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deterrerent, libenter id, quod dixi, de illis oratoribus praedicarent, ut, si homines non eruditi summam essent prudentiam atque incredibilem eloquentiam consecuti, inanis omnis noster esse labor et stultum in nobis erudiendis patris nostri, optimi ac 5 prudentissimi viri, studium videretur: quos tum, ut pueri, refutare 2 domesticis testibus patre et C. Aculeone propinquo nostro et L. Cicerone patruo solebamus, quod de Crasso pater et Aculeo, quocum erat nostra matertera, quem Crassus dilexit ex omnibus

plurimum, et patruus, qui cum Antonio in Ciliciam profectus 10 una decesserat, multa nobis de eius studio doctrinaque saepe

narravit; cumque nos cum consobrinis nostris, Aculeonis filiis, et ea disceremus, quae Crasso placerent, et ab eis doctoribus,

tum, studioque discendi a pueritia incensum, usu tamen et domesticis praeceptis multo magis eruditum quam litteris.' This confirms discendi of the MSS. against the dicendi of the older editors, including Ernesti and Schütz.

doctrina, systematic instruction,' • pursuit of learning :' as below, $ 11: cp. i. 48. 208. It is more commonly used for the learning resulting from instruction : as in $$ 2, 15, etc.

2. prudentiam = opóvnou, 'practical wisdom :' de Off. i. 43. 153, and often in this book : rarely as in Tusc. i. 4. 7 of philosophy. It is often used of legal skill: e. g. de Sen. 9. 27.

4. patris nostri. Cicero refers to his father also in § 265, and in de Leg. iii. 1, 3. qui cum esset infirma valetudine, hic fere aetatem egit in litteris.' His tone is always one of great respect and affection, to which a much-misinterpreted phrase in one of his letters is not really an exception. Cp. Prof. Tyrrell's notes on ad Att. i 6.2 and i. 19. 10 (Correspondence of Cicero, vol. i. pp. xlv. 8. 106).

5. ut pueri, ' being but boys,' who can only fall back on the authority of their friends at home. Cp. Hor. Sal. i. 6. 79 with Heindorf's note, and Kühner on Tusc. i. 8. 15 'Epicharmi, acuti nec insulsi hominis, ut Siculi, sententiam sequi,' who points out that the restrictive force of ut as in the last instance for a Sicilian' is quite different from the force which it has in expressions like that in the text, and in Tusc. i. 43. 104. Diogenes . . . ut Cynicus, asperior.' Ellendt here quotes numerous instances of each force. For refutare, a frequentative from rt. fu=xv: cp. Corssen, i. p. 159, and note on § 203.

6. domesticis testibus = dictis testium

domesticorum: cp. pro Mil. 18. 47‘iacent suis testibus. For other instances of the abl. instrum. being used of persons cp. Roby, $ 1220; Madvig, $ 254, obs. 3. In such cases the noun always has some attribute.

8. For the phrase quocum erat of marriage cp. pro Quinct. 24. 77 'Q. Roscio, cuius soror est cum P. Quinctio. Lucius Cicero is only mentioned here: for his son Lucius,' frater noster cognatione patruelis, amore germanus,' as Cicero calls him, cp. de Fin. v. i i.; ad Att. i. 5. I.

matertera, Helvia, the sister of Cicero's mother.

9. in Ciliciam : cp. i. 18. 82: Introd. p. 13

10. decesserat, the regular word for leaving a province for Rome, e.g. pro Planc. 26. 65. Cp. Drakenborch on Liv. xxviii. 28. 7; Kritz on Sall. Jug. 20. 1; Kühner on Tusc. ii. 25. 61; or Ellendt on Brut. i. 1.

11. consobrinis, here used in its strict sense for ‘mother's sisters' sons:' the word has however sometimes the more extended meaning of our own.cousin,' e g. de Off. i 17, 54 with Holden's note. Although the derivation from soror is unquestionable, it is not clear how we ought to explain the b, for which cp. Schleicher, Comp. Sp.256 (§ 157c.); Corssen, Nachtr. 191 f. : Brugman in Curtius' Studien, ix. 393. For Aculeo and his son Gaius Visellius Varro, see note on i. 43. 191. It is possible that Ellendt and Sor are right in holding these filii to have been stepsons, but as there is no authority for the familia to which Aculeo belonged, and no evidence of an earlier marriage of Helvia, the question cannot be decided.

