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2 Chron. 32.7, 8. | 19 It is he, that hath delivered my soul in 1 John 4. 4.
peace from the battle, that was against me; for
there were many with me. Col. 1. 17. .
20 Yea, even God, that endureth for ever, Rey. 6. 10, 11. shall hear me, and bring them down; for they
will not turn, nor fear God. Ps. 7. 4.
21 He laid his hands upon such as be at Acts 12. 1, &c. peace with him, and he brake his covenant. Ps. 28. 3.
22 The words of his mouth were softer than Prov. 5. 3, 4.
butter, having war in his heart: his words were smoother than oil, and yet be [were] they very
swords. Matt. 6. 25. 23 O cast thy burden upon the Lord, and he 1 Pet. 5. 7, 8. shall nourish thee; and shall not suffer the
righteous to fall for ever. 1 Sam. 16. 14. 24 And [But], as for them, thou, O God, Isai. 37. 17. shalt bring them into the pit of destruction. Prov. 10. 27. 25 The blood-thirsty and deceitful men shall Eccles. 7.17.
not live out half their days; nevertheless, my | trust shall be in thee, O Lord.
(Dan. vi. 10. Acts x. 9.), both in earlier and in later times, to pray thrice in the day; at least, in private. The Jewish day commenced at sun-set; whence, in this enumeration, “the evening” occurs first.
Instantly. See on Psalm xxxviii. 17. 19 It is he, fc. This is doubtless a confident anticipation of eventual deliverance. Jehovah, David affirms, would certainly enable him completely to escape his present danger, so that his soul would again rest in security and peace. There were many, fc. God and the holy angels. His invisible protectors were more numerous and powerful than all his visible foes. 2 Kings vi. 16, 17. Rom. viii. 31.
21 He laid his hands, fc. David now returns to Ahithophel. The sudden change of subject proves how deeply the treachery of this man, in breaking the bond of friendship, as well as of allegiance, had affected his mind..
22 Softer than butter. The Eastern butter did not, by any means, resemble the solid substance, which goes under the same name in these colder climates; but was liquid and flowing, as appears from various passages of scripture, particularly from Job xx. 17: xxix. 6. Without bearing this circumstance in mind, the Psalmist's comparison will lose a considerable portion of its truth and pertinency.
23 O cast, fc. O my soul, when laboring under the weight of affliction, do thou petition the Lord for relief, inasmuch as he will always be ready to supply thee with spiritual nourishment, and to sustain thee in thy difficulties. 1 Cor. x. 13. '
24 The pit of destruction. Either the grave, where the body is reduced to its original dust; or a pit, whence there is no escape, so that, if any one has been thrown into it, he must inevitably perish. I Sam, xiii. 6. Psalm Lxix. 16: cxl. 10.
25 Nevertheless, &c. Yet, even though they are not cut off in the
This Psalm is referred to the same occasion as the thirty-fourth.
David, therefore, having been driven to a distance from his home, and from the society of his fellow-countrymen, was now exposed to great dangers also among the Philistines. 1 Sam. xxi. 10, &c. Thus he beseeches, that he may be saved from the devices of his enemies, who had reduced him into such a destitute and miserable condition: he comforts himself with the hope, that God will assuredly appear on his behalf; and, in full confidence of this event, he breaks out into strong expressions of gratitude and of
thanksgiving RE merciful unto me, O God, for man goeth | Lam. 2. 16.
about to [man would] devour me; he is Acts 18. 9, 10. daily fighting, and troubling me.
2 Mine enemies are daily in hand to swould Acts 4.26. daily) swallow me up; for they be many, that Rev. 16. 14. fight against me, O thou most Highest.
3 Nevertheless, though I am sometime afraid, 2 Chron. 20. 3,&c. yet put I my trust in thee.
2 Cor. 7. 5, 6. 4 I will praise God because of his word: I Isai. 31. 3. have put my trust in God, and will not fear, Heb. 13. 6. what flesh can do unto me.
5 They daily mistake (wrest] my words: all Isai. 29. 20, 21. that they imagine is [all their thoughts are] to Luke do me evil.
6 They hold all together, and keep them- Jer. 5. 25, &c. selves close; and mark my steps, when they lay | Lam. 4. 19, 20. wait for my soul.
