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Price Ten Shillings and Simpence, bound in cloth.


Chairman IORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France.

Vice-Chairman-EARL SPENCER.

Treasurer-JOHN WOOD, Esq.
William Allen, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.
B. Gompertz, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.

Mr. Sergeant Manning.
Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.S. Professor Graves, A.M., F.R.S.

R. I. Murchison, Esq.. F.R.S., P. G.S. George Burrows, M.D.

G. B. Greenough, Esq., F.R. and L.S.

Lord Nugent.
Lord Campbell.
Sir Edmund Head, Bart., A.M.

W. S O'Brien, Esq., M.P.
Professor Carey, A.M.

M. D. Hill, Esq., Q.C.

John Lewis Prevost, Esq. John Conolly, M.D.

Rowland Hill, Esq., F.R.A.S.

Professor Quain. Wiliinm Coulson, Esq.

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhouse, Bart., M.P. P. M. Royet, M.D., Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S. The Bishop of St. David's.

Thos. Hodgkin, M.D.

R. W. Rothman, Esq., A.M. J. F. Davis. Esq., F.R.S.

David Jardine, Esq., A.M.

Sir Martiu Archer Shee, P.R.A., F.R.S. Sir Henry De la Bechre, F.R.S.

Henry B. Ker, Esq.

Sir George T. Staunton, Bart., M.P. Professor De Morgan, F.R.A.S.

Professor Key, A.M.

John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. Lord Denman.

John G.S. Lefevre, Esq., A.M.

Professor Thomson, M.D., F.L.S. Samuel Duckworth, Esq.

Sir Denis Le Marchant, Bart,

Thomas Vardon, Esq. The Bishop of Durham.

Sir Charles Lemou, Bart., M.P.

Jacob Waley, Esq.. A.M. John Elliotson, M.D., F.R.S.

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M.

Jas. Wabker, Esq., F.R.S., Pr. Inst. Civ. Bug. T. P Ellis, Esq., A.M., F.R.A.S.

James Loch, Esq., M.P., F.G.S.

H. Waymouth, Esq. Thomas Falconer, Esq.

Professor Long, A.M.

Thos. Webster, Esq., A.M. Johu Forbes, M.D., F.R.S.

Right Hon. S. Lushington, D.C.L.

Lord Wrottesley, A.M., F.R.A.S. Sir I. L. Goldsmid, Bart., F.R, and K.A.S. Professor Malden, A.M.

J. A. Yates, Esq. F.H. Goldsmid, Esq.

A. T. Malkin, Esq., A.M.

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Alton, Staffirdshire--Rev. J. P. Jones.

Exeter-J. Tyrrell, Esq.

Oxford-Ch. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. Chem Anglesea—Rev. E. Williams.

John Milford, Esq. (Coaver.)

Rev. Baden Powell, Sav. Prof.
Rev. W. Johnso
Glamorganshire --W. Williams, Esq., Aber-

Rev. John Jordan, A.B. - Miller, Esq.

Pesth, Hungary--Count Szechenyi.

pergwm. Barnstaple Bencraft, Esq.


Plymouth-H. Woollcombe, Esq., F.A.S., Chairn. William Gribble, Esq. Alexander McGrigor, Esq.

Wm. Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S. Belfast-Jas. L. Drummond, M.D.

James Couper, Esq:

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary. Birmingham-Paul Moon James, Esq.

A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq.

G. Wightwick, Esq. Bridpurt-James Williams, Esq.

Guernsey-F. C. Lukiss, Esq.

Presteign--Rt. Hou. Sir H. Brydges, Bart. Bristol-J. N. Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Chairman. Hitcham, Suffolk-Rev. Professor Henslow, Ripin - Rev. H. P. Hamilton, A.M., F.R.S., G.S.

A. W. Davis, MD, J. Reynolds, Esq., Treasurer.

A.M., F.L.S. & G.S, J. B. Estlin, Esq., F.L.S., Secretary. Hull-James Bowden, Esq.

Rev. P. Ewart, A.M.

Ruthin - The Rev. the Warden.
Calcutta- James Young, Esq.

Leeds-J. Marshall, Esq.
C. H. Cameron, Esq.
Lewes-J. W. Woollgar, Esq.

Humphreys Jones, Esq.

Ryde, Isle of Wight-Sir R. D. Simeon, Bt. Camlıridge-Rev. Leonard Jenyns, A.M., F.L.S. Henry Browne, Esq:

Salisbury--Rev. J. Barfitt.!
Rer. John Lodge, A.M.
Liverpool Local Association-

Sheffield-J. H. Abraham, Esq.
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, A.M., F.R.S. & G.S. J. Mulleneux, Esq.

Shepton Mallet--G. P. Burroughs, Esq. Canterbury-John Brent, Esq., Alderman.

Rev. Wm. Shepherd, LL.D.
William Masters, Esq.

Shrewslury-R. A. Slaney, Esq.
Maidstone-Clement T. Smyth, Esq.

