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After becoming court physician to the powerful Umayyad caliph 'Abd ar-Rahman
III, Hisdai gradually gained eminence in the Arab world, acting as vizier without
title. He used his linguistic talents (he knew Hebrew, Ara61 Hisham bic, and ...
... artistic development 18:749b - Umayyad cultural achievements 17:952c visual
arts -African visual art forms and styles 1:260g - Berber architecture and crafts 11:
296g -Chinese emulation of Persian silverwork 11:1116h -copper, bronze. gold, ...
But the Umayyad caliphs (ruled 661—750), faced with increasing financial
problems, imposed a kind of khardj on the land of recent converts in addition to
their payment of 'ushr. This extra imposition of the khardj was unpopular, and
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This is the 198215th Edition, in two halves, with the Macropaedia and the Micropaedia. First published in 1768, the publisher is the oldest English-language encyclopedia still in print. Two Scottish ... Read full review