefore in Toronto, we have 195,000 people directly dependent on the industrial enterprises of the city, so that with a population of 375,000 you will see that over half our population is directly dependent on the industrial life of the city. When you take those who are not directly dependent—the banker, the storekeeper, the professional man, the cartage and the transportation man—every class enjoying our civic life is indirectly dependent on the industrial life of our city.

In order that you may realize that the increase as per the 1910 census is now being exceeded, may I

say that the City Architect indicates that in 1911 there were 110 new factories erected and 77 new warehouses, at an estimated cost of three and one-quarter millions of dollars. In 1912 there were erected 86 new factories and 66 new warehouses, without referring to additions to factories and warehouses, at an estimated cost of four and three-quarter millions of dollars. So that ever since the days of the census of 1910, Toronto's industrial development has been going on at an even greater ratio than for the previous ten years.

That being the situation industrially, I now turn to the plan to show what we have endeavoured to provide in order to augment, increase, and develop that industrial life. This area (indicating Ashbridge's Bay) has been set apart for industrial development; we call it the industrial area. It is at present marsh land covered with

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