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7000, and the annual public revenue £100,000, being upwards of £14 per head. *
The town of Christchurch, which I have just mentioned, is the capital of the province, centrally situated
* Note added some time after the Lecture was delivered.—[It should be observed, however, that the greater part of this was not, properly speaking, income, as it arose from sales of the waste or public lands of this Colony ; which, as it is needless to point out, is not income but capital, and will eventually come to an end, as the whole land of the Province passes into private hands. But allowing for this, the above statement remains substantially true; and we must remember that we are comparing the Colony with other Colonies to which this same remark in qualification must be applied.
The disposal of this revenue, moreover, is always, to a great extent, such as is proper for resources partaking so largely of the nature of capital. Much of it goes to the expense of Immigration -the importation of labour. This is a main want, as has been said, of every new country ; but, as the country grows older, the need of this artificial stimulus to population diminishes, and ult:mately ceases. The expenditure, therefore, is terminable, as part of the revenue is to which it corresponds.
Another great article of expenditure is that of Public Works ; which, when on a large scale, when the cost is great and mainly in the first construction, and when the works are to be permanent and largely reproductive, are legitimately chargeable on the capital stock of the community. The chief instance of this at Canterbury is the railway from Port Lyttelton direct by a tunnel through the hills to Christchurch and the plains—a work, of course, of the first magnitude and importance, and destined, we may hope, to overcome the only great obstacle that has existed to the development of the Colony : namely, the obstruction caused, by the hills I have mentioned, to easy communication between the port and the plains. It has just been contracted for at a sum of near a quarter of a million. I may also mention a grant which was recently made, of £10,000, towards the erection of churches and other places of Worship, out of the Provincial surplus revenue—a grant such as is not commonly made in these
among its fat pastures and level plains. It is only according to the universal habit of English Colonists, that the names of their towns and rivers should be chosen so as to recall those of the old country; as in Canterbury we find, among the ugly native names of Waimakariri, days, but which seems naturally called for in a community where relatively the public wealth is much beyond that of individuals.
With regard to the general prosperity of the Colony, I must add, that some months ago the London managers of the Union Bank of Australia, which has a Branch at Canterbury, thought it necessary to make a gentle application of what is so well known to the monetary world as the “screw," to the operations of the said Branch. This, no doubt, was not only inevitable, but salutary, as it is elsewhere, in checking a somewhat dangerous and excessive sanguineness and spirit of speculation which threatened to arise. The effect in so small a community was, of course, immediately perceptible. It checked land-sales and lowered the wages of labour ; so that some discontent was felt among the working-classes, and meetings were held among them, where the said discontent was openly expressed. There was, however, no want of employment, but much refusal of employment at the wages offered, especially in the Government works. But this was in no case less than 5s. a day; and the general ground of complaint may be estimated from the speech of one of the workmen, who said, that he had to stand with his legs half-way up in slush, to work for 78. a day. Think what a Dorsetshire labourer would say to that, in a country where, though houserent and bread are dear, clothing and meat are as cheap as in England. By the last accounts, this pressure was already passing away. But we should learn from it the importance of inculcating on the minds of labourers intending to emigrate, that no one can possibly guarantee them any given rate of wages, nor assure to them and to their adopted country any immunity from the ordinary fluctuation of prices of all kinds. We can only speak to them in general terms, such as are warranted by Colonial experience : any particulars that are given, are only stated as those which happen to be correct by the most recent accounts.]
Rakaia, Kaiapoi, the ancient historical sounds of Courtenay, Lincoln, Harewood, and Ellesmere. But besides the old ecclesiastical name of Canterbury, given to the whole Colony, the town of Christchurch in particular bears in the titles of its streets and squares prominent marks of the Church character impressed on the early existence of the settlement. Its chief square is Cathedral Square : and its main streets are named after the centres of English and Irish Dioceses, as Lichfield and Hereford, Cashel and Armagh.
A building worthy of the name of a Cathedral they have not yet ; but they probably may in no very long time. Some years ago I made a sort of promise to a party of Canterbury emigrants—a promise never forgotten in the Colony—that I would go and see them about the time when they should have a Cathedral built, which, I said, might be in about fifteen years from that date. They possibly may have it in a shorter time than that; but whether I shall ever go is more doubtful : though if the Great Eastern Leviathan of the ocean should be able to go-as it well may—to New Zealand in little more than a month’s voyage, it would be no very formidable undertaking.
On the general religious state of the Colony, as on the other points, I will only say a word. In this matter too we met with some delays and partial disappointments. As one instance, we hoped to have had a Bishop in the settlement almost at the outset ; whereas the excellent man who was at length appointed, Bishop Harper of Christchurch, did not arrive in the Colony till Christmas 1856. But in this main respect too I do not fear to assert that we have obtained substantial success. At the first meeting of the first Legislative Council of Canterbury, all its members, about twelve in number, with, I believe, one accidental exception, attended divine service, and received together the Holy Communion. There is now a flourishing College in the Colony; but from its earliest days I believe it may be said of it, as could perhaps be said of no other, that hardly one of its inhabitants, except some in outlying stations, has been unable to find religious education for his children, as well as religious provision for himself.
Such are a few particulars of the origin and condition of the Canterbury Colony. Its future destinies are known to Him, who comprehends the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighs the hills in a balance. But it may not be wrong to say that it was founded from pure motives, and a true desire to serve the cause of Christian colonization ; and that its present state is such as to warrant an humble hope that it may be held worthy in some measure of the blessing conveyed in the words, “Them that honour me I will honour.”
MEMORIAL TO THE LORDS OF THE COMMITTEE OF PRIVY. COUNCIL ON EDUCATION,
ON THE REVISED CODE.
Written on behalf of the Committee of the Church Defence
Association for the Rural Deanery of Kidderminster.*
Your Memorialists, in addressing your Lordships on the subject of the Revised Code of Regulations lately issued by your Lordships, desire in the first place to say, that they do not intend to object to that Code as a whole, nor to dissent from its general object. On the contrary, if that object be to call forth more and more the local, as distinct from the central resources of the country, in support of Elementary Education, they wish to express their approval of that object.
Further, if it may correctly be stated that there are two points in the Code, of sufficient importance to be regarded as principles, viz.—1st, The making public aid to schools depend, as far as possible, on their actual performance of their work; and 2dly, The leaving the services of School Teachers of all kinds to be agreed
* [To parts of this Memorial I would particularly apply what I say in the Preface as to erroneous opinions ; indeed, I have said as much in Parliament. But that there is still room for grave apprehension on some of the most important points here treated I would maintain from the statements of the Queen's Inspector, especially that of Mr. Moncrieff, in the Minutes of the Committee of Council for 1864.]