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anything like a repetition of another university. (Hear, hear) The necessity of individuality was very strongly emphasized. That is an obvious necessity. Take our own University of Toronto; it is unique; it might not be possible to reproduce it elsewhere; it is unique because it has a history, and that history is the outcome of the struggle of this province; even the studies and the method of study in the University of Toronto are conditioned largely, not only by the past, but by the distinctive characteristics of the people of this province and their actual needs. Now every university is an expression of national life, and must be an instrument of service for its own people, and therefore cannot be expected to reduplicate or copy any other university. That was laid down as an axiom. What folly it would be to think that Oxford could be reproduced in Canada !

nada! It is simply absurd when you think of it; or to attempt to reproduce even a Scotch university, although that might be easier, or even a provincial university of England. Possibly we are nearer in similarity to these provincial universities and to the Scotch universities than to any other ; but the social conditions, the life of the people in Manchester, Liverpool, or Leeds, and their industrial development is so different from these of our own people that you could not expect that the same kind of thing that is being done there must necessarily be reproduced here. To take a German university and set it down here would be absurd; they go on their own lines, laid upon a school system that is of their own devising, just as ours is laid upon our school system. That was, then, the first axiom, and I believe it is a very healthful and sane decision. Recognizing then our individuality we respect one another because we have an individuality of our own; and the strength of each is to go ahead developing as it ought to develop, step by step.

On the other hand, although that is the case, is it not possible that the one university may help the other? Undoubtedly. Is it not possible that some universities may do for the students what other universities cannot do? Of course.

Is there not something in an old civilization that a young civilization cannot provide? Would it not be right then that the older section of that civilization should contribute in some way for the up-building of the younger elements of that civilization? That also is axiomatic. Therefore the second great result of this Congress was the setting before the universities the facilities that the older and better-equipped universities afford to the younger universities abroad, that Great Britain should tell us who come from abroad what she can do for our students. A great many of us, especially those who were educated in Britain, knew in a general way what could be done, although possibly we did not realize how far the Old Land was willing to go. This Congress had the effect of calling out the best sympathy of the old universities to the universities of the Empire, and that in itself, Mr. Chairman, is a very great thing; because when you get sympathy you have practically taken the first step towards co-operation. Many of us came away feeling that more can be done for our students in Britain in the future than in the past. As a graduate of Old Country universities I have often felt that they lived too much to themselves and did not sufficiently recognize what was done in our Colonial universities as they then were. Students would go across from here after having spent four years in Arts, and our four years in Arts counted for very little. Not only did they count for very little, but there were few scholarships or anything of the kind offered. What was the result? The universities of this country were, until recent years, sending out of the country a large amount of the best intellect we had. Why? Because the United States offered what Britain did not offer. The United States gave chances and opportunities that Britain did not give. Britain stood by itself and said, “Well you can take our terms or you can leave them;" and our students said, “We cannot go and take your terms, we have not the money, and if we have we have not the openings." The United States universities said, "Come, we will accept your work done, and you can get your doctor's degree.” The result is we have men dotted all over the United States in the best positions everywhere.

As the Empire grows we ought surely to be affording more opportunity to our well trained men for teaching positions. Where are they to get their teaching done? Still, I think, Britain offers the best place for a large section of the work that is to be done; Britain and Germany still stand supreme, although the United States has come up wonderfully well, and in many lines is remarkably well equipped. I think all those of us who belong to the British race feel that we should like to see our people turn more and more to Britain for graduate work and for finishing off so that they may come back to us and give us the benefit of their study after they have had a thorough training. This Congress has opened up that possibility to a greater degree than it existed before, opened it up by creating bonds of connection. The results of a Congress or Council are not the resolutions adopted nor even the papers read, but they are largely the personal links that are created by talking over questions with people whom you get to know. They get to know you, they get to know something about the institutions you represent; you understand their point of view, you see their difficulties, and many a difficulty is brushed away in conversation. Consequently I think that these Congresses have had the great effect of preparing a broader road, so that it will be easier for our people to go to the Old Country to get their training, and then to return.

