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crime or offence, bis surrender may be delayed until the tribunal before which bis case shall be depending shall have pronounced its sentence, and such sentence shall have been carried into effect.
The citizens and subjects of each of the high contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal goods within the jurisdiction of the other, by testament, donation, or otherwise, and their representatives, being citizens or subjects of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, and may take possession thereof, either by themselves, or by others acting for them, and dispose of the same at will, paying to the profit of the respective Governments such dues only as the inhabitants of the country wherein the said goods are shall be subject to pay in like cases. And in case of the absence of the representatives, such care shall be taken of the said goods as would be taken of the goods of a native of the same country in like case, until the lawful owner may take measures for receiving them. And if a question should arise among several claimants as t6 which of them said goods belong, the same shall be decided finally by the laws and judges of the land wherein the said goods are. And where, on the death of any person holding real estate, within the territories of one of the high contracting parties, suqh real estate would by the laws of the land descend on a citizen or subject of the other party, who by reason of alienage may be incapable of holding it, he shall bo allowed the time fixed by the laws of the country; and in case the laws of the country actually in force may not have fixed any such time, he shall then be allowed a reasonable time to sell such real estate, and to withdraw and export the proceeds without molestation, and without paying to the profit of the respective Governments any other dues than those to which the inhabitants of the country wherein said real estate is situated shall be subject to pay in like cases. But this article shall not derogate in any manner from the force of the laws already published, or which may hereafter be published, by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Bussias, to prevent the emigration of his subjects.
If either party shall hereafter grant to any other nation any particular favor in navigation or commerce, it shall immediately Favor" emnte' become common to the other party, freely, where it is freely granted to such other nation, or on yielding the same compensation, when the grant is conditional.
The present treaty, of which the effect shall extend in like manner Tm,tr to e.tmd to the Kingdom of Poland, so far as the same may be ,'o^^in°,'.^n''^,""^,!" applicable thereto, shall coutinue in force until the first day iin«j«.uarT, 1839. 0f January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, and if, one year before that day, one of the high contracting parties shall not have announced to the other, by an official notification, its intention to arrest the operation thereof, thjs treaty shall remain obligatory one year beyond that day, and so on until the expiration of the year which shall commence after the date of a similar notification.
The present treaty shall be approved and ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the said States, and by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the city of Washington within the space of one year, or sooner if possible.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries Lave signed the present treaty in duplicate, and affixed thereto the seal of their arms. Done at St. Petersburg the tili"l5„h December, in the year of Grace one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two.
JAMES BUCHANAN. [l. S.J
CHARLES COMTE DE NESSELRODE. [l. S.J
Certain relations of proximity and anterior engagements having rendered it necessary for the Imperial Government to regulate the commercial relations of Russia with Prussia and the 5l"!Cm""">ulal,0°"Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway by special stipulations, now actually in force, and which may bo renewed hereafter; which stipulations are in no manner connected with the existing regulations for foreign commerce in general: The two high contracting parties, wishing to remove from their commercial relations every kind of ambiguity or subject of discussion, have agreed that the special stipulations granted to the commerce of Prussia, and of Sweden and Norway, in consideration of equivalent advantages granted in these countries, by the one to the commerce of the Kingdom of Poland, and by the other to that of the Grand Dutchy of Finland, shall not, in any case, be invoked in favor of the relations of commerce and navigation sanctioned between the two high contracting parties by the present treaty.
The present separate article shall have the same force and value as if it were inserted, word for word, in the treaty signed this day, and shall be ratified at the same time. - >■
In faith whereof we, the undersigned, by virtue of our respective full powers, have signed the present separate article, and affixed thereto the seals of our arms.
Done at St. Petersburg the ei££alh of December, in the year of Grace one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two.
JAMES BUCHANAN. [l. S.J
CHARLES COMTE DE NESSELRODE. [l. S.|
CONVENTION WITH RUSSIA, RELATIVE TO THE RIGHTS OF NEUTRALS AT SEA. CONCLUDED JULY 22, 1854; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED OCTOBER 31, 1854; PROCLAIMED NOVEMBER 1, 1854.
The United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, equally animated with a desire to maintain, and to preserve from all harm, the relations of good understanding
-which have at all times so happily subsisted between themselves, as also between the inhabitants of their respective States, have mutually agreed to perpetuate, by means of a formal convention, the principles of the right of neutrals at sea, which they recognize as indispensable conditions of all freedom of navigation and maritime trade. For this purpose tho President of the United States has conferred full powers on AVilliam L. Marcy, Secretary of State of the United States; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias has conferred like powers on Mr. Edward de Stoeckl, Counsellor of State, Knight of the Orders of Ste. Anne of the I'd class, of St. Stanislas of the 4th class, and of the Iron Crown of Austria of the 3d class, His Majesty's Charge d'Affaires near the Government of the United States of America;
And said Plenipotentiaries, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and duo form, have concluded and signed the following articles:
The two high contracting parties recognize as permanent and immutable the following principles, to wit:
1st. That free ships make free goods; that is to say, that the effects rTM-.bip.iom^. or goods belonging to subjects or citizens of a Power or r»«r>oa,. State at war are free from capture and confiscation when found on board of neutral vessels, with the exception of articles contraband of war.
