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1668.

CHA P. not so much as made: But as fast as information LXIV.

was given in against any man, he was marked down for a particular fine: And all was transacted in a secret committee. When the list was read in parliament, exceptions were made to several: Some had been under age during the civil wars; some had been abroad. But it was still replied, that a proper time would come, when every man should be heard in his own defence. The only intention, it was faid, of setting the fines was, that such persons should have no benefit by the act of indemnity, unless they paid the fum demanded: Every one that chose to stand upon his innocence, and renounce the benefit of the indemnity, might do it at his peril. It was well known, that no one would dare so far to set at defiance so arbitrary an administration. The king wrote to the council, 'ordering them to supersede the levying of those fines: But Middleton found means, during some time, to elude these orders *. And at last, the king obliged his ministers to compound for half the sums which had been imposed. In all these transactions, and in most others, which passed during the present reign, we still find the inoderating hand of the king, interposed to protect the Scots from the oppressions which their own countrymen, employed in the ministry, were desirous of exercising over them. .

But the chief circumstance, 'whence were derived . all the subsequent tyranny and disorders in Scotland, was the execution of the laws for the establishment of episcopacy; a mode of government, to which a great part of the nation had entertained an unsurmountable averfion. The rights of patrons had for some years been abolished; and the power of electing ininifters had been vested in the kirk-session, and lay elders. It was now enacted, that all incumbents, who had been admitted upon this title, Should

* Burnet, p. 201.

receive

receive a presentation from the patron, and should C HA P. be instituted anew by the bishop, under the penalty

LXIV. of deprivation. The more rigid presbyterians con 1668. certed measures among themselves, and refused obedience: They imagined, that their number would protect them. Three hundred and fifty parishes, above a third of the kingdom, were at once declared vacant. The western counties chiefly were obstinate in this particular. New ministers were fought for all over the kingdomn; and no one was so ignorant or vicious as to be rejected. The people, who loved extremely and respected their former teachers; men remarkable for the severity of their manners, and their fervor in preaching; were inflamed against these intruders, who had obtained their livings under such invidious circumstances, and who took no care, by the regularity of their manners, to foften the prejudices entertained against them. Even most of those, who retained their livings by compliance, fell under the imputation of hypocrisy, either by their shewing a disgust to the new model of ecclesiastical government, which they had acknowledged ; or, on the other hand, by declaring that their former abhorrence to presbytery and the covenant had been the result of violence and necessity. And as Middleton and the new ministry indulged themselves in great riot and disorder, to which the nation had been little accustomed, an opinion universally prevailed, that any form of religion, offered by such hands, must be profane and impious.

The people, notwithstanding their discontents, were resolved to give no handle against them, by the least symptom of mutiny or fedition : But this submissive disposition, instead of procuring a mitigation of the rigours, was made use of as an argument for continuing the same measures, which, by their vigour, it was pretended, had produced so prompt an obedience. The king, however, was

disgusted

CHA P. disgusted with the violence of Middleton"; and he LXIV., made Rothes commissioner in his place. This 1668.

nobleman was already president of the council; and soon after was made lord keeper and treasurer. Lauderdale still continued secretary of state, and commonly resided at London.

AFFAIRS remained in a peaceable state, till the fevere law was made in England against conventicles ?. The Scottish parliament imitated that vio. lence, by passing a like act. A kind of high com. million court was appointed by the privy-council, for executing this rigorous law, and for the direction of ecclesiastical affairs. But even this court, illegal as it might be deemed, was much preferable to the method next adopted. Military force was let loose by the council. Wherever the people had generally forsaken their churches, the guards were quartered throughout the country. Sir James Turner commanded them, a man whose natural ferocity of temper was often inflamed by the use of ftrong liquors. He went about, and received from the clergy lists of those who absented themselves from church, or were supposed to frequent conventicles. Without any proof or legal conviction, he demanded a fine from them, and quartered foldiers on the supposed delinquents, till he received payment. As an insurrection was dreaded during the Dutch war, new forces were levied, and intrusted to the command of Dalziel and Drummond ; two officers, who had served the king during the civil wars, and had afterwards engaged in the fervice of Russia, where they had increased the native cruelty of their disposition. A full career was given to their tyranny by the Scottish ministry. Representations were made to the king against these enor-. mities. He seemed touched with the state of the country ; and besides giving orders, that the ecclefiaftical commission should be discontinued, he figBurnet, p. 202.

2 1664.

1663

nified his opinion, that another way of proceeding CHAP.

LXIV. was necessary for his service.

This lenity of the king's came too late to remedy the disorders. The people, inflamed with bigotry and irritated by ill usage, rose in arms. They were instigated by Guthry, Semple, and other preachers. They surprised Turner in Dumfries, and resolved to have put him to death ; but finding, that his orders, which fell into their hands, were more violent than his execution of them, they spared his life. At Laneric, after many prayers, they renewed the covenant, and published their manifefto ; in which they professed all submission to the king: They desired only the re-establishment of presbytery and of their former ministers. As many gentlemen of their party had been confined on suspicion; Wallace and Learmont, two officers, who had served, but in no high rank, were entrusted by the populace with the command. Their force never exceeded two thousand men ; and though the country in general bore them favour, men's fpirits were so subdued, that the rebels could expect no farther accefsion of numbers. Dalziel took the field to oppose their progress. Their number was now diminished to 800; and these, having advanced near Edinburgh, attempted to find their way back into the weft by Pentland Hills. They were attacked by the king's forces b. Finding that they could not escape, they stopped their march. Their clergy endeavoured to infuse courage into them. After finging fome psalms, the rebels turned on the enemy; and being assisted by the advantage of the ground, they received the first charge very resolutely. But that was all the action: Immediately they fell into disorder, and Aed for their lives. About forty were killed on the spot, and a hundred and thirty taken prisoners. The rest, favoured by * Burner, p. 213.

28th November 1666.

the

CHAP. the night, and by the weariness, and even by the LXIV.

pity of the king's troops, made their escape. 1668. THE oppressions which these people had suffered,

the delusions under which they laboured, and their inoffensive behaviour during the insurrection, made them the objects of compassion : Yet were the king's ministers, particularly Sharpe, resolved to take severe vengeance. Ten were hanged on one gibbet at Edinburgh: Thirty-five before their own doors in different places. These criminals might all have saved their lives, if they would have renounced the covenant. The executions were going on, when the king put a stop to them. He faid, that blood enough had already been shed; and he wrote a letter to the privy-council, in which he ordered, that such of the prisoners as should simply promise to obey the laws for the future, should be fet at liberty, and that the incorrigible should be sent to the plantations. This letter was brought by Burnet, archbishop of Glasgow; but not being immediately delivered to the council by Sharpe, the president", one Maccail had in the interval been put to the torture, under which he expired. He feemed to die in an ecstasy of joy. “ Farewel sun; “ moon, and stars; farewel world and time; fare. « wel weak and frail body: Welcome eternity, “ welcome angels and saints, welcome Saviour of “ the world, and welcome God, the judge of all-!” Such were his last words; and these animated speeches he uttered with an accent and manner,

which struck all the bystanders with astonishment. Affairs of The settlement of Ireland, after the restoration,

was a work of greater difficulty than that of England, or even of Scotland. Not only the power, during the former usurpations, had there been vested in the king's enemies : The whole property, in a

< Burnet, p. 237.

Wodrow's History, vol. i. p. 255.

manner,

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