South Petherton-John Nicholetts, Esq.
Carlsle-Thomas Barnes, M.D., F.R.S.E.

John Case, Esq. Carnarvon-R. A. Poole, Esq.

Stockport--H. Marsland, Esq., Treasurer. Manchester Lucal AssociationWilliam Roberts, Esq.

Henry Coppock, Esq., Secretary. Chester-Henry Potts, Esq.

Sir Benjamin Heywood. Bt., Treasurer. Sydney, New S. Wales-W. M. Manning, Lxq Chichester-C. C. Dendy. Esq.

Sir George Philips, Bart., M.P.

Swanstid--Mathew Moygridge, Esų Corfu--John Crawford, Esq.

T. N. Winstanley, Esq. Hon. Sec. Tavistock-Rev. W. Evans.
Plato Petrides, Esq.

Merthyr Tydvil-Sir J.J. Guest, Bart., M.P. John Rundle, Esq., M.P.
Minchinhampton-- John G. Ball, Esq.

Truro--Henry Sewell Stokes, Esq.
Coventry-C. Bray, Esq.

Neath--John Rowland, Esq.

Tunbridge Wells—Dr. Yeats. Denbigh-Thomas Evans, Esq.

Newcastle - Rev. W. Turner.

Uttoreter---Robert Blurton, Esq. Derlaj-Joseph Strutt, Esq.

T. Sopwith, Esq., P.G.S.

Virginia, U. S.-Professor Tucker. Edward Strutt, Esq., M.P.

Newport, Isle of Wight - Ab. Clarke, Esq. Worcester-Chas. Hastings, M.D. Devonport and Stmehouse -- John Cole, Esq.

T. Covke, Jun., Esq.

C. H. Hebb, Esq. John Norman, Esq.

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq.

Wrexham--Thomas Edgworth, Esq.
Lt. Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. Newport Pagnell-J. Millar, Esq.

Major Sir William Lloyd.
Durham- The Very Rev, the Dean.
Norwich- Richard Bacon, Esq.

Yarmouth-C. E. Rumbold, Esq.
Edinburgh-J. S. Traill, M.D.

Wm. Forster, Esq.

Dawson Turner, Esq.
Etruria-Josiah Wedg od, Esq.
Orsett, Esser-Dr. Corbett.

York-Rev. j. Kenrick, A.M.

John Phillips, Esq , F.R.S., F.G.S.
THOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 42, Bedford Square.


Tue Committee of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and the Publishers, on presenting the Final Part to the Subscribers, offer a few words of explanation and announcement.

The limits proposed for this work have been exceeded by about one-fourth. To have materially abridged the productions of more than two hundred contributors, not copying other works of reference, but each presenting complete articles from original sources, would have been unjust to the writers, and unsatisfactory to the readers. The result has been that, without trespassing largely upon the indulgence of the purchasers, a Cyclopædia has been produced without any important omissions, and differing from other books of the same class in not being hurried to a conclusion by abbreviation of the matter contained under the later letters of the alphabet. The complete book may fairly take rank among works of authority systematically conducted without any improper abridgment of labour or expense ; and this, although it is the cheapest original work of the class which any time or any country has produced. That cheapness has been made possible, not by any false economy, not by remodelling old materials, nor by employing inadequate writers, but by the expenditure of no less a sum than forty thousand pounds upon the literature and engravings alone, in the assurance that the excellence of the work would secure a large body of purchasers at a small price, who would eventually remunerate the publishers as certainly as a small body at a large price.

The Committee and the Publishers have to offer their thanks to the numerous body of Contributors by whose exertions they have been enabled to bring the work to a conclusion. They have to offer them especially to the Editor, by whose learning, unwearied diligence, and watchfulness, unity of plan has been maintained during eleven years, error, as far as possible, has been avoided, and. regular monthly publication, without a single omission, has been accomplished. It is believed that no similar work has ever been brought to its conclusion with anything like an approximation to the same regularity. A list of the Contributors is subjoined.

In the course of publication care has been taken, in all the great departments, to bring up the information to the most recent period, and also to make the later articles supplementary to, as well as corrective of, the earlier. But omissions, especially of new discoveries, improvements, and recent biographies, cannot have been avoided. These will be supplied by the publication, after a proper lapse of time, which will be at least a year, of a Supplement. A full Index will be published at a future day, which will not only materially increase the value of the Cyclopædia as a work of reference, but will enable the reader to place the later articles in proper connexion with the earlier, in the point of view just mentioned.

December 20, 1843.


Eddieor_GEORGE LONG, A.M., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Professor of Latin in

University College, London.

L. J. ABINGTON, Hanley, Staffordshire. W. H. BROOKE.


G. B. AIRY, A.M., late Fellow of Trin. Coll., G. BUDD, M.D.

R. DICKSON, M.D. Cambridge, Astronomer Royal.


Materia Medica. Gravitation, Greenwich Observatory. F. BURR.