12. Crasso placerent, 'found favour

quibus ille uteretur, erudiremur, etiam illud saepe intelleximus, cum essemus eius domi, quod vel pueri sentire poteramus, illum et Graece sic loqui, nullam ut nosse aliam linguam videretur, et doctoribus nostris ea ponere in percontando eaque ipsum omni

in sermone tractare, ut nihil esse ei novum, nihil inauditum 5 3 videretur. De Antonio vero, quamquam saepe ex humanissimo homine patruo nostro acceperamus, quem ad modum ille vel Athenis vel Rhodi se doctissimorum hominum sermonibus dedisset, tamen ipse adulescentulus, quantum illius ineuntis aetatis meae patiebatur pudor, multa ex eo saepe quaesivi. Non erit 10 profecto tibi, quod scribo, hoc novum ; nam iam tum ex me audiebas mihi illum ex multis variisque sermonibus nullius rei,

quae quidem esset in eis artibus, de quibus aliquid existimare 4 possem, rudem aut ignarum esse visum. Sed fuit hoc in utroque 2. cum essemus eius modi codd. quod frustra defendere conatus est Bak. : inclusit K. post Ell. domi P.S. post Gulielmum

12. rei om. B?, inclusit K.

with Crassus,' not as Pid. understanding sarchus, at Rhodes Apollonius and Molon. *ut disceremus.'

Cp i. 18. 82; 19. 85; Introd. p. 45. I. uteretur, 'attended,' e. g. Staseas : 9 adulescentulus : Cicero was in his see i. 22. 104.

twentieth year when Antonius was mur. 2. cum essemus, not, as Sorof, when- dered. With regard to the form adulever we were:' there are very few, if any, Ell. says “[haec] scriptura semper in passages in Cicero, where cum is so used nonnullis, raro in optimis libris invenitur.' with the conj. (cp. Roby, $ 1716, 1717, But this is correct only for the inferior. and note on i. 54. 232), but simply being, MSS. of this work. The evidence of the as we were.'

best MSS of Plautus and Terence bears eius domi: the reading of the MSS. out the rule of Caper (de Orthogr., p. eius modi cannot be defended: in all the 2243, 44 P.) .adulescens nomen est : adopassages which Bake adduces, ut follows. lescens participium est.' For Plautus, cp. But the correction domi is an easy one Ritschl, Proll. p. xcv 'adulescens, cuius [so Hermann corrects κινήσω for νικήσω vicariam adolescens formam vix unquam in Iph. Aul. 1249: cp. colorum for locorum boni libri sine discrepantia agnoscunt.' in $ 54]: in domo eius is more common, Ср. і. 2. 4. but cp. pro Cluent. 60. 165.huius domi ineuntis aetatis, `youth.' Halm on est mortuus: ' Phil. ii. 19.48.cuius domi.' pro Leg. Man. i. 1 points out that ab

vel pueri: Cicero could not have ineunte aetate in Cicero always denotes been more than fourteen or fifteen years ' from the beginning of my life as a citizen.' of age : Quintus was three or four years So on de Off. i. 34. 122, Holden notes younger.

inire aetatem dicitur ab iis annis, quibus 3. nullam: ut is usually put by Cicero pueritia finitur:' cp. ib. ii. 13. 44, and after negatives and vix, and generally after above, i. 21. 97. Cp. Liv. xlii. 34 any word which is to be brought into pro- primum in aetatem veni, pater mihi uxorem minence : cp. Lael. 23. 87 congressus ut dedit.' hominum fugiat;' ut nihil' (1. 5) is an in- 13. in eis artibus, i. e. grammar and stance of the less usual order. Madvig, rhetoric. Ell. with most MSS. reads his, § 465 b, obs.

but the correction of Henrichsen is adopted 4. ponere =T10éval, “to suggest subjects by all other editors. The form iis given (Dégels):' cp. i. 22. 102; 33. 149.

by Pid, and Sorof is not so good for 7. vel . . vel, alike .. and :' Roby, Cicero: cp. Ritschl, Proll. p. xcviii, and § 2220.

