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CHAP. X.-State of several Southern tribes during the last cen-
tury-The English send deputies to the CHEROKEES, in 1756—
Their lives threatened, and saved by ATTAKULLAKULLA-Ac-
count of that Chieftain and his principles—The party opposed
to him headed by OcconOSTOTA-War with the Colonies in
1759 and two years following-Anecdotes of both these Chiefs
CHAP. XV.-MICHIKINAQWA, or the LITTLE-TURTLE-Early his-
tory-Engages in a combination of the Indians against the Uni-
No. IV. Speech of the same at Warren Court-House.
No. V. LITTLE-Farmer's letter to the Hon. W. Eustis.
No. VI. Obituary Notice of Brandt.
No. VII. Crawford's letter to the Governor of Canada,
Notices of Indians who submitted to Massachusetts,
continued–The SQUAW-Sachem of Medford-Her history, family, &c.—Her sons, Sagamore John and Sagamore James-Their intercourse with the English-Anecdotes of them-Complaints, services, death and character-ChickATAROT, Sachem of NeponsetHis war with the Squaw-Sachem--Visits Boston seyeral times—Appears in court against. Plastowe-Anecdotes of his Government-Indian policy of Massachusetts compared with that of Plymouth-Anecdotes of Chickatabot-His death.
Having heretofore had occasion frequently to introduce the names of Indians who subjected themselves, more or less, to the Government of Massachusetts, we propose in this chapter to notice a few of the most prorninent of that class, who have not yet been mentioned.*
Some years previous to the arrival of the English, the various Massachusetts tribes, properly so called, are believed to have been confederated, like the Pokanokets and others, under the government of one great Sachem, whose name was NANEPASHEMET, or the New-Moon. His usual residence was in Medford, near Mystic Pond. He was killed in 1619,by what enemy is unknown. Two years afterwards, a
See a sketch of Cutchannequin, of Braintee, in Chapter XI, Vol. I.
Plymouth party visited this section; and they then discovered the remains of one of Nanepashemet's forts. It was built in a valley. There was a trench about it, breast-high, with a periphery of palisades reaching up more than thirty feet. It was accessible only in one direction, by a narrow bridge. The Sachem's grave had been made under the frame of a house within the enclosure, which was still standing; and another, upon a neighboring hill, marked the spot where he fell in battle. His dwelling-house had been built on a large scaffold, six feet high, also near the summit of a hill.* It is evident that Nanepashemet was a chieftain of very considerable state and power.
His successor, to a certain extent, was his widow, well known in history as the Squaw-Sachem, and otherwise called the Massachusetts Queen. It is probably from the latter circumstance, in part, that some modern historians have described her as inheriting the power of her husband; but this is believed to be incorrect. We find no evidence of it among the old writers; though it appears, on the other hand, that some of the other Massachusetts tribes were at war with her's, when the English first made her acquaint
It seems highly probable, that these were the enemy-rebels, we should perhaps say—whom Nanepashemet fell in attempting to subdue. His failure and death were sufficient, without the aid of that terrible pestilence which reduced the number of the Massachusetts warriors from three thousand to three hundred, to prevent any attempts on the part of his widow, for recovering or continuing his own ancient dominion.
Still, the Squaw-Sachem governed at least the remnants of one tribe. She also laid claim to territory in various places, and among the rest to what is now Concord, a grant of which place she joined with two or three other Indians in conveying to the original settlers, in 1635. Previous to this date, she