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ntmctïon, for the love that they bear to the King of this place ; Mid then the pilgrims gave iu uuto them wich mau his certificate, winch they hacl received in the beginning: those, therefore, were carried iu to the King, who, when he hud read them, said: Where are the men î To whom it was answered: They are standing without the gate. The King then commanded to open the gate, * That the righteous nation,' eaid he, ' that koepeth truth, may enter in/

Now, I saw in my dream that these two тец went in at the gate; and lo, as they entered, they were transfigured, and they hat! raiment put Ob that phone like gold. There were also that met them with harps and crowns, and gave to them the harps to praise withal, and tlie crowns in token of houonr. Then I heard in my dream that all the bells in the city rang again for joy, and that it was said nDto them: 'Enter ye into the joy of Your Lord.' I also heard the men themselves, that they Bung with a loud voice, saying: 'Blessing, honour, and glory, and power be to Him that sitteth upon the tin-one, and to the Lamb, for ever and ever.'

Now, just as the gate» were opened to let in the men, 1 looked In after them, and behold the city shone like the sun ; the streets, aleo, were paved with gold, and iu them walked many men with crowns on their heads, palms in their bauds, and golden, harps, to sing praises withal.


Dr. John OwrtÍ (1616-1683), after studying at Oxford for the Church of England, became a Presbyterian, bat finally joined the Independents. He was highly esteemed by the Lorig Parliament, and was frequently called upon to preach before them on public occasions. Cromwell, in particular, was so highly pleased with him, that, when going to Ireland, lie insisted on Dr. Owen accompanying him, for the purpose of regulating and superintending the College of Dublin. After spending six months iu that city, Owen returned to his clerical duties in England, from which, however, he was again speedily called away by Cromwell, who took him in ItíaO to EdinIntrgh, where he spent six months. Subsequently, lie was promoted to the deanery of Christ Church College iu Oxford, and soon after, to the vice-chancellorship of the university, which offices he held till Cromwell's death. After the Restoration, lie was favoured by Lord Clarendon, who offered him a preferment in the church it' he would conform; but this Dr. Owen declined. The persecution of the Nonconformists repeatedly disposed him to emigrate to New England, but attachment to his native country prevailed. Notwithstanding his decided hostility to the church, the amiable dispositions and agreeable manners of Owen procured him much esteem from many eminent churchmen, among whom was the king himself, who on one occasion sent for him, and, after a conversation of two hours, gave him a thousand guineas to be distributed among those who had suffered most from the recent persécution. He was a man of extensive learning, und most estimable character. His extreme industry is evinced by the volumiuousness of his publications, which amount to no fewer than seven volumes in folio, twenty in quarto, and about thirty in octavo. Among these are a collection of ' Sermons,' 'An Exposition on the Epistle to tho Hebrews,' ' A Discourse of the Holy Spirit,' and ' The Divine Original and Authority of the Scriptures.'

The style of Owen merits little praise. He wrote too rapidly and carelessly to produce compositions either vigorous or beautiful. Robert Hall entertained a decided antipathy lo the writings of this celebrated divine. 'I can't think how you like Dr. Owen,' said he to u friend; 'I can't read him with any patience; I never read a page nt Dr. Owen, sir, without finding some confusion in his thoughts, ci her a truism or a contradiction in terms. Sir, he is a double Dutchman, floundering in a continent of mud.' For moderation in controversy, Dr. Owen was most honourably distinguished among the theological warriors of his age.

John Howe.

This able and amiable Nonconformist (1630-1705) was a native of Loughborough, in Leicestershire, where his father was parish minister. He was educated at Cambridge, and was the friend of Cudworth and Henry More. In 1G53, he was ordained minister of Great Torrington, in Devonshire. His severe clerical duties is thus described: Upon public fasts he used to begin at nine in the morning with a prayer of a quarter of an hour, then read and expounded Scripture for about three quarters; prayed an hour, preached another hour, and prayed again for half an hour. The people then sung for a quarter of an hour, during which he retired and took a little refreshment: he then went into the pulpit again, prayed an hour more, preached another hour, and concluded with a prayer of half an hour! In 1050, Howe was selected by Cromwell to reside at Whitehall as one of his chaplains. As he had not coveted the office, he poems never to have liked it. The 'affected disorderliness' of the Protector's family as to religious matters made him despair of doing good in his office of chaplain, and he conscientiously opposed and preached against a doctrine which is thus stated by Mr. Henry Rogers, the biographer of Howe:

Fanaticism of Cromwell's Court.

