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on board of any vessel for exportation, no customs or duties whatever shall be required to be paid tbereon, and the crew shall be protected and succored until they can be sent to their own country.
Article XI. .
If a vessel of either of the contracting parties shall be attacked by an enemy within cannon shot of the forts of the other, she shall p . be protected as much as is possible. If she be in port, she either party in shall not be seized or attacked when it is in the power of the P"""°" other party to protect her; and when she proceeds to sea, no enemy shall be permitted to pursue her from the same port within twenty-four hours after her departure.
The commerce between the United States of America and the Regency of Algiers, the protections to be given to merchants, masters M,„t M n. of vessels, and seamen, the reciprocal rights of establishing Consuls in each country, the privileges, immunities, and jurisdictions to be enjoyed by such Consuls, are declared to be on the same footing, iu every respect, with the most favored nations, respectively.
The Consul of the United States of America shall not be responsible tor the debts contracted by the citizens of his own country, Co„,„, of v^ilPt, unless he gives previously written obligations so to do. JEsT, SI* XT.
On a vessel or vessels of war belonging to the United States anchoring before the city of Algiers, the Consul is to inform the Dey VM„ of „„ of of her arrival, when she shall receive the salutes which are, £££"„?rA!"by treaty or custom, given to the ships of war of the most favored nations on similar occasions, and which shall be returned gun for gun; and if, after such arrival, so aunounced, any Christians whatever, captives in Algiers, make their escape and take refuge on board any of the said ships of war, they shall not be required back again, nor shall the Consul of the United States or commander of the said ship be required to pay anything for the said Christians.
As the Government of the United States has, in itself, no character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquillity of any nation, and as the said States have never entered into any « voluntary war or act of hostility except in defense of their just rights on the high seas, it is declared, by the contracting parties, that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony between the two nations; and the Consuls and Agents of both nations shall have liberty to celebrate the rights of their respective religions in their own houses.
The Consuls, respectively, shall have liberty and personal security given them to travel within the territories of each other by ,. , , .
11111 • t_ i toiwnls rn.xj travel
land and sea, and shall not be prevented from going on board
In case of any dispute arising from the violation of any of the articles of this treaty no appeal shall be made to arms, nor shall war fTMm 1"v."i„t,on"°r be. declared ou any pretext whatever; but if the Consul residing at the place where the dispute shall happen shall not be able to settle the same, the Government of that country shall state their grievance in writing, and transmit the same to the Government of the other, and the period of three months shall be allowed for answers to be returned, during which time no act of hostility shall be permitted by either party; and in case the grievances are not redressed, and a war should be the event, the Consuls, and citizens, and subjects of both parties, respectively, shall be permitted to embark with their effects unmolested on board of what vessel or vessels they shall think proper, reasonable time being allowed for that purpose.
If, in the.course of events, a war should break out between the. two «, r„„r»„ nations, the prisoners captured by either party shall not be made slaves; they shall not be forced to hard labor, or other confinement than such as may be necessary to secure their safe-keeping, and shall be exchanged rank for rank; and it is agreed that prisoners shall be exchanged in twelve months after their capture; and the exchange may be effected by any private individual legally authorized by either of the parties.
If any of the Barbary Powers, or other States at war with the United cTM of war i» .States, shall capture any American vessel and scud her into l»3TM,th!H!"1anJ Porfc °f tne Regency of Algiers, they shall not be perTrTMtm.TMtorpri»». niitted to sell her, but shall bo forced to depart the port on procuring the requisite supplies of provisions; but the vessels of war of the United States, with any prizes they may capture from their enemies, shall have liberty to frequent the ports of Algiers for refreshment of any kind, and to sell such prizes in the said ports, without paying any other customs or-duties than such as are customary on ordinary commercial importations.
If any of the citizens of the United States, or any persons under Mtiemnt or a,r- their protection, shall have any disputes with each other, pute.ia.coerui. jjjg consui suaH decide between the parties; and whenever the Consul shall require any aid or assistance from the Government of Algiers to enforce his decision, it shall be immediately granted to him; and if any disputes shall arise between any citizens of the United States and the citizens or subjects of any other nations having a Consul or Agent in Algiers, such disputes shall be settled by the Consuls or Ageuts of the respective nations; and any disputes or suits of law that may take place between any citizens of the United States and the subjects of the Regency of Algiers, shall be decided by the Dey in person, and no other.
If a citizen of the United States should kill, wound, or strike a subject of Algiers, or, on the contrary, a subject of Algiers **"" 1 should kill, wound, or strike a citizen of the United States, the law of the country shall take place, and equal justice shall be rendered, the Consul assisting at the trial; but the sentence of punishment against an American citizen shall not be greater or more severe than it would be against a Turk in the same predicament; and if any delinquent should make his escape, the Consul shall not be responsible for hitu in any manner whatever.
The Consul of the United States of America shall not be required to pay any customs or duties whatever on anything he im- Fr.Tn.unboTM. ]K>rts from a foreign country for the use of his house and ""''" family.
Should any of the citizens of the United States of America die within the Regency of Algiers, the Dey and his subjects shall not (lti„„, „f t,ml„, interfere with the property of the deceased, but it shall be J,,;1 n<£~-' O^a" under the immediate direction of the Consul, unless otherwise*""*disposed of by will. Should there be no Consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands of some person worthy of trust, until the party shall appear who has a right to demand them, when they shall render an account of the property; neither shall the Dey or his subjects give hinderance in the execution of any will that may appear.
