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bishop was the Phænix glutton of him under a feeble guard for a few the age; for others were as frugal as days, ontil, by a concerted plan, Warhe had been profuse, as will appear wick look possession of the prisoner, by the following Bill of fare of a Feast and immediately carried him away lo had by the Wax Chandlers' Company his own castle, where, being joined on the 28th of October, 1478, eight by the Earls of Lancaster, Hereford, years after the former, viz.:
and Arundel, they caused the head of £. S. d.
the uuhappy Favourite to be struck Two loins of mutton and 2 loins
off by the hands of the executioner ; of veal.........
0 2 4
-not, however, without some show A loin of beef.........................
of a military trial, as the sentence A leg of mutton.................... 0 was carried into effect with great paA pig..........
rade upon an eminence called Bled. A capon ..........
low Hill, about one mile distant from A coney One doz. of pigeons.... ............... 0 07
Warwick Castle, on the road leading Oge bundred eggs.............
to Coventry. A goose .........
6 However active the Earl of Lan. A gallon of red wine...
caster appeared at the head of the Kilderkin of ale.........
confederale Barons, or bold in the
reduction of the power of the Crown, Total...0
he is said to have been deficient in Yours, &c.
W. R. the talents requisite for a military
commander, and even in personal couTour IN YORKSHIRE.
rage : and perhaps it may have given (Continued from p. 421.) some countenance to this potion, that DWARD again submitted, again he seems to have taken no part in the
prevaricated, and the turbulentno. Scottish war, lo which it might have bles had scarcely laid aside their arms, been imagined that the martial arbefore they were provoked to resume dour of the age would have invited them with resentments highly in. him. Another reason may indeed be flamed ; and their hatred against the assigned for his declining to attend Favourite so much increased, that bis the King on the occasion alluded to ; destruction was inevitable. Lancas- for on ihe return of Edward, after ter was vo this occasion supported by the tremendous and decisive baltle of Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of War- Bannockburo, the Ministry, new mowick, a powerful nobleman; Humo delled by the direction of Lancaster, phry Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Cou. and the command of the army enstable of England ; Aylmer de Va- trusted to him, seemed to afford an Jence, Earl of Pembroke; and many opportunity of holding a secret corother new confederates.
respondence with the King of Scots, Lancaster assembled bis followers which he eagerly embraced, and and marched to York, whence the thereby secured a powerful ally in King had removed to Newcastle; but the event which he may be presumed was pursued thitber, aod had just to have already anticipated, of anotime to escape to Typemouth, and ther quarrel with his own Sovereign. thence by water to Scarborough, Notwithstanding the high offices to where was then a castle deemed im. which Lancaster had been appointed, pregnable. Whilst the King, with a he must have been perfectly aware of few forces, proceeded to York to having little deserved the confidence recruil his army, and Gaveston was of Edward; and the daily advances left at Scarborough; the Earl of which the two Spencers were making Pembroke besieged the castle there, in the King's favour, the countenance which being unlenable, surrendered shown to them upon every occasion, 00 conditions which it is probable and the bounty which was cootinually were never intended to be observed lavished upon them, filled his mind by the confederates, who having thus with jealousy and disgust, which soon seized the person of their principal broke forth in acts of open violence. enemy, seem to have resolved upon Au irregular transfer of property making him a sacrifice to their re- which had given rise to a quarrel besentment; and, accordingly, having lween the younger Spencer and one conducted Gaveston to a castle at of the confederate Barons, was deemDeddington io Oxfordshire, they left ed a sufficieui excuse for again taking
up arms. Lancaster and Hereford treasons had long before rendered demanded of the King the pupisho himn odious, not only to the Sovement of Spencer, or threatened to re- reigo, but to all the adherents to the nouoce their allegiance. Without Royal cause; and being sentenced to waitiog the result, they fell upon the die, he was, as if by way of retaliaoffeoders, pillaged and destroyed their tion for bis behaviour in the case of estates, murdered their servants, and Garaston a few years before, subburned their houses. Flushed with jected to the most mortifying indigthe success of these exploits, they nities which the rudencss of the age marched to London, and by menaces, suggested. He was placed on a miprocured of the Parliament then sit. serable horse without a bridle, a hood ting, the attainder of the Spencers, put on his head, and in mean attire, and sentence of perpetual banishment. conducted amidst the insulting acclaThey then once more retired to their mations of the populace, to bis owa castles in all the plenitude of feudal castle at Pontefract, and there bejudependence; but the interval of a headed. few months had only elapsed before Thus perished one of the most an accidental circumstance having powerful of the English Nobility, afforded to the insulted Monarch the whose public conduct and private prospect of gratifying his resentment, life, the former marked by contioual Edward recalled both the Spencers, turbulence, and the latter by arroreinstated them in their 'former gance and hypocrisy, may be truly power, and seized upon the domains said to have deserved no better fate. of those of the factious Barons whose His revenues were immense, being estales lay most exposed to an attack. at once in possession of no less than
Lancaster again assembled his vas- six Earldoms, with all their immugisals, openly avowed baviog entered ties and jurisdiction. joto an alliance with the King of After his decapitation, bis estates Scotland, from whom he bad received being seized for the Crown, it was a promise of assistaoce in case of reported that abundance of plate and emergency, and being joined by Bu. jewels, and what is still more extraor. hun, Earl of Hereford, posted the dinary, part of the rich wardrobe of insurgent forces at Burlop-upon- Gavaston were found amongst his Treni in Staffordshire, to dispute the treasures. Thus it appears, that even passage of the river, and interrupt the amongst the highest nobility, the march of the King's forces into the predatory attacks often made upon North.