It was a very prevalent opinion in Cromwell's court, and eoems to have been entertained by Cromwell himself, that whenever the'special favourites'of Heaven offered np their supplications for themselves or others, secret intimations were conveyed to the mind, that the particular blessings they implored would be certainly be-stowed, and even indications afforded of the particular method in which their wishes would be accomplished. Howe himself confessed to Calamy. in a private conversation on this subject, that the prevalence of the notion at Whitehall, at the time he lived there, was too notorious to"be denied; that great pains were taken to cherish and diffuse it; and that he himself had heard • a person of note'preach a sermon with the avowed design of maintaining and defending it. To point out .ho pernicious consequences of such un opinion would be superfluous. ОС course, there could be no lack of 'special favourites of Heaven ' in an aire and court like those; of Cromwell; and all the dangerous illusions which a fanatical imagination might inspire, and all the consequent horrors to which a fanatical zeal could prompt, would of course plead the ьаисиод of au express revelation.

Howe continued chaplain to the Protector, and, after Oliver's death, he resided in the same capacity with Richard Cromwell. When Richard was set aside, the minister returned to Great Torriugton, but was ejected by the Act of Uniformity in 1663. He subsequently officUti'd as minister in Ireland and London, and found leisure to write those admirable works of practical divinity which have placed him nmoug the most gifted and eminent of the Nonconformist divrnes of England. He has been termed the 'Platonic Puritan.' The principal works of John Howe are his 'Living Temple ' (1676-1702), a treatise on 'Delighting in God,' 'The Blessedness of the Righteous,' 'The Vanity of Man as Mortal,' a ' Tractate on the Divine Presence,' an 'Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Trinity,' and 'The Redeemer's Dominion over the Invisible World'(1699). To the excellence of these works all theological writers and critics have borne testimony. Robert Hall acknowledged that he had learned more from John Howe than from any other author he ever read, and he paid there was 'an astonishing magnificence in his conceptions.' A collected edition of Howe's works, with a Life by Dr. Edmund Calamy, was published in 172-í. Other editions followed, and the latest we have seen is one in three volumes, 8vo, 1848, with Life by Rev. J. P. Hewlett. The ' Life nnd Character of John Howe, with an Analysis of his Writings,' by Henry Rogers, is a valuable work, and affords a good view of the state of religious parties and controversies in England from the time of the Commonwealth down to the death of Howe.


Edmund Calamy (1600-1666) was originally a clergyman of the Churcli of England, but had become a Nonconformist before settling in London as a preacher in 1639. A celebrated production against Episcopacy, called ' Smectymnuus,' from the initials of the names of the writers, and in which Calamy was concerned, appeared in the following year. He was much in favour with the Presbyterian party; but was, on the whole, a moderate man, and disapproved of those measures which terminated in the death of the king. Having exerted himself to promote the restoration of Charles II. he subsequently received the offer of a bishopric; but, after much deliberation, it was rejected. The passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662 made him retire from his ministerial duties in themetropolis several years before his death. His sermons were of a plain and practical character; and five of them, published under the title of 'The Godly Man's Ark, or a City of Refuge in the Day of hjs Distress,' acquired much popularity.

John Flavel (1627-1091) was a zealous preacher at Dartmouth, where he Buffered severely for his nonconformity. In the pulpit he was distinguished for the warmth, fluency, and variety of his devotional exercises, which, like his writings, were somewhat tinged with enthusiasm. His works, occupying two folio volumes, are written in a plain and perspicuous style, and some of them are still highly valued. Anioiijí tue Scottish peasantry, many of Flavel's works are popular- •

Matthew Henry (1662-1714) was the fon of Philip Henry, a pious and learned Nonconformist minister in Flintshire. He entered as a student of law in Gray's Inn; but, yielding to a strong desire for the office of the ministry, he soon abandoned the pursuit of the law, and turne-1 his attention to theology, which he studied with great diligence and zeal. la 1085 lie was chosen pastor of a Nonconformist .congregation at Chester, where lie officiated for twenty-five years. In lili lie changed the scene of his labours to Hackney, where he continued till his death in 1714 Of a variety of theological works published by this excellent divine, the largest and best known is his Commentary on the Bible, which he did not live to complete. It was originally printed in five volumes folio. The Commentary on the Epistles was added by various divines. Considered as a learned explanation of the sacred volume, this popular production is not of great value; but its practical remarks are peculiarly interesting, and have secured for it a place in the very first class of expository works. Robert Hall, for the last two years of his life, read daily two chapters of Matthew Henry's Commentary, a work which he had not before read consecutively, though he had long known and valued it. As he proceeded, he felt increasing interest and pleasure, greatly admiring the copiousness, variety, and pious ingenuity of the thoughts; the simplicity, strength, ana pregnancy of the expressions. Dr. Chalmers was also a warm admirer of Henry, whose Commentary is still frequently republished, The following extract from the exposition of Matthew vi. 24, may be taken as a specimen of the nervous and pointed remarks with which the work abounds:

Ye Cannot Serve God and Mammon.