7 Shall they escape for their wickedness? Jer. 7.8, &c. thou, O God, in thy displeasure, shalt cast them 10. 25. down.
flower of their age, nor seem to be punished for their wickedness, my trust shall be, &c.
2 Thou most Highest. See on Psalm ix. 2.
4 Because of his word. Because, as he has ever before been my deliverer and the avenger of my wrongs, so will he be now; he will bring me in safety out of my present difficulties, and cause me to sit on that throne, which he formerly vouchsafed to promise me. “ His word” may, however, signify nothing more than a general promise of protection to all good men.
7 Shall they escape, &c. Will the audacity, with which they give themselves to work wickedness, be a reason for their escaping with impunity?
Isai. 51. 7, 8.
Job 16. 20. I 8 Thou tellest my flittings (wanderings]: put Matt. 10. 30.
my tears into thy bottle: are not these things noted in thy book ?
9 Whensoever I call upon thee, then shall mine enemies be put to flight; this I know, for
God is on my side. Matt. 24. 35. 10 In God's word will I rejoice: in the Lord's
word will I comfort me; Luke 12. 4, 5. 11 Yea, in God have I put my trust; I will Heb. 6. 18.
not be afraid, what man can do unto me. Gen. 28. 20, &c. 12 Unto thee, O God, will I pay my vows: 35. 1, &c.
unto thee will I give thanks. John 8. 12.
13 For thou hast delivered my soul from | death, and my feet from falling, that I may I walk before God in the light of the living.
Heb. 2. 14, 15.
8 Thou tellest, fc. The whole of David's life, from his victory over Goliath to the death of Saul, was almost entirely spent in removals from place to place (see on Psalm üi. 3), for the purpose of consulting his personal safety. He was now an exile at Gath; still he derived satisfaction and patience from the reflection, that the divine presence accompanied him, wherever he fled, and that the Deity was no unconcerned spectator of his distresses. Put my tears, &c. This expression is often thought to prove, that the custom of putting tears into lachrymal-urns, or tear-bottles, so well known, in later times, among the Romans, was more anciently observed by the Eastern nations, and, especially, by the Israelites, though no other record of it is said to exist. These urns were placed in the sepulchres of the deceased, as memorials of the affection and sorrow of the survivors.
The original word, however, here used by David, (signifying a bottle made of a goat's or kid's skin, and generally employed for holding liquors,) appears to some persons unable to be applied to the lachrymal-urn, which consisted of glass, or earth : besides, the treasuring up of the tears shed by himself, during his own sufferings, that they might not flow unheeded, naturally seems a very different thing from the offering up of the tears of mourning relations and friends at the burial of one, whom they had intimately known, and for whose death they bitterly lamented. Are not, fc. The idea of God's noting in a book every circumstance pertaining to this lower world is common throughout the scriptures. Exod. xxxii. 32, 33. Dan. xii. 1. Mal. iii. 16. It is also frequently declared, that the names of such, as shall be saved, are written in the book of life (Phil. iv. 3. Rev. iii. 5); and that a book will be opened, at the last day, containing an account of men's thoughts and actions. Rev. xx. 12.
13 My soul. See on Psalm vii. 2. In the light, &c. There is in this place an evident opposition between the light of the sun enjoyed by the living, and the darkness of the tomb, which shrouds the dead. Job xxxiii. 28, 30.
Psalm LVII. DAVID, having escaped from Saul, when in the cave of En-gedi, wrote
the present Psalm to commemorate that event. 1 Sam. xxiv. 3, &c. He begins in a very mournful strain, as if still in the power of his oppressor, imploring aid, and expressing a feeling both of deep distress and of extreme danger; but suddenly, in the sixth verse, his style is changed, and he utters words of
praise and triumph, as over an enemy already fallen before him. BE merciful unto me, O God, be merciful unto | Ruth 2. 11, 12.
me; for my soul trusteth in thee, and under Luke 13. 34. the shadow of thy wings shall be my refuge, until this tyranny (these calamities] be overpast.
2 I will call unto the most high God, even Phil. 1.6. unto the God, that shall perform the cause, Heb. 13. 21. which I have in hand.
3 He shall send from heaven, and save me Num. 23. 23, 24. from the reproof of him, that would eat me up. Matt. 28. 2, &c.