each other by these feudal chiefs, The King advanced at the head of were not merely influenced by the his army, amounting, it is said, to more independent, however detestthirty thousand men; and Lancaster, able, passions of revenge or resentdeficient in military skill, and disap- medt,' but accompaoied with the pointed of the reinforcement which odious and selfish practices of rapide he had expected from Scoiland, fled and robbery. How borrible a pic. before him, retreating Northward, ture is thus presented of the stale of until at Borough-bridge, the forces society, when tyranny on the one voder Sir Andrew Harcla, a brave hand, and rebellion on the other, al. and loyal officer, who had before lernalely desolated the land, and signalized himself by a gallant de- crushed the lower classes of its inha. fence of Carlisle against the Scots, in- bitants by continual oppressions! tercepling bis passage over the river Force and violence superseded the Eyne, the insurgents were repulsed, mild and benign operations of the the Earl of Hereford slain, and Lap. laws, and the natural protectors of caster, incapable, it is said, of fight the poor were in fact their insolent or defence, surrendered himself a pri oppressors and cruel destroyers.
The greater part of those iminense Barcla immediately conducted him estates which the higher pobility had to the Kiog, who without any hesita. accumulated, were undoubtedly cultition determined upon his fate. Few vated by a rude sort of husbandry, forms were in those times observed; but for ihemselses alone. Their vasand a subject taken with arnis in his sals, wholly dependent upou them, hands, in open rebellion, could ex- were without any incitenients to it. pect bui lilile favour. His repealed dustry, or encouragement to moral
virtues. In the short jotervals be made up of one hundred Thanes tween those conflicts, in which they whose lands lay adjacent ; but this were compelled to bear a part, and hypothesis swells the number of these in which undistinguished thousands koights or petty vobles to an increas anoually perished; idleness rendered dible amount: - others have supthem useless and burthensome, or posed that it consisted of an bundred habits of violence and outrage ren- families only, which is equally obdered them dangerous to their lords. jectionable, because it diininishes the The latter indeed were “ a kind of population far below probability.-independent potentates," who took To take Wiltshire for an example: in upon themselves the redress of wrongs the former case we should have in and the maintenance of privileges, that county at least four thousand bg open force and the strong arm of Thanes; and in the latter, not more power ; by the exercise not of mild than sixteen thousand people. That aod impartial distributive justice, but conjecture, therefore, seems the only by the domination of authority, and probable one, which makes the Hunithe terms of superior strength. dred to have consisted of one hun.
Let us rejoice that we live in hap dred prer families of whatever rank, pier times when the rights of the - supposing the slaves or bondmen, great and of the bumble are equally which constituted about three-fourths under the protection of the Laws; of the wbole population, as being the and when the sword of Justice is not property of their masters, and inca. wielded by caprice, but upheld by pable of holding lands, not to have mercy.
been taken into the account. This Yours, &c.
VIATOR. would make the population of Wills
about sixty thousand, or nearly oneMr. URBAN, Wurminster, May 11. third of its present amount, which
is perhaps very rear the truth. countable to the young Topo. A division of laud, made up io this grapher than the very irregular man. manner froin the Union of many ner in which the Hundreds and smaller properties, must necessarily Tythings are laid out in our Westo be very irregular in its boundaries, ern Couoties.
but there are other apomalies which In troubling you with a sew re- even thus are nut accounted for.--It marks upon this intricate subject, I is not uncommon, for instance, to beg leave to say, that I have no par- find part of one bundred in the very ticular claim of originality to make, middle of another, or several parts of and that I shall be happy to see the a buodred scallered widely over a subject discussed in your pages by whole country, and these in common some abler pen.