2d. That the property of neutrals on board an enemy's vessel is not subject to confiscation, uuless the same be contraband of Nc.tr. proi«t7. wflr They engage to apply these principles to the commerce and navigation of all such Powers and States as shall consent to adopt them on their part as permanent and immutable.
The two high contracting parties reserve themselves to come to an A. ulterior nn^r- ulterior understanding as circumstances may require, with .und.nja.iota.ii.. regar(i to the application and extension to be given, if there be any cause for it, to the principles laid down in the 1st article. But they declare from this time that they will take the stipulations contained in said article 1st as a rule, whenever it shall become a question to judge of the rights of neutrality.
It is agreed by the high contracting parties that all nations which oth-rBiiir.rn.mT snall or may consent to'accedetothc rules of the first article ur.-uetotimtnw 0f f.his convention, by a formal declaration stipulating to observe them, shall enjoy the rights resulting from such accession as they shall be enjoyed and observed by the two Powers signing this convention. They shall mutually communicate to each other the results of the steps which may be taken on the subject.
The present convention shall be approved and ratified by the Prcsident of tho United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of said States, and by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Kussias, and the ratifications of the same shall be exchanged at Washington, within the period of ten months, counting from this day, or sooner if possible.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention in duplicate, and thereto affixed the seal of their arms.
Done at Washington the twenty-second day of July, the year of Grace, 1854.
W. L. MAROY. [L. s.l
EDOUABD STOECKL. [l. S.|
CONVENTION FOR THE CESSION OF THE RUSSIAN POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA TO THE UNITED STATES. CONCLUDED MARCH 30,1867; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED JUNE 20, 1867; PROCLAIMED JUNE 20, 1867.
The United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Rusaias, being desirous of strengthening, if possible, the good understanding which exists between them, have, for °"ln1""" that purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, the President of the United States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy Counsellor Edward de Stoeckl, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the, United States;
And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due form, have agreed upon and signed the following articles:
His Majesty the Emperor of all the liussias agrees to cede to the
Cffs-Jion of territory.
United States, by this convention, immediately upon the
exchange of the ratifications thereof, all the territory and dominion now possessed by his said Majesty on the continent of America and in the adjacent islands, the saino being contained within the geographical limits herein set forth, to wit: The eastern limit is the line of demarcation between the Russian and the British possessions in Xorth America, as established by the convention between Russia and Great Britain, of February 28-10', 1825, and described in Articles III and IV of said convention, in the following terms: "Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and 183d degree of west longitude, (meridian of Greenwich,) the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland Channel, as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast, as far as the point of intersection of tbo 141st degree of west longitude, (of the same meridian ;) and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the Frozen Ocean.
"IV. With reference to the Hue of demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood—
"1st. That the island called Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia," (now, by this cession to the United States.)
"2d. That whenever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 5Gth degree of north latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude shall prove to be at the distance of more than teu marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Eussia as above mentioned, (that is to say, the limit to the possessions ceded by this convention,) shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom."
The western limit within which the territories and dominion conveyed are contained passes through a point in Behriug's Straits on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty minutes north latitude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes midway between the islands of Kruseustern or Ignalook, and the island of Eatmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due north without limitation, into the same Frozeu Ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest, through Behring's Straits and Behriug's Sea, so as to pass midway between the northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west longitude; thence, from the intersection of that meridian, in a southwesterly direction, so as to pass midway between the island of Attou and the Copper Island of the Kormandorski couplet or group, in the North Pacific Ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west longitude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the whole of the Aleutian Islands east of that meridian.
In the cession of territory and dominion made by the preceding article are included the right of property in all public lots and and dominion in- squares, vacant lauds, and all public buildings, fortifications, cjudawh»t. . barracks, and other edifices which arc not private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that the churches which have been built iu the ceded territory by the Eussian Government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental Church resident in the territory as may choose to worship therein. Any Government archives, papers, and documents relative to the territory aud dominion aforesaid, which may now be existing there, will be left in the possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United States to the Eussian Government, or to such Eussian officers or subjects as they may apply for.
The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice, Kithu <,/ i„h.bit. reserving their natural allegiance, may return to Eussia •nl>- withiu three years; but if they should prefer to remain iu
the ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes, shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may from time to time adopt iu regard to aboriginal tribes of that country.