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into every savage bosom. Rallying, however, after a moment's hesitancy, they rush upon him with savage cries; a hundred arrows pierce him, and a musket ball transpierces his body passing near the heart. Father Daniel falls dead : the shepherd has given his life for his flock; and having given his life for Christ, he fell with the divine assurance of finding it anew in heaven.
Finding that he had fallen, the savages rushed upon him, tore off his clothing and mangled his body, treating it with every indignity. At length, the Church being already in flames, his body was cast into the fire, and the good Father's sacrifice became a holocaust. He and his dear Church were consumed in the same flames. He had, by striking awe into the savages and riveting their attention on himself, contributed to save the lives of many of his flock, who were thus enabled to escape.
Thus died Anthony Daniel, the proto-martyr of North America. A native of Dieppe, in France, born of wealthy and respectable parents, he had entered at an early age into the Society of the Jesuits. Chosen for the Huron mission, he had laboured among these people for fourteen years, indefatigable in his zeal, and panting daily for the crown of martyrdom. He was remarkable" for heroic courage, untiring patience, unalterable meekness, and a charity which could excuse all things, bear with all things, and love every body. His humility was sincere, his obedience entire and ever ready to do every thing and to suffer every thing. His zeal animated him even unto death, which though sudden, was not unexpected. For he always carried his life in his hands; and during the nine years that he had been employed in the frontier christian villages, on a mission which was most exposed to the enemy, he had sighed, with hope and with love, for that death which finally fell to his lot."*
But two days before his glorious death, he had finished a spiritual Retreat at the house of St. Mary's, and had made a general confession with a view to prepare himself for eternity. Inflamed with renewed zeal, he would not consent to remain even for a day with his brethren to enjoy a brief repose, but hastened back to his mission, having a sort of instinctive feeling that he was needed there. On the 3rd of July, he preached his last sermon to his dear neophytes, bidding them, with tears in his eyes, to prepare for death; on the 4th, he fell a martyr, as we have seen.f In the words of the “Relation:”
“He left after him an example of every virtue, the savages, even those who were infidels, cherished so strong an attachment for his memory, that it may be said with truth, that he had charmed the hearts of all who had ever known him.”I
We must now turn to another scene of horror and carnage more dreadful far than the one we have just attempted feebly to describe. Encouraged by their former success, the Iroquois returned early in the spring of the following year, 1649; and on the 16th of March, a thousand warriors attacked the chris
• Relation, p. 13.
| Ibid, p. 14.
tian village of St. Ignatius at break of day, while the inhabitants were all buried in sleep. They carried the place by assault, put men, women and children to death, and set fire to the cabins. Out of 400 inhabitants, but three escaped over the snow to carry the alarm to the village of St. Louis, but a league distant.
The Iroquois followed up their success, and before sunrise surrounded the village of St. Louis, which was fortified with a strong pine palisade. At their approach, many of the women and children fled to the neighbouring villages. About eighty valiant Hurons resolved to defend the place to the last extremity. A desperate conflict ensued; but after thirty of the invaders had been killed, and a great number wounded, the palisades were forced, and the enemy rushed in, overpowering their feeble adversaries by their numbers, and carrying every thing before them. Being well provided with fire arms, which they had obtained from their neighbours, the Dutch in New York, they were an overmatch for the Hurons, whom they now butchered almost without resistance. They set fire to the town, and cast into the flames the old, the infirm, the wounded, and such small children as had not been able to effect their escape. From the central missionary station of St. Mary's, but at league distant, the flames were discovered at nine o'clock in the morning; and the sad forebodings of the good Fathers who dwelt there were soon confirmed by a messenger who had escaped from the massacre.*
In this village of St. Louis there resided at the time of the assault two Jesuit Fathers, John de Brebeuf, and Gabriel Lallemant, who had charge of this, and of four other neighbouring villages, which formed but one of the eleven Huron and Algonquin missions before spoken of.
“Some of the christians had entreated the Fathers to preserve their lives for the glory of God, which could have been very easily effected, since at the first alarm more than five hundred persons had escaped with ease to a place of security ; but their zeal would not allow them to do this, and the salvation of their flock was dearer to them than the love of life. They employed every moment of their time, as the most precious of their whole life; and during the hottest of the combat, their heart was all on fire for the salvation of souls. One of them was at the breach baptizing the catechumens; the other was giving absolution to the neophytes ; and both were busy in animating the christians to die in sentiments of piety, which consoled them in the midst of their misfortunes . ....
“An unconverted Huron seeing things desperate, spoke of flight: but a christian, named Stephen Annaotaha, the most distinguished of the whole village for his courage and for his exploits against the enemy, would not hear of it. What?' he exclaimed, shall we abandon these good Fathers, who for our sakes have exposed their own lives? The love they have for our salva
• Relation, p. 35-6.
tion will be the cause of their death : there is no longer time for them to fly across the snow 3. Let us then die with them, and in their company we will go to heaven.'"*
“ This chief had made a general confession but a few days before, having had a presentiment of the danger which threatened, and having said that he wished death to find him ripe for heaven. And in effect, both he and many other christians displayed so much fervour, that we can never sufficiently bless the ways of God towards His elect, whom His providence watches over with love at every moment, in life and in death. This whole multitude of christians fell, for the most part, alive into the hands of the enemy, and with them our two Fathers, the pastors of that Church. They were not killed immediately ; God reserved for them more glorious crowns”'t......
Having taken the two villages of St. Ignatius and St. Louis in one day, the Iroquois despatched couriers on the same evening to reconnoitre the village of St. Mary's. The council of warriors resolved to attack it the next morning, the 17th of March; but on their march, an advanced detachment of two hundred Iroquois were met by a body of Hurons who had sallied from the village of St. Mary's; and, after a severe struggle, were forced to retreat, and were pursued till they took shelter within the palisade of the destroyed village of St. Louis. Here the Hurons succeeded in killing many and in making thirty prisoners.
