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May 16. cause of complaint than the loss of He first decided protection grant. his ducals. It is easy to conjecture for literary property appears to bave modern publisher on such an occabeen in the reigo of Queen Anoe; for sion. A compromise was subsequentthough Queen Elizabeth permitted ly entered into between Manuziano no book to be published without the and Beroaldo, and the former perpermission of the persons appoioled inilted noder certain restrictions to by the Crown, as Licensers of the vend bis spurious edition. press, and direcled that only one li- The Copy :right Act, notwithcense should be granted for the same stauding its improvenients, is still work, this afforded but very slender susceptible of further modification. protection to the Authors; since it is “Authors," says Mr. D’Israeli *, well known that the said Licensers were “ continue poor, and booksellers befrequently tampered with, and pre- come opulenl-an extraordioary revailed upon to countenauce every sult! Booksellers are not agents for species of literary depredation which authors, but proprietors of their ingenuity of the age could suggest or works; 80 thai the perpetual revepractice.

nues of Literature are solely in the The origin of Copy.right may, how. possession of the Irade." ever, be traced to a much more re- Literary might be as profitable as mote period in Italy. The earliest in. landed property to its possessor, if stance of the positive protection of properly secured; but, as M. D’Israeli literary property occurred in 1514, very pertinently observes, during the pontificate of the accom- ful Authors are heirs to fortunes, bul, plished Lev X. Having committed by a strange singularity, are disinThe five books of Tacilus (which he herited at their very birth; for on bad purchased for 500 zechins of Ad- the publication of their works they gelo Arcomboldo, who brought them cease to be their own properly.” from the Abbey of Corvey in West. This is ordered somewhat ditierently phalia) to the care aod editorship of in France, where the descendants of ihe learned Beroaldo ; in order to se. Racine and Corneille relain a claim cure him the reward of his labours as to compensation from the proprietors editor aod collalor of the MSS. he of the French Theatres, whenever the denounced sentence of excommunica. Dramas of their immortal ancestors tion, besides the penally of 200 du- are performed. In that country par. cals and forfeiture of the books, ticular encouragement has been given against any person who should re- lo literary men. It was there decreed, print the work within ten years of in the affair of Crebillon, that lic its publication by Beroaldo, without terary productions should not be liahis express permission.

ble to be seized by creditors. Notwithsianding these serious in. I think it possible for a greater injunctions, however, the work was pi- dulgence to be granted to Authors in rated and drinted at Milan in the same England than has ever as yet been alFear, by Alesandro Manuziano, who lowed them, without infringing upon had established himself as a printer in the interests of the Commonwealih. opposition to Aldus Manuzio, and who And that the Copy-right Act, even in contended with him in the publica- its present reformed stale, is capable tion of the writings of antiquity. He of being very materially improved, is appears to have obtained ine sheels a faci, of which all who think proper of Beroaldo's Tacitus as they came tu deliberate calmly upon the maller from the press, and had probably must be aware. nearly completed his impression be. I shall be pleased if these imperfect fore he was aware of the heavy pe

hinis elicit remarks from any of your nalties he was provoking. He was numerous Correspondents, on a sube cited before the Pootiff to answer for ject of such vital importance to Lihis offence; but, owing to the ioler. terature as that to which they are diference of some powerful friends, he recled ; and shall gladly avail mysell, was excused the weightiest portion of al some future lime, of such an ophis punishment, namely, excommuni portunity for entering more at large calion; though it is a question wbe. into the discussion.

Am-c. iber he would not have deemed the curses of the Pope a much lighter

*" Calamities of Authors."

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May 1. present the Mythe, in the parish of "O rescue from oblivion the pe. Tewkesbury, within half a mile of piety and magnificence, ere yet en. at least 10 years ago ; as about that tirely effaced by the overwhelming time it underwent some material al power of Time, or the yet more le- terations in the exterior. It is vul-. velling arm of “ Modern Improve- garly called King John's Castle, from ment,” is a pleasing, though melan- an unfounded idea that that Monarch choly lask, which, while it affords once inhabited it.