ARTICLE Additional And Explanatory.
The United States of America, in order to give to the Dey of Algiers a proof of their desire to maintain the relations of peace and amity between the two powers upon a footing the most >x liberal, aud in order to withdraw any obstacle which might '"*"' embarrass him in his relations with other States, agree to annul so much of the eighteenth article of the foregoing treaty as gives to the United States any advantage in the ports of Algiers over the most favored nations having treaties with the Regency.
Done at the palace of the Government, in Algiers, on the 22d day of December, 1810', which corresponds to the third of the Moon Safar, year of the Hegira 12,32.
Whereas the.undersigned William Shaler, a citizen of the State of New York, and Isaac Chauncey, Commander in Chief of the Naval Forces of the United States stationed in 'the Mediterranean, being duly appointed Commissioners, by letters-patent under the signature of the President and seal of the United States of America, bearing date at the city of Washington, the 24th day of August,-A. D. 181(5, for negotiating and concluding the renewal of a treaty of peace between the United States of America and the Dey and subjects of the Regency of Algiers, we, therefore, William Shaler and Isaac Chauncey, Commissioners as aforesaid, do conclude the foregoing treaty, and every article and clause therein contained, reserving the same, nevertheless, for the final ratification of the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States.
Done in the chancery of the Consulate General of the United States, in the city of Algiers, on the 23d day of December, in the year 181(5, and of the independence of the United States the forty-first. [L. s.] WM. SHALER.
[L. S.] I. CHAUNCEY.
[The signature of the Dey ia .stamped at the beginning and end of the treaty.]
AUG EN TINE CONFEDERATION.
ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION, 1853.*
TREATY WITH THE ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION, CONCLUDED JULY 10, 1853; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED DECEMBER 20. 1854; PROCLAIMED APRIL 9, 1855.
Treaty for the free navigation of the rivers Parana and Uruguay, between the United State* and the Argentine Confederation.
The President of the United States and His Excellency the Proyiional Director of the Argentine Confederation, being desirous of strengthening the bonds of friendship which so hapI>ily subsist between their respective States and countries, and convinced that the surest means of arriving at this result is to take in concert all the measures requisite for facilitating and developing commercial relations, have resolved to determine by treaty the conditions of the free navigation of the rivers Parana and Uruguay, and thus to remove the obstacles which have hitherto impeded this navigation. With this object they have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
The President of the United States, Robert C. Schenck, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Brazil, and John S. Pendleton, Charge" d'Affaires of the United States to the Argentine Confederation; and His Excellency the Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation, Doctor Don Salvador Maria del Carril, and Doctor Don Jose Benjamin Gorostiaga;
Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:
The Argentine Confederation, in the exercise of her sovereign rights, concedes the free navigation of the rivers Parana and UrnMwp^ijih;tm. guay, wherever they may belong to her, to the merchant vessels of all nations, subject only to the conditions which this treaty establishes, and to tho regulations sanctioned, or which may hereafter be sanctioned, by the national authority of the Confederation.
Consequently, the said vessels shall be admitted to remain, load, and 1-o.dn* .nd „,,. unload in the places and ports of the Argentine Confedi<»dx» eration which are open for that purpose.
The Government of the Argentine Confederation, being desirous to provide every facility for interior navigation, agrees to maintain beacons and marks pointing out the channels.
* Vol. X, Statutes at Large, p. 1001 et seq.
A uniform system shall be established by the competent authorities of the confederation, for the collection of the custom house du- con^iTM «r duties, harbor, lights, police, and pilotage dues along the whole ttw *°d course of the waters which belong to the Confederation. . *
The high contracting parties, considering that the Island of Martin Garcia may, from its position, embarrass and impede the free navigation of the conflueuts of the river Plate, agree iww«*ion «r o« to use their influence to prevent the possession of the said "° island from being retained or held by any State of the river Plate, or its confluents, which shall not have given its adhesion to the principle of their free navigation.
If it should happen (which God forbid) that war should break out between any of the States, Republics, or Provinces, of the river x.„^t,m „r „M Plate or its confluents, the navigation of the rivers Parana and ""nm ^ «>•"<■ Uruguay shall remain free to the merchant flag of all nations, excepting in what may relate to munitions of war, such as arms of all kinds, gunpowder, lead, and cannon balls.
Power is expressly reserved to His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, aud the Governments of Bolivia, Paraguay, and the Oriental State AmCT. of Uruguay, to become parties to the present treaty, in case c^L^t.TM".'TM? they should be disposed to apply its principles to the parts "TM""" of the rivers Parana, Paraguay, and Uruguay, over which they may respectively possess fluvial rights.
The principal objects lor which the rivers Parana and Uruguay are declared free to the commerce of the world, being to extend Mmt r>voral the mercantile relations of the countries which border them, ti°»ctao~and to promote immigration, it is hereby agreed that no favor or immunity shall be granted to the flag or trade of any other nation which shall not equally extend to those of the United States.
The present treaty shall be ratified on the part of the Government of the United States within fifteen months from its date, and within two days by His Excellency the Provisional Director of" the Argentine Confederation, who shall present it to the first Legislative Congress of the Confederation, for their approbation.
The ratifications shall be exchanged at the seat of Government of the Argentine Confederation, within the term of eighteen months.
In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty, and affixed thereto their seals.
Done at San Jose de Flores, ou the tenth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three.
ROB'T C. SCHENCK.