language are not unaptly termed ragOne of the first ideas which must ged hundreds. It is evidently imposoccur to any one, on inspecting a sible, at this distance of time, and in County Map, is, that the Hundreds the absence of all record, to stale and Tythings could not have been when and why any particular irregulaid out with any respect to the quan. Jarity of this kind was introduced ;tily of laod they contained ; and the but it is not so difficult, perhaps, to great difference of exteot, as well as detect the operation of certain causes ihe general neglect of every thing which must have ultimately produced like a right line or a natural bound this effect. ary, clearly indicates that we ought By whomsoever of our Saxon kings to look elsewhere for an explanation these divisions were first adopled (lor of the principle upon which these an- there is no proof that we owe them tient divisions were made.
to the wisdoin of Alfred) they could It is well kuown to those who are not have continued long in their priconversant in Saxou Antiquities, that mitive state. From the increase of the people, and not the land, were population, the manumission of chiefly cousidered in this arrange slaves, and other causes, the hundred ment; but it has not yet been so must 8000 have ceased to contain clearly decided what number or de- just a hundred, and the tything len scription of persons constituted the free families. The intention was to original Hundred and Tything. Some bind the free inhabitants in a kind of bave imagined that the Hundred was perpetual and inutual bail, and in
constitute them guardians of each very much altered the Hundreds from others conduct : but, to effect this, it their original appearance and extent. was vecessary that changes should I mean the union of two or more of be made as the population fluctuated. These aotient divisions into one, of There can be no doubt but that the which many instances occur at no Hundred was originally subdivided very distani periods: the motive may into exactly ten tythings; but, as this have been merely convenience, and has long since ceased to be the case, the change most probably took placo it is natural to suppose that the first without any formal act to sanction atteinpts to meet ihe inconvenience it or mark the time. of these united arising from an increased or dimi- Hundreds we have several in Wills ; bished population, were by increasing Cuwden and Cadworlh, Elstul and or diminishing the number of tythings Everly, Pollern and Cannings, Branch wilhin the Hundred.-We soon find, und Dole, inay be instauced; the union however, that severe legislative in- of which last did not take place till terference was requisite to maintain after the reign of Elizabeth. Nor this essential fealure of Saxon polily. does the inodern name always so Several laws on this subject still ex- clearly imply the circumstance'; for ist, and particularly one of Canute, the extensive Hundred of Swanbrough which requires, under no less penalty contains within ils present boundaries than that of outlawry, that every thal of Roubergh Regis, which ex. person being twelve years of age isted separately lemp. Edw. ll. wbile should enrol hinself in some hundred that of Roubergh Episcopi has been and tything. - It is to be observed united to Pollern and Canpings. lothat ihis law, though highly penal stances of this mature might easily be as to the general object, clearly gave multiplied; but I conceive enough has an option to the person as to the been said to account for the present hundred and tything of which he was irregular division, and more perhaps to become a member; and this, I ap- than you will think jateresting io prehend, is quite sufficient to account your general readers.
J. o. for those irregularities which at first view appear so inexplicable. A manu. Mr. URBAN,
April 27. of the citiein, avd. there were many ANONGS TT ehates washicharoels of tives, on acquiring landed property, cestors seem to have industriously though locally situated at a distance, exercised their fancy to invent or would sunietimes prefer placing him. establish, I have scarcely heard of self under the protection and civil one more curious than that which is jurisdiction of bis former lord ; por- said to belong lo the Manor of Thonghaps courtesy might require it, or castor in Lincoloshire, where, accord. the lord might expect it as a justing to various accoupls, “ihe Lord tribute of respect. Similar reasons has a right to whip the Parson in his would draw the younger branches of Pulpit.” Mr. Arthur Young, in his families to their more powerful re- View of the Agriculture of the abovelatives, ecclesiastics to religious es. named County, has bastily glanced tablishments, and clients to their pa. at this custom, from the traditionary trons: and what thus originated in report of the neighbourhood; but uochoice would soon become indelea- questionably sonie of your intelligent sible custom.
Correspondents are able to afford I have not at present an opportu- more particular information upon nits of extensive reference; but, so the subject, and it will be esteemed far as my memory serves me, I think a favour, if, through the medium of it will be found that some of the most your Publication, a credible account ragged Hundreds had Bishops or Re- of it may be obtained. ligivus Houses for their lords in the At present all that I learn is, that time of our early Henrys and Ed. the Manor of Broughton iv Lindsay, wards ; if this be ihe case, it is a fair about two miles from Brigg or Gland. presumption that the detached parts ford Bridge, is holden under that of were acquisitions after the Hundred Castor, or of Harden, in the parish of itself canie into their possession. Castor, by the following service; viz.
I need mention only one circum- that annually upon Palm Sunday the stance more, but it is one which has Deputy of the Lord of the Manor of