F.I. a le pale source of innocent pleasure, must at the same time impress Mr. URBAN,

April 26. er bewed an awful, though salu- I HA ver ubeen more canadifirden boy

The Quadrangular Tower, a draw. the Saxon Chronicle, reviewed by ing of which accompanies this *, was you. in p. 336. Not having the pulled down about two years ago, to origioal of the Saxon Chronicle make way for the erection of a School by me, I cannot reser to it, but I for the education of Children on the suspect Miss Gurney has no autbe System of Dr. Bell, and was for many ritg for what appears to me an error, years used as the Common Gaol of pp. 31, 635. “This year, &c. at Dorthe Borough of Tewkesbury. It is chester (Oxfordshire)." conjectured to have been originally To the late edition of Hutchios, rol. intended as a receptacle for the bells IV. p. 86, Biriaus, an Italian mouk, belonging to the Abbey, of which it did the same anno 694 in Wessex, was undoubtedly an appendage, though and fixed an Episcopal See at Dor. its site is now at some distance from, chester in Oxfordshire, and the an. and apparently unconnected with it. thorities quoted are in Saxon Chron. Bul probably being found too weak p. 230. Godwin de Præsul. p. 202, (not to support the powerful vibration of 329.) Dug. Mona. Bede Hist. I. 3. the Bells, to which the extensive fis- c. 7. (not 1. 5. c. 19.) W. of Malas sures on the North side are altributed, bury, Brompl. Leland. It has always they were transferred to the central been a doubt with me whether Bitower of the Abbey. To each of the rious ever went into Oxfordshire. fuur corners was aifixed a winged fi. Bede says he arrived io the nation of gure, which has been supposed to re- the Geoisseaps (West sex) and fiodpresent demons in the act of flying ing them all Pagans, he continued away from the “ Harmony of the ibere, and the two Kings, Cypegils Steeple,” to which they are said to and Oswald, gave him the Cily callhave an aversion, though this pro- ed Dorcic.

E. B. perly is not enumerated in the list of good offices performed by bells in the On the Exlent of the Historic Rele. following distich :

tion, in discovering and marshalling “ Laudo deum verum, plebem voco, con- the Subjects of Humun Knowledge.

gregu clerum, Desunctos ploro, pestem fugo, festa de.

(Continued from p. 391.) coro."


E must now define a word oot Or in the inscription for Bells, men

usually defined in philosopbi. tioned by Weever in his “ Funeral cal inquiries—1 mean Faith. Faith Monuments :"

is the eye of the soul. This is a dis“ Funera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata

tjoct organ, act, or faculty of the

miod: as much so as reasoning, ima. pango, Excito lentos, dissipo renlos, paco cru

gioation, or belief of human occur.

A mau may lose the use of Allow me to suggest, that the build.

this faculty, as he may his eye-sigbt: ing drawn and engraved by Mr. Mal.

or be may have it diseased and ill. colm, in vol. LXXVII. ii

. p. 489, affected, just as he may any other was nost probably intended to re

sense, external or internal. Is it pos

sible that some persons (like HUNE * The Tower being accurately repre

for example) may, in this acceplasented in the Wood-engraying in p. 526, tion of the word, have been born it is unaccessary to copy this drawing. blind? Hune could no more reason Edit.

upon, or conceive, what religious




feeling was still less calculate its the superior order of beings, and is effects - than a man born blind could part of that golden chain let down comprehend what was meant by the from heaven - alluded to by Homer, word “scarlet." The property of and the Pagan Poels. And, by the faith is to perceive a supernatural way, all the Pagan superstitions, whecommunication, a fact, precept, in- ther antient or modero, have, by the fluence, command, or power divide. uoanswerable learning of sound criIt is the faculty whereby to perceive ticism, been shewn to be only so many and feel Revelation. It bas sagacily corrupted and mutilated remains of where reason is blind : and that it is revelativo, imperfectly transpired. Dot wrong, is proved by its effects, a The virtue of the Stoics, Epicusupernatural goodness and cheerful. reans, Sceptics, and Academiciaus, is ness from nope penetrating ils coun- founded on apathy, and a self-balanced tenance, speech, and actions. It car. independence of the historical chain ries the divine letier of recommenda- of thiogs—the mutual connection with tion in its face wherever it goes. It God and man. So the modern phihas a steady perception, and belief (of lanthropist (as he is foolishly called) course) in the systein of Providence- resolves charity ioto an expansion of the full extent of whose plan is above self-love-a solecism in terms. But and beyond its ken, but it sees plainly Christians make virtue a communi. that the system of Providence here is cated feeling, (moving in the contrary a mysterious fragment of some whole direction, that is, from without, froin - that the human soul, wondrous in around, and from on high: a grace its energies, possessing and agitatiog derived from the Deity, our common this body, its senses and organs, yet FATHER. It is drawn historically from remaining iovisible-is in a stage of that sublimest and purest origin. Hence progress from, and lo, some point duty, fortified by habits of forbearing, ibat from the infinite distance is hid and of active exertion of our facul. from view. That it is making a tran- lies, repressing, of consequence, selfsit over the disc of finile space. - love : crossing, but not mortifying Faith has a curiosity, a yearning after, it, in the sense of the Monks, and Meimmortality—an anxious expectation thodists, but of the Apostle. Hence as if longing to be gone, upon a fair general maxims, which are the prejourney — a tenderness as of having cis, result, or sum total, of historical been parted from some one and will experiences, and communicated truths. take no consolation-a thoughtful. And ibus it appears that prudence, ness, as if recollecting a state, not by temperance, forlitude, and justice, any means to be found here; but as are only consequences that iinmedi. something that it has seen or known ately arise from Christian duts, or before. Formed exclusively to believe benevolence, i.e. gratitude to God divine truth, it has a ready presenti. and man, arising from the historical ment of heavenly grace and favour, notice of our relations 10 them, reonless diseased with fanaticism or su- spectively. perstition, its two fatal disorders. Traditiobary waxims of life, proBut when souod, it is the rightful verbs, approved apophthegms, rules, witness and trier, as to the fact, of and aphorisms, or definitions, i.e. li. divine interpositions, of the corres