4 God shall send forth his mercy and truth: Prov. 28. 15. my soul is among lions;
John 1. 17. 5 And I lie even among the children of men, Prov. 30. 14.
1 Cor. 15. 32. that are set on fire; whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword.
6 Set up thyself, O God, above the heavens, Isai. 2. 11. and thy glory above all the earth.
Matt. 6. 9, 10. 7 They have laid a net for my feet, and 1 Sam. 23. 22, 23. pressed down my soul: they have digged a pit|
2 That shall perform, &c. Who will bring to a favorable issue the disheartening, and otherwise doubtful contest, in which I am now engaged.
3 He shall send, fc. He will put forth (his hand—Psalm cxliv.7.) from heaven to rescue me. A similar omission occurs, Psalm xviii. 16.
4 God shall send forth, &c. It may be observed, that “mercy and truth” or faithfulness, are here poetically represented as God's ministers, standing in his presence, ready to execute his pleasure, and employed by him in effecting the salvation of his people. Psalm cv. 16. Ezek. xxxvi. 29.
5 That are set on fire. Who, from the fierceness of their rage, and from the deadly nature of their malice, against me, may almost be said to breathe out flames of fire for my destruction. Whose teeth, &c. This expression seems to have been suggested by the mention of “lions” in the preceding verse.
6 Set up thyself, &c. By saving me from this imminent peril, manifest thy mercy, thy faithfulness, and thy power, to the angels, who dwell with thee above the visible heavens (see on Psalm viii. 1); and let thy glory be likewise spread over the world, to be equally celebrated by man.
7 And pressed down, &c. I am brought into so miserable a condi
John 11. 47, 48, before me, and are fallen into the midst of it."
themselves. Rom. 5. 3, & 1 8 My heart is fixed [prepared], o God, my Ephes, 5. 20. heart is fixed; I will sing, and give praise. svg Ps. 5. 3. 19 Awake up, my glory: awake, lute and; Isai. 52. 9, 10. Jharp: I myself will awake right early. in Rom. 15. 9.
10 I will give thanks unto thee, O Lord, Rev. 10. 10, 11.
among the people; and I will sing unto thee
among the nations; Ps. 103. 11.
11 For the greatness of thy mercy reacheth , Isai. 54.7, &c. unto the heavens, and thy truth unto the clouds. Rev. 15. 3, 4. | 12 Set up thyself, O God, above the heavens,
I and thy glory above all the earth.
Psalm LVIII. It has been conjectured, that Saul, in order to cover his malicious
persecution, instituted a legal process against David, and, by si corrupting the assembly of the Elders, to whom it was referred, obtained an iniquitous sentence of treason against him. The conjecture may, doubtless, be well founded; but, under any circumstances, we assuredly have in this Psalm, an earnest expostulation with some pervertors of public justice. For David complains of their evil-doings, and compares themselves to serpents, which cannot be tamed by any art: he foretels generally the punishment of the wicked, making use of various images to point out, how sudden and dreadful it would be; and, in conclusion, he asserts, that the providence, as well as the glory,
of God, would thus be rendered conspicuous to all the world. Isai. 11. 1, &c. 1 ARE your minds set upon righteousness, O ye Acts 5. 21.
A congregation ? and, do ye judge the thing
that is right, O ye sons of men? 'Ps. 94. 20, 21. 1 2 Yea, ye imagine mischief in your heart
tion by their artifices, that I may be compared to a wild beast caught in a net, and thus laid prostrate on the ground at the mercy of the hunter. A pit. See on Psalm vii. 16.
9. My glory. Some doubt, perhaps, may, without irreverence, be entertained, whether this word really does mean the tongue. St. Paul, quoting Psalm xvi. 10. from the Septuagint, so interprets it (Acts ii. 26); but, in the present case, there is not even that authority to be guided by. Some learned men have rendered the original word, in the former place, “mind,” in the latter, “soul.”— I myself, &c. David's heart so overflows with joy at the idea of God's gracious and speedy interposition on his behalf, that he announces his resolution to commence chanting forth the divine praises to the sound of instrua. mental music, even before the morning watch.” Psalm cxxx. 6.
10 The people. The tribes of Israel are meant; as, by “the nations,” the neighbouring idolatrous states. See on Psalm xcvi. 7.
2 Imagine. See on Psalm üii. 3.- Upon the earth. In the land