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pledged ourselves never to abandon antil the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained, we must fight; I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts, is all that is left us!

XXXI.

THE SAME CONCLUDED. THEY tell us, sir, that we are weak, – unable to cope

with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed; and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house ? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot ?

Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of Nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles

for us.

The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone, it is to the active, the vigilant, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election ! If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat, but in submi-sion and slavery! Our chains are forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston. The war is inevitable, and let it come!

I repeat it, sir, let it come.
It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter.

Gentlemen may ery peace! peace ! but there is no peace.

The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms ! Our brethren are already in the field. Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish ? What would they have? Is life so dear, or

peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery ? Forbid it, Heaven ! -I know not what course others may take, but as for me, – give me liberty, or give me death !

XXXII.

REPLY TO THE DUKE OF GRAFTON.

MY

Y Lords, I am amazed ; yes, my Lords, I am amazed at his

Grace's speech. The noble Duke cannot look before him, behind him, or on either side of him, without seeing some noble peer who owes his seat in this House to his successful exertion in the profession to which I belong. Does he not feel that it is as honorable to owe it to these, as to being the accident of an accident ? To all these noble Lords, the language of the noble Duke is as applicable and insulting as it is to myself. But I do not fear to meet it single and alone. No one venerates the peerage more than I do; but, my Lords, I must say, that the peerage solicited me, not I the peerage.

Nay, more; I can say, and will say, that as a Peer of Parliament, as a Speaker of this right honorable House, as Keeper of the Great Seal, as Guardian of his Majesty's conscience, as Lord High Chancellor of England, -nay, even in that character alone, in which the noble Duke would think it an affront to be considered, but which character none can deny me, as a MAN,

at this moment, as respectable, - I beg leave to add, I am as much respected, as the proudest peer I now look down upon.

Lord Thurlow.

- I am,

XXXIII.

THE PROSPECTS OF CALIFORNIA.

JUDGING from the past, what have we not a right to expect

in the future. The world has never witnessed anything equal or similar to our career hitherto. Scarcely two years ago, California was almost an unoccupied wild. With the exception of a præsidium, a mission, a pueblo, or a lonely ranch, scattered here and there, at tiresome distances, there was nothing to show that the uniform stillness had ever been broken by the footsteps of civilized man. The agricultural richness of her valleys

remained unimproved ; and the wealth of a world lay entombed in the bosom of her solitary mountains, and on the banks of her unexplored streams. Behold the contrast! The hand of agriculture is now busy in every fertile valley, and its toils are remunerated with rewards which in no other portion of the world can be credited. Enterprise has pierced every hill, for hidden treasure, and has heaped up enormous gains. Cities and villages dot the surface of the whole State. Steamers dart along our rivers, and innumerable vessels spread their white wings over our bays. Not Constantinople, upon which the wealth of imperial Rome was lavished, not St. Petersburg, to found which the arbitrary Czar sacrificed thousands of his subjects, — would rival, in rapidity of growth, the fair city which lies before me. Our State is a marvel to ourselves, and a miracle to the rest of the world. Nor is the influence of California confined within her own borders. Mexico, and the islands nestled in the embrace of the Pacific, have felt the quickening breath of her enterprise. With her golden wand, she has touched the prostrate corpse of South American industry, and it has sprung up in the freshness of life. She has caused the hum of busy life to be heard in the wilderness “ where rolls the Oregon,” and but recently heard no sound, save its own dashings.” Even the wall of Chinese exclusiveness has been broken down, and the children of the sun have come forth to view the splendor of her achievements.

But, flattering as has been the past, satisfactory as is the present, it is but a foretaste of the future. It is a trite saying, that we live in an age of great events. Nothing can be more true. But the greatest of all events of the present age is at hand.

It needs not the gift of prophecy to predict, that the course of the world's trade is destined soon to be changed. But a few years can elapse before the commerce of Asia and the islands of the Pacific, instead of pursuing the ocean track, by way of Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope, or even taking the shorter route of the Isthmus of Darien, or the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, will enter the Golden Gate of California, and deposit its riches in our own city. Hence, on bars of iron, and propelled by steam, it will ascend the mountains and traverse the desert ; and having again reached the confines of civilization, will be distributed,

through a thousand channels, to every portion of the Union and of Europe. New York will then become what London now is,the great central point of exchange, the heart of trade, the force of whose contraction and expansion will be felt throughout every artery of the commercial world ; and San Francisco will then stand the second city of America. Is this visionary? Twenty years will determine.

The world is interested in our success; for a fresh field is opened to its commerce, and a new avenue to the civilization and progress of the human race. Let us, then, endeavor to realize the hopes of Americans, and the expectations of the world. Let us not only be united amongst ourselves, for our own local welfare, but let us strive to cement the common bonds of brotherhood of the whole Union. In our relations to the Federal Government, let us know no South, no North, no East, no West. Wherever American liberty flourishes, let that be our common country! Wherever the American banner waves, let that be our home!

Nathaniel Bennett.

XXXIV.

IN PROSPECT OF WAR.

Go forth, defenders of your country, accompanied with every

auspicious omen; advance with alacrity into the field, where God himself musters the hosts to war. Religion is too much interested in your success not to lend you her aid. She will shed over your enterprise her selectest influence. While you are engaged in the field, many will repair to the closet, many to the sanctuary ; the faithful of every name will employ that prayer which has power with God; the feeble hands which are unequal to any other weapon, will grasp the sword of the Spirit; and, from myriads of humble, contrite hearts, the voice of intercession, supplication, and weeping, will mingle, in its ascent to heaven, with the shouts of battle and the shock of arms.

While you have everything to fear from the success of the enemy, you have every means of preventing that success ; that it is next to impossible for victory not to crown your exertions. The extent of your resources, under God, is equal to the justice of your cause.

But, should Providence determine other

SO

wise,

should you fall in this struggle, should the nation fall, you will have the satisfaction (the purest allotted to man), of having performed your part ; — your names will be enrolled with the most illustrious dead, while posterity, to the end of time, as often as they revolve the events of this period (and they will incessantly revolve them), will turn to you a reverential eye, while they mourn over the freedom which is entombed in your sepulchre.

I cannot but imagine the virtuous heroes, legislators, and patriots of every age and country, are bending from their elevated seats to witness this contest, as if they were incapable, till it be brought to a favorable issue, of enjoying their eternal repose. Enjoy that repose, illustrious immortals! Your mantle fell when you ascended ; and thousands, inflamed with your spirit, and impatient to tread in your steps, are ready to swear, by Him that sitteth on the throne, and liveth forever and ever, that they will protect freedom in her last asylum, and never desert her cause, which you sustained by your labors, and cemented with your blood !

Robert Hall.

XXXV.

THE AMERICAN INDIANS.

IE
F the Indians had the vices of savage life, they had the vir-

tues also. They were true to their country, their friends, and their homes. If they forgave not injury, neither did they forget kindness. If their vengeance was terrible, their fidelity and generosity were unconquerable also. Their love, like their bate, stopped not on this side of the grave.

But where are they? Where are the villages, and warriors, and youth? The sachems and the tribes ? The hunters and their families? They have perished. They are consumed. The wasting pestilence has not alone done the mighty work. No, nor famine, nor

There has been a mightier power, a moral canker, which hath eaten into their heart-cores, a plague which the touch of the white man communicated, a poison, which betrayed them into a lingering ruin. The winds of the Atlantic fan not a single region which they may now call their own. Already the last feeble remnants of the race are preparing for their journey be

war.

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