mitations of moral truth, were, as wc pondence in evidence of things not have observed before, the first step contrary, indeed, to reason, nur in. in the science of moral philosophy. compatible with it - closely in the Proverbs are in Ethics what the best analogy of it-for both are histori. poetry and narration are in Critics, cal;- but it is specifically different from their simplicity, ever in the from reason - and as far above it, mouths of the common people. They as reason itself is above brutish sa- were the precis of historical ootices. gacity.

So the first poetry consisted of short Whoever has heard the evidence of real histories. Christianity must be stupid if be is A didactic order or system of these not a Christian. He must have suf. proverbs reduced to heads, was next fered some paralysis of the mind. He formed by the operation of simply must have been by some accident be- noting differences among things agreereft, as Dr. Clarke has demonstrated, ing, and agreements among things of that faculty, which links us with differing, and then the further colle

necling necting them by some common prin- in your Magazine for a few observa ciple of agreemeot into elements. But tions on the memory of the late Dean all this method of science is resorted of Christ Church. to only when inen have lost their I have always understood that the way-they must discover every thing examinations at the conclusion of analytically. Whereas in the histo- each Term, called “Collections," were rical connection, they are taught the happy suggestion of Dr. Mark. every thing beginning from elements, ham, who, as I have been informed, that is, synthetically,

laid the fouodation of that discipline The origin of evil confining our wbicb his successors so ably maintain. view to this world, and we have noted. Dr. Bagot did wonders, considerfaculties to go above or beyond it, ing the disadvantages he had to without the aid of revelation—is the struggle with, in an infirm habit of losing this historical connection, the body and a very nervous temperawandering out of our way, or rather ment; but the perfection of the digsome one super-eminent spirit or sui- cipline for which Christ Church bas perior nature from pride and insub. been so famed, though it did not ori. ordination, breaking outioto Atheisin: ginate with, yet certainly attained its setting up his own insulated, and self- acme, under the vigilant superintend. balanced system : and templing others ance of Dr. Cyril Jackson, who, by to form a sect or parts in his sup- the superiority of his various talents, port, quarrelling with God and the the elevation of his mind, the assihistorical order of things. The golden duous and total devotion of his time chain is broken, for which is substi. and labour to it, contributed to the tuled another chain or slavery. For completion of that arduous workin the due subordination of our duty work, however, which some hare into God, and man, in the subinission vidiously insinuated was no cost to to Lawful authority, consists the him, since, by the congeniality of his only true and perfect freedom. pursuits, and the interest be felt for

When once self becomes a sepa. ihe place, it appeared to be bis rated and an insulated being, that delight very instant it becomes exposed to But the secret and the success of erery templation, whether from bu. bis government of Christ Church lay inan, or from io visible agency. It is in that happy application of ocin a desart or wilderness; and, imme. curring circumstances, and the judidiately, temptation to a being (so cut ciously adapting of all the various off' from the centre of order), altracts means of elementary discipline, which it by apparent good, like, but oppo. either the situation presented, or bis site to, the real good of God and own genius suggested, to the great man, and thus mediately and inc object which he kept constantly in diately of self-or the whole. view. Whatever his authority and

Hence, by the puzzle of meta- influence, his knowledge of human physics, the sophistical systems : for nalure, his solid and penetraling judg. instance, that all benevolence is ulti- ment, his well-digested system of re: mately founded on selfishness; i. e. straint and encouragement, his sathat we are virtuous, because we see rious and extensive learning, and, it to be our interest--and in truth, above all, his accurate insight into find it conducive to our best interes's character; whatever occasions of im. to be so: aud, because we find more provement these night offer, were real pleasure in that course than in inslanlly discerned, and as earnestly any other. But it is a svlecism to seized by him as prominent opportucall this (a happiness, resulting from pilies of useful or beneficeni intersell-love reciuced to its due propor- ference. None of these were los!, or tion), relation being had to God and neglected ; and it was in the discreet mai—to call this) selfishness. Selfish, and rigorous improvements of scaness is the exclusion of those two sonable incidents and judicious obserrelalioos.