I will pass over the discussions of what might be done in the universities as to graduate work, undergraduate work, matriculation, and that kind of thing, in most of which you would not be interested. After four days of this Conference, which were diversified with a great deal of very splendid entertainment by the Lord Mayor and others, -most elaborate hospitality-most of us went to the other universities, to Oxford, where we were received with extreme kindness, to Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, and Cambridge. Some of us had been before to the Scotch universities and all the delegates did not go to the same universities. When we entered these provincial universities we came into a new atmosphere. Most of you know something of Oxford and Cambridge, perhaps less of the provincial universities. These have sprung up in every city, and they have afforded openings for the youth of their city, partly on the old lines and partly on new lines. The old subjects are taught by men of the highest eminence, who are well paid. Some of the professional schools, particularly in medicine, are as fine as any in the country. I suppose the Medical School of Liverpool is one of the very best. Then especially the faculties and departments of applied science are developed to the utmost. It is in these developments of the provincial universities that you realize how awake England really is. Those cities are spending thousands of pounds on their own universities, and the universities are also generously supported by private gifts. The city of Birmingham spends £10,000 a year on the University of Birmingham, which has now a fine site and fine buildings. Liverpool spends more. The University of Manchester together with its great Technical School, which is practically its faculty of applied science, gets from the city of Manchester £26,000 a year. Leeds, I think, pays £10,000 a year. I do not say that these figures are exact, for I have not verified them for some time. None of those universities is within range of the University of Toronto as to size or the variety of its work. Manchester is the largest with 1,600 students; what is that to our 4,000? We spend two and a half million dollars in this city through staff and students, and how much does this city give to the University of Toronto? Only $6,000 rental for a piece of ground behind the park that is worth I suppose half a million, and that ground we need very badly. I believe that the city of Toronto has to give something to the University of Toronto in the future just out of self-respect-(laughter and applause)—and to keep in line with what they are doing in the Old Land. Look at Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, Bristol-every one of them. The city of Toronto must keep up in the van. However, though I intended to speak of that I did not come merely for this purpose. The developments of these new universities are remarkable. They have applied their science to their industry, consquently in Manchester there is a large school in which dyeing is studied technically, and this is not merely a trade school ; it is a high grade trade school, but it is beyond the trade school stage, is really of the university rank. Investigations made in Manchester by Professor Perkins have become very well known, particularly of late his investigations into the composition of rubber. It will mean an enormous amount to the industry. In Leeds you have the textile industry developed to such an extent that the Cloth Workers Guild of London supports largely that side of the development in Leeds. The English are awake to what the Germans knew long ago, that industrial progress is in the long run dependent on science and the application of science to industry. Take away the universities and where is your science? The university is a necessity (and they know it) not only to the intellectual side of life, but to the material prosperity, industrial growth, and development of the country. The Germans have learned that remarkably well and Britain has awakened to it. Possibly that was the main impression that I gathered from visiting these provincial universities.

Let me close by making one or two quotations from what was said by Lord Rosebery and Lord Curzon with regard to the work of a university. While we lay great stress upon industry, the development and advancement of industry, and the growth of the scientific spirit in all departments of our life, still we come back to this that was emphasized at the Congress of the Universities, and that must be emphasized still as Lord Rosebery said, “The formation of the character of the average man to serve in the public life of the Empire, is the function after all of the University." And too great stress cannot be laid upon that, Mr. Chairman. The old faculty of Arts must be maintained at its height, and it is being maintained in Britain, and I believe through the Empire also. In Toronto it is still far and away the leading faculty. We have nearly 2,000 students in Arts, over 1,100 in University College. The standard is keeping up and the numbers are keeping up. But after all, whether it be in the professions or whether it be in industrial activity, behind them all is the University spirit, the

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