G. Dodd. Rev. W. AITKEN.


Arts and Manufactures. General Literature.

Rev. C. J. BURTON, Vicar of Lydd, Kent. Dr. DOMEIER, Trin. Coll., Cambridge. Dr. A. ALLEN (late).

English Biography.

Modern Medical Biography, &c. Classical Literature.

J. H. BURTON, Advocate, Edinburgh. Rev. J. W. DONALDSON, late Fellow of Trin, C. C. ATKINSON, Sec. to Univ. Coll., Lond. Scotch Law and Biography.

Coll., Camb., Master of the Grammar University College, London, and Univer

School at Bury St. Edmund's. sity of London.

Classical Literature. W. AYRTON, F.R.S., F.S.A.

B. F. DUPPA (the late), Barrister-at-Law.
Music and Musical Biography.

Legal Biography
W. B. CLARKE, Architect.

C. BARER, Master of the Yorkshire School

C. L. EASTLAKE, R.A. for the Deaf and Dumb, near Doncaster. W. D. CHRISTIE, A.M., Trin. Coll., Camb.,

Basso Rilievo ; Bologna, School of. Deaf and Dumb, Topography, &c. M.P.

Sir H. ELLIS, F.R.S., Sec. S.A., Principal
Morals, Philosophy, Biography.

Librarian of British Museum.
Rev. F. BAKER, Bolton, Lancashire.
Topography, Biography.

T. COATES, Sec. of Society for the Diffusion English Antiquities.

of Useful Knowledge.

English Law, Biography, &c.

T. FALCONER, Barrister-at-Law.
Dr. BARNES, Carlisle.

Post Office, Seal.

Cumberland, Dumfriesshire.

J. FARISH, A.M., Trinity College, Camb., Rev. J. BEARD, LL.D., Manchester.


Surgeon. Manchester ; Salford ; Schools, Primary.

Surgery and Anatomy. Capt. BEAUFORT, R.N., Hydrographer to the Edw. CowPER, King's College.

Button, &c.

North Sea.
W. COULSON, Surgeon.

Geography and Topography of Ireland.
Surgery and Anatomy.

Dr. BECKER (late), Berlin.
Antient Medical Biography.

Aquatinta Engraving.

History, Bibliography, Biography, G. FLETCHER. E. W. BENSON.

Gencral Literature.

History of the Drama, Boroughs, &c. Caoutchouc. R. CULL.

E. FORBES, F.L.S., Prof. of Bot., King's Col. Rev. Dr. BIALLOBLOTZKY.

Stammering, Voice, &c.

Insects and Fishes.
Biblical Literature.
Rev. D. G. BISHOP, Master of Buntingford

R. FORD, Heavitree, Exeter.

Grammar School.
Classical Literature.

R. W. E. FORSTER, Barrister-at-Law.
Professor DAVIES, Woolwich.

Topography, Gaming. A. BISSET, A.M., Trin. Coll., Camb., Bar.

Compass, &c. at-Law.

A. FRY English Biography.

J. F. Davis, F.R.S., late his Majesty's Chief Bookkeeping. P. Von BOHLEN (late), Professor of Oriental

Superintendent in China.

Languages and Literature in the Univer-
sity of Königsberg.

R. J. GAIXSFORD, Sheffield.
Oriental Literature, Manu, Mohammed,
Fine Arts.

H. DAVISON, A.M., Barrister-at-Law.

T. GALLOWAY, Actuary to the Amicable S. V. BONE, Barrister-at-Law.

English Law.

Insurance Society, London. Partnership, Fine Arts.

Sir H. DE LA BECHE, F.R.S., For. Sec. G. S. Trigonometrical Survey. J. BOWMAN.


P. DE GAYANGOS. General Literature.

A. DE MORGAN, Trin. Coll., Camb., and Pro- Spanish Geography and Topography,

fessor of Mathematics in University Col- Arabic Literature. T. BRADLEY.

lege, London. Perspective, Steam-Engine, Voltayraphy.

Mathematics and Astronomy.

Dr. GILDEMEISTER, University of Bonn. Bray, Coventry.

Sanscrit Language and Literature. Riband. G. DENNIS.

W. B. GLASSE, Barrister-at-Law. J. BREEZE.

Spanish Topocrapery.

English Law.
Arts and Manufuctures.

Rev. J. W. GLEADALL, M.A., Fellow of J. BRITTON, F.A.S.

Spanish and Portuguese Literature, &c

Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and Lecturer Avebury, Stonehenge, Tumulus. W.R. DEVERELL

at the Magdalen. W.J. BRODERIP, B.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.

Topography, Broyraphy, &c.

English Biography
Zoology, Mammalia, Birds, Reptiles, Hon. Capt. DEVEREUX, R.N.

Dr. GREENHILL, Trin. Coll., Uxford.
Crustacea, Mollusca, &c.
Naval Biography. &c.

Medicine and Merlical Biography.

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