YORICK. vation, that he as much surpassed his (To be conlinueil.)

able predecessors as they inight do

any ordinary men. The effect was Mr. URBAN,

June 5. answerable ;' fur no man, probably, S a tribute of justice, however as Governor of a College, ever did so


stances, and to 90 many individuals it turns either to the future or the of such diffcrent dispositions, temper, past, and, as we are either, melaiand prospects in life, by a happy choly or gay, so is too often the proscombination of talent, judgment, and pect before us. assiduity, Dr. Jackson matured the This state, therefore, of sensibility, understandings, cherished the virtues, exercising the mind, not according to corrected and improved the moral the real existence of things, but to and religious habits, formed the taste, their accidental impression, is seldom fixed or regulated the genius aod ide profitable; besides this, it can be no studies, and in every possible way relief to a mind already wearied with aided the prospects and ine interests, deep thinking. Something is wanted of a whole rising generation entrusted for this purpose, which gently exerto his care.

cises the inental powers on sume cor. These remarks will not be thought poreal moveinent. Manual labour, over-drawp by persons who had the requiring just dexterity enough to happiness of knowing Dr. Cyril Jacke abstract the mind from iis accusivined son well. Some of our ablesi Scholars operations, seeins best to answer this. and most experienced men have not end. Let il noi, therefore, be a mal. hesitated to place him in the saine ter of surprize or ridicule, that a man level with Drs. Barrow and Bentley, of enlarged understanding, as in the who in their day were the glory of present instance, should sloop for Trinity College, Cambridge; but, by aniusement to the drudgery or mue his atiainments on the extended field chanical employment. of natural and experimeotal philo. Yours, &c.

CANTAB, sophy, he was allowed to have been superior even to those justly-cele- LETTERS FROM THE CONTINBNT. brated Scholars.


(Continued from p. 417.)


June 3.

Rue de Mont-Thabor, Paris, N p. 371, you have given a Me

Aug. 3, 161

UR Inn at St. Deonis, Inc Grund Philosopher, and Scholar, Dr. Isaac Cerf, was large and showy, but Miluer. Before the death of his bro. The accommodations wretched. The ther, the Rev. Joseph Milner, author meat was not eatable, and the bread · of the “ History of the Christian The night was so excessively Church,” for whom he entertained a bol (at four in the moruing, Thermohigh regard, Hull was the most fa- meter 72), that I was obliged to sleep vourite place of his residence. His with the windows wide open; and lodgings there were a complete work. there was a continual roll of carts shop, filled with all kinds of carpen- and waggons, and cracking of whips, ters' and turners' instruments. There the whole night. St, Dennis is a large he was accustomed to relax his miud dirty town, with about 5000 inhabri. daily from the fatigues of study, by ants. The Church of St. Dennis is some manual labour. His lathe and the King's Chapel Royal. The West appendages for turning were front has three old Saxon arches. One tremely nice, and cost him no less of the West towers has a spire. There' than 140 guineas. He had also a is no middle tower. The vaults under: very curious machine, partly of his the Choir of the Church were the oan invention, which formed and po- burial-place of the Kings of France' Jished at the same time, with the ut. for about 1000 years; but at the Remost possible exactness, watch-wheels volution, in Sepiember 1792, the mob of every description.

of Paris broke open she tuinds of the A celebrated Moralist of the pre- Kings, burnt the coffins of lead and sent day maintains, that manual la. wood, and scattered the Royal bones buur is one great source of happiness, about the churchyard; where they' It is evident that we cannot bear remained, unburied and unpilied, tiil without injury, for any long time, in- the restoration of Louis. There were, lense and oniolerrupted thought; it however, a few of the tombs which is equally clear that, when the mind, escaped their attacks. The Church without any object of pursuit, is left was also rausacked, and the organ deto its own spootaneous sensibilities, stroyed, as well as the altars and buGENT. MAG. June, 1820.




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