Mammon is a Syriac word that signifies gain, so that whatever is, or is accounted by us To be gain, is mammon. 'Whatever is in the world—the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye. and the pride of life '—is mammon. To some their belly is1 their mammou, and they serve that; to others, th«ir ease, their sport« and pastimes, are their mammon; to others, worldly riehes; to others, honours and preferments: The praise and applause of men was the Pharisees' mammon; in a word, self—the unity in which the world's trinity centres—sensual secular self, is the mamiuou which cannot be served in conjunction witli God; for if it be served, it is in competition with him, and in contradiction to him. He does not say we mw«i not. or we shmild not, but we caniuit serve God and mammon : we cannot love both, or hold to both, or hold by both, in observance, obedience, attendance, trust, and dependence, lor they aro contrary the one to the other. God says. 'My son, give me thine heart ;' Mammon says: 'No—give it me.' God says: 'Be content with such things as ye have ;' Mammon s:iys: 'Grasp at all that ever thou canst—"Rem, rem, quocunqiie modo, rein "—money, money, by fair means or by foul, money.' God says : 'Defraud not; never lie; be honest and just in thy dealings ;' Mammon says: 'Cheat thy own father if thou canst gain by it.1 God says: 'Be charitable ;' Mammon says: •Hold thy own; this giving undoes us.' God says: * Be careful for nothing ;' Mammou says: 'Be careful for everything.' God says: 'Keep holy the Sabbathday;' Mammon says: 'Make use of that day. as well as any other, for the world.' Thus inconsistent, are the commands of God and Mammon, so that we cannot serve both. Let us not. then, halt between God and Baal, but 'choose ye this day whom ye will serve,' and abide by your choice.


There were several Scottish doctrinal writers and divines at this period whose works still enjoy considerable popularity, especially in the rural parishes, and constiiute the favourite reading of old anil serious persons. Among these we may mention Samuel Rutherford (11)00-1601), author ol 'The Trial and Triumph of Failli,' 'Christ dying and drawing Sinner.-1,' &c. Rutherford was a stanch defender of Presbyterianism, and one of his controversial works, 'Lex Rex' (1644), written in reply to the Bishop of Ross, was, after the Rest »ration, burned by order of the Committee of Estates. A volume of 'Familiar Letters' by this divine, published after his death, evinces literary taste and power. He was one of the most learned of the Scottish clergy, and was successively Professor of Divinity in St. Andrews (1639), Commissioner to the Assembly of Divines at Westminster (1013-1047), and Principal of New College, St. Andrews (1649).— Thomas Halybuiiton (1674-17J3) was Professor of Divinity in the University of St. Andrews. He wrote 'Natural Religion Insufficient,' an able reply to Lord Herbert's ' De Veritate,' and 'The Great Concern of Salvation,' and 'Ten Sermons preached before and after the Celebration of the Lord's Supper.'—Thomas Boston (1676-1732) was minister of Eltrick, and a leading member of the church courts in opposition to patronage and tests. His 'Fourfold State,' first printed in 1720, is still I he most popular of religious books among rigid Presbyterians, and a course of 'Sermons' by this divine is also highly prized. Boston was warmly engaged in what has been termed 'the great Marrow controversy,' which divided the Scottish cliurch. A book named ' The Marrow of Modern Divinity' (1645), written by an English Puritan, Edward Fisher, was revived in Scotland by the more devout portion of the clergy, and being denounced by the ruling party in the A-sembly, was adopted as a standard round which the popular ministers rallied. The peace of the church was long disturbed by this Marrow controversy. The works of the above divines, though tinged with what we may call a gloomy and unamiable theology, are marked by a racy vigour of thought and unction. As illustrations of at least one phase of national character and history, they deserve to be studied.



England, during the latter half of the seventeenth century, was adorned by some illustrious philosophers, who, besides making important contributions to science, were distinguished by simplicity and moral excellence of character, and by un ardent devotion to the interests of religion, virtue and truth.

John Locke was bora at VVriiigton, Somersetshire, August 29,

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