Meantime the main body of the Iroquois, having heard of the discomfiture of their brethren, came upon the Hurons in the midst of their victory. Long and fiercely raged the battle within and near the palisade of St. Louis; but at length, after the conflict had been protracted until late in the night, the Iroquois were again victorious, all the Hurons having been either killed or wounded. But the victory was dearly bought: a hundred Iroquois were among the slain, and their head chief was dangerously wounded. I
During the whole night of the 17th, the French at St. Mary's were under arms, hourly expecting an assault. The Jesuit Fathers were engaged in fervent prayer prostrate before the altar. “We considered ourselves,” they say in the “ Relation," "as so many victims consecrated to our Lord, who ought to await patiently the hour when we shall be iromolated for His glory, without seeking either to retard or to hasten it.”'S
A profound silence prevailed during the whole day of the 18th, spent by the christians in prayer, and by the Iroquois in consultation. On the morning of the 19th, the feast of the great St. Joseph, a chief patron of the mission, a sudden panic seized upon the the enemy, who fled precipitately, carrying with them such of their prisoners as were able to travel, and as they had not doomed to immediate death. The dreadful fate of the wounded and of other prisoners, is thus graphically described in the “ Relation :"
• Relation p. 37–8.
f Ibid, p. 38-9.
lbid, p. 40-41.
$ Ibid, p. 42..
“ As for the other prisoners whom they had doomed to immediate death, they bound them to pine stakes driven into the earth in the different cabins, to which, in leaving the village, they set fire on all sides; taking delight on their departure at the piteous cries of these poor victims perishing in the midst of the flames--of infants roasted by the side of their mothers, and of husbands who saw their wives roasted near them."*
Thus were scattered the earthly glories of the Huron missions! Thus did many of the Huron christians pass from an earthly to a heavenly habitation ! Happy exchange! Heaven peopled from among the wild redmen of the wilderness! Here were exhibited scenes worthy of the primitive Church!
The consequences of the two hostile invasions described above, and the apprehension of similar attacks in future, caused the abandonment of fifteen of the Huron villages,t the christians of which were scattered among the neighbouring tribes, leaving with them only their faith and their virtues. The Iroquois had robbed them of all else. To increase the calamity, a dreadful famine came on, and the condition of the Huron christians who had survived the massacre became deplorable in the extreme. The Jesuits wept and suffered with them, cheering their drooping spirits with bright visions of paradise. In the midst of all their sufferings, the good Fathers rejoiced at the visible triumphs of grace in the lives of their dear neophytes, to whom they clung in life and in death.
At first the missionaries had intended to emigrate westward, with the remnant of the Hurons, to the distant Island of Ekaentoton, or St. Mary's; but the Huron chiefs being averse to removing so far from the bones of their deceased relatives, and having in an eloquent speech of three hours implored the Fathers to make the neighbouring Island of St. Joseph's their central mission, their request was granted, and the purpose of moving farther west postponed for a time.
In our next paper we will conclude this interesting subject of the Huron missions; and will present a rapid sketch of the edifying life and glorious death of the great apostle of the Hurons—the Xavier of North America—John de Brebeuf.
• Relation, p. 43.
Ibid, p. 86–7.
§ Ibid, p. 92, seq.
A LECTURE. On the Importance of a Christian Basis for the Science of Political Economy,
and its application to the Affairs of Life. Delivered before the Calvert Institute, Baltimore, and at the Carroll Institute, Philadelphia, on the 17th and 18th January, 1844, by Rt. Rev. Dr. Hughes, Bishop of New-York.
Political Economy professes to treat of the material wealth of nations, and to trace out the laws which govern and regulate its tendencies to increase or diminution. By material wealth, it would have us to understand not only the precious metals, as gold and silver, but all descriptions of property, having an exchangeable value. Whatever substance, whether in the heavens above, or in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth, is consecrated to the use of mankind, by the expenditure of human capital, or human labour, passes, ipso facto, under the scientific dominion of Political Economy.
From this view it would seem, at first, impossible to take any adequate cognizance of a subject so vast, so complex, and so essentially variable. This is, indeed, to a great extent correct; and the science finds itself so often at fault, even on matters which it ought, by this time, to understand thoroughly, that he must be a credulous man, who places implicit confidence in even its most elaborate conclusions. Yet, on the other hand, it is the special province of all science to take up, and arrange, and analyze, distribute and classify, under general heads, the various subjects which it investigates; and no matter how complicated may seem to be the material affairs of wealth and industry, in the social relations of individuals, or in the great commercial business of nations, the science of Political Economy has reduced, from the patient study of details, certain leading principles, according to which it has distributed the whole subject into special departments, which simplify questions in a manner almost inconceivable. True it is, that the professors of the science are not always agreed, as to the accuracy of its classifications, or the soundness of its principles. True it is, that its votaries have yet to travel an immence distance, before they shall have reached anything like infallibility. Nevertheless, it has already furnished most important results. The observations and statistics, which it has collected and arranged, are invaluable; not only on account of the points which they have elucidated, but also, and more, on account of the anomalies in social, as well as political, philosophy, which it has utterly failed to explain.
Of its two great primary departments, the one comprises the inhabitants of the earth ; the other embraces the material things which are required, and can be supplied, for the physical sustenance or enjoyment of these inhabitants. Now, it is found that these material things, before they can be fully prepared for the purposes of sustenance and pleasure, require the expenditure of capital, either in money, or labour, or both. Such things are divided into two stages of time; the one commencing with the first expenditure of capital on the raw material, and ending at the term of expenditure, when the thing is