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these auxiliaries to speed from habitation to some watering-places, Cheltenham, for inhabitation, and proclaim a cure in that stu- stance, to receive forty per cent. from underpendous byperbole of language which mag- takers for the recommendation of funerals, nifies a scratcu into a cancer, and an itch into which always goes to swell the expenses of a leprosy. In one essential point, such state- the survivors. ments are invariably defective. When the tem- Such is an outline of the system of base and ple of Neptune, and the pictures of those who despicable artifices, the adepts in which suchad escaped shipwreck, were shown to Dio- ceed. We are aware that it requires a pargenes, he was asked if he thought it folly to in- ticular ingenuity, and an exquisite exercise of voke Neptune in a tempest? Diogenes replied, low cunning, to make it work well. Hence Where are they painted who are drowned ?" imitators generally fail, and even originals,

" It was asserted by one of these persons, after ten years' experience, are often liable to that her favourite performer of cures • had precipitate falls, though seldom, we regret to studied anatomy in caves under the earth,' say, before fortunes have been secured. We and had restored a child to life by encrust- oftet meet with men of this description, as ing it with dough, and baking it in an Dr. Baynard observes, “ of no mean magnioren."'-P. 253.

tude once, but now despised and spit upon ; These ladies, and their co-operators, the fellows

who, lodging-bouse-keepers and kept women, are having outlived that set of fools that once ad employed by the cure-monger to practise the mired' them, can beget no more.” In this most base and shameful arts to decoy patients review, we have borne in mind Lord Bacon, from other medical men. A physician of who, speaking of the abuses wherewith the celebrity in Bath, a few weeks since, ex- profession of physic "is noted to be affected," pressed his disgust with a profession in which, ' says, “ It were good to make a list of theor; he affirmed, his last case had depended upon for nothing doth more hurt than that cunning the issue of a contest for the choice of men men should succeed." But we earnestly warn between the cook and housemaid. Certain our readers against confounding the class of English physicians, at Paris, are known to men described with what are called “ rank set their housekeepers to entertain all the ser quacks." Rank quackery sufficiently exvant-girls who arrive, and find the plan ex- poses itself in a newspaper or upon a wall ; tremely profitable.

and none are dupes but those who seek it with The fifth means is gaining a name “ by their eyes open. The quackery which we books instead of booths ;” or, in other words, have described, is practised by men who acby innumerable publications, hawked about count themselves any thing but rank quacks, to public rooms, and hotels, laid on the tables or obnoxious to the obloquy that blackens the of circulating libraries and reading-rooms, public and avowed professors. The mass of and advertised, during the season, in the local them are graduates of St Andrew's, or of that new papers.

serviceable, but very heterogeneous body, the The sixth plan is the prostitution of religion general practitioners, and a very large proto physic. This trick is so common in all portion mere druggists, or men without any professions, that it is unnecessary to par- professional bringing-up whatever, who have ticularise the mode in which it is made avail- gradually usurped the multifarious calling of able for this one.

surgeons, apothecaries, men-midwives, ocuAmong other miscellaneous means which lists, and what not. Of course, where such are employed to fleece the turba ingens persons are all grouped and combined together, stuitorum," are the interested connexions