Kühner, i.

p. 388. See however Neue 8. doctissimorum hominum : at Formenl. ii.* 196. Athens Menedemus, Charmadas, and Mne- 14. fuit hoc ... ut: cp. Madvig, $ 374.

cum

i. § 3

eorum, ut Crassus non tam existimari vellet non didicisse, quam illa despicere et nostrorum hominum in omni genere prudentiam Graecis anteferre; Antonius autem probabiliorem hoc populo

orationem fore censebat suam, si omnino didicisse numquam 5 putaretur; atque ita se uterque graviorem fore, si alter con

temnere, alter ne nosse quidem Graecos videretur; quorum 5 consilium quale fuerit, nihil sane ad hoc tempus; illud autem est huius institutae scriptionis ac temporis, neminem eloquentia

non modo sine dicendi doctrina, sed ne sine omni quidem sapientia 10 florere umquam et praestare potuisse. Etenim ceterae fere artes 2

se ipsae per se tuentur singulae; bene dicere autem, quod est scienter et perite et ornate dicere, non habet definitam aliquam regionem, cuius terminis saepta teneatur : omnia, quaecumque

in hominum disceptationem cadere possunt, bene sunt ei dicenda,

2. in omni genere, 'in every depart. 66: cp. in Pis. 28. 68 'recte an secus nihil ment.' Nägelsb. Stil. p. 184. For the ad nos: aut si ad nos, nihil ad hoc tempus.' defining genitive (here studiorum or rerum) illud, of what follows, “this.' Madvig, omitted after 'genus,' cp. Reid on Acad. § 485 b.

9. non modo, 'I will not say.' Mady. 3. Graecis Graecorum prudentiae :

§ 461 b. cp. i. 4. 15 (note).

10. praestare, 'excel,' rarely used thus probabiliorem : i. 28. 129 (note). absolutely; but cp. iii. 33, 135; Brut. 64.

hoc populo, ' with a nation like ours :' 230; de Fin. v. 14. 40: Cicero generally cp. iii. 1. 2 illo senatu:' de Leg. iii. 16. adds 'ceteris,' or some definite object in 37‘non quid hoc populo obtineri possit.' the dative (e.g. i. 44. 197): the construcRoby, $ 1242. Mr. Reid however suggests tion with the acc. is found in Varro and that 'populo' is more probably dative, often in Livy, but not in Cicero or Caesar. and •hoc' the ablative, anticipatory of Roby, $ 1121. Of course Cicero often has the clause 'si ... putaretur.'

the acc. where the verb has the sense 4. censebat: for the slight anacolu- guarantee,' be responsible for' (below, thon involved in the change from the de- § 124), 'discharge' ($ 38), 'prove' (iii. pendent to the independent structure, cp. 33, 134), etc. Tusc. i. 1. I non quia philosophia

se ipsae: Madvig, § 487 b: Graecis et litteris et doctoribus percipi Mayor on Phil. ii, 118. non posset, sed meum semper iudicium bene dicere : here only the three most fuit,' etc. Cp. Madvig, Excursus I on De important parts of oratory (inventio, disFinibus. Mr. Reid on pro Arch. i. I positio, elocutio) are included. The defi., notes · Roman juries, like some English nition is more complete in i. 11.48 ; 15.64. solicitors, looked on the literary barrister Cp. Introd. p. 53. Translate with knowas unpractical : hence the faltering way in ledge (of the subject-matter), skill in which Cicero owns to a knowledge of arrangement), and elegance (of style).' Greek literature in passages like pro Mur. 13. saepta not saeptum, as though bene 63. This is another instance of the way dicendi ars had preceded. Cp. pro Mur. in which Cicero ascribes his own senti- 13. 29 deinde vestra responsa atque ments and practice to Crassus. Cp. note decreta et evertuntur saepe dicendo et on i. 42. 190.

sine defensione oratoris firma esse non 7. quale, i. e. how just or wise.

possunt. In qua (sc. arte dicendi) si satis sane, certainly,' here simply inten- profecissem, parcius de eius laude dicesive of nihil, as in Sall. Cat. 16. 5 Senatus rem.' [Zumpt alters to quol. For the nihil sane intentus:' ad Q. Fratr. i. 2. 37 metaphor, cp. i. 61. 266; for the form

nihil sane esset, quod nos poeniteret.' Its saepire, i. 31. 142 (note). force is either (1) as I admit,' or (2) as 14. cadere : § 113 •quae in discepevery one admits.'

tationem et controversiam cadere posad hoc tempus, sc. pertinet, as in iii. 18. sint.'

II.

6

IO

qui hoc se posse profitetur, aut eloquentiae nomen relinquendum 6 est. Qua re equidem et in nostra civitate et in ipsa Graecia, quae

semper haec summa duxit, multos [et ingeniis et] magna laude dicendi sine summa rerum omnium scientia fuisse fateor ; talem vero exsistere eloquentiam, qualis fuit in Crasso et Antonio, non

5 cognitis rebus omnibus, quae ad tantam prudentiam pertinerent,

tantamque dicendi copiam, quanta in illis fuit, non potuisse con7 firmo. Quo etiam feci libentius, ut eum sermonem, quem illi

quondam inter se de his rebus habuissent, mandarem litteris, vel ut illa opinio, quae semper fuisset, tolleretur, alterum non doctissimum, alterum plane indoctum fuisse; vel ut ea, quae existimarem a summis oratoribus de eloquentia divinitus esse dicta, custodirem litteris, si ullo modo adsequi complectique potuissem ; vel mehercule etiam ut laudem eorum iam prope 3. [et ingeniis et] suppositicia esse viderunt PK Ad. et ingeniis magnos et laude e conj.

Ell.: alii alia temptaverunt. et ingeniis insignes et magna laude S. 1. aut, or else :' Madvig, $ 436. had an unseasonable remembrance of

eloquentiae nomen : cp. i. 26. 120 Cicero's repeated assertion that natural • impudentiae nomen effugere debemus.' abilities without extensive learning will not

2. equidem. Cicero seems to have suffice for real eloquence. As Adler justly thought that this word was connected says, if Cicero had wished to express that with ego, and never uses it except with the view here he would certainly have written first person singular: cp. Madv. Opusc. i. "multos ingeniis insignes magna laude 497: Ribbeck, Lat. Part. pp. 37 ff. But the dicendi fuisse.' The objection made on the word is compounded of the interjectional score of the plural ingeniis is not valid. e- and quidem (not as Roby, $ 531, suggests Cicero sometimes uses the plural for the of et) : cp. Corssen, ii?. 856f; and is some- natural powers of several persons, though times, though rarely, used with other per- not of one : cp. note on $11. sons: cp. Sall. Cat. 52. 16 . quare vanum 6. pertinerent, 'contributed towards' equidem hoc consilium est :' ib. 58. 4 or to produce.'

scitis equidem milites.' Ritschl, Proll. 7. confirmo, rather more than 'affirm :' Ixxv-lxix rejected this construction from . I maintain' my previous assertion. Plautus, and wrote 'non recurret opinor 8. Quo, etc. Hence I was the more furca expulsum equidem,' but was afterwards desirous to commit to writing.' Roby, convinced by Ribbeck's arguments and re- § 1700. stored it in Trin. 352. 611: cp. Opusc. v. 10. fuisset, plupf. conj. by a kind of 335: Goetz on Epid. 603. See also Kühner, attraction: cp. Acad. ii. 3. 9 'cum eo ii. 606-608. Gildersleeve on Pers. i. 110. Catulus et Lucullus nosque ipsi postridie

We should more naturally have made venissemus, quam apud Catulum fuissethe first clause subordinate to the second, mus.' The construction is analogous to not coordinate: 'though I admit ... yet that with the impf. conj. explained in I maintain,' etc.

Madvig, $ 383 with obs. 1. 3. haec, i.e. studia, these pursuits.' II. vel ... vel shows that the various

[et ingeniis et]: the MS. reading here motives were regarded as singly adequate, is ungrammatical: the descriptive abla- and also as consistent with each other. tive cannot be used without a predicate 12. divinitus : i. 7. 28 (note). (Roby, § 1230): hence some have conjec- 13. si ullo modo: in iii. 4. 14 ff. Cicero tured the loss of an adjective (Kühner, admits that his report of the discourse of 'ingeniis magnis,'Sorof, ingeniis insignes'), Crassus falls short of its actual eloquence. while Müller and Henr. read floruisse for 14; potuissem, 'could succeed in attain. fuisse. But the sentence runs much better ing: ' possem,' would have implied only without the bracketed words; they look had the ability to attain :' cp. Roby, like the marginal gloss of a reader who § 1454. 2.

senescentem, quantum ego possem, ab oblivione hominum atque a silentio vindicarem. Nam si ex scriptis cognosci ipsi suis 8 potuissent, minus hoc fortasse mihi esse putassem laborandum ; sed cum alter non multum, quod quidem exstaret, et id ipsum 5 adulescens, alter nihil admodum scripti reliquisset, deberi hoc a me tantis hominum ingeniis putavi, ut, cum etiam nunc vivam illorum memoriam teneremus, hanc immortalem redderem, si possem ; quod hoc etiam spe adgredior maiore ad probandum, 9

quia non de Ser. Galbae aut C. Carbonis eloquentia scribo 10 aliquid, in quo liceat mihi fingere, si quid velim, nullius memoria

iam me refellente, sed edo haec eis cognoscenda, qui eos ipsos, de quibus loquor, saepe audierunt; ut duos summos viros eis, qui neutrum illorum viderint, eorum, quibus ambo illi oratores cogniti sint, vivorum et praesentium memoria teste commendemus.

1. senescentem, opposed to vigentem : cp. i. 58. 247 non vides veteres legesipsas sua vetustate consenuisse;' de Nat. Deor. ii. 19.49‘hiems senescens. Nägelsb. Stil. p. 377.

2. ipsi suis. Madvig, $ 487 b.

3. hoc ... laborandum: the acc. of the neuter pronoun might have been used after laborare (Roby, $ 1094): hence the construction with the gerundive.

4. alter : sc. Crassus.

non multum. Orat. 38. 132 Sed Crassi perpauca sunt, nec ea iudiciorum :' his published speeches were political orations, especially the ‘suasio legis Serviliae' and de colonia Narbonensi’ (Introd. pp. 8-12; Brut. 43-4, 158-162). He had only published a few passages from his other speeches.

exstaret, because of 'putavi.'

5. adulescens : Crassus was in his twenty-second year at the time of the later of his two published speeches. There is a slight zeugma : we may supplyóscripsisset.'

nihil admodum. The exact meaning of this phrase has been much discussed. Ellendt in his note here argues for the meaning 'fere nihil,' on the ground that Antonius had left «de ratione dicendi sane exilem libellum' (Brut. 44. 163: i. 21. 9+): but Hand's argument (Tursell. i. 173 f.) is quite sound that this could give no just idea of his oratorical power. So in Brut. 9. 35, where Cicero says 'plane quidem perfectum et cui nihil admodum desit Demosthenem facile dixeris,' Ell. argues for the same force, because in Or. 29. 104, Cicero expresses himself as not

absolutely satisfied even with Demosthenes. But surely cui nihil admodum desit’ is quite equivalent to'plane perfectum.' In Brut 58. 210 ‘Curio litterarum nihil admodum sciebat'the context shows thatCurio was absolutely ignorant of literature. The same force must be given in Liv. xxiii. 29. 14 'equestris pugna nulla admodum fuit' (cp. 46. 10), xl. 59. 2 “armorum magnam vim transtulit, nullam pecuniam admodum. Hence the attempted distinction between 'nihil admodum' and • admodum nihil' must be abandoned, and we must translate here • absolutely nothing,' not as Pid. 'almost as good as nothing. Cp. also Müller on Seyffert's Lael. 4. 16. With adjectives it is admitted to make no difference whether admodum is prefixed or follows.

hoc, i. e. this tribute,' as in l. 3, 'hoc' =“this task.' Nägelsb. Stil. p. 124.

8. quod . ad probandum. The construction here is slightly confused : ' ad probandum' is adapted to the preceding

aggredior,' whereas we should have expected 'spe’ to be followed by ' me probaturum. We may suppose Cicero to have been influenced either by the common use of quod introductory' (cp. Madvig on de Fin. i. 67), or by ad quod probandum : ' aggredior is used of course with or without ad: cp. Brut. 37. 139 imparatus semper aggredi ad dicendum videbatur' (Roby, § 1145). hoc, abl. anticipatory of. quia ... edo.'

9. Galbae : i. 10. 40. (note).
Carbonis : ib. Introd. p. 8.
14. praesentium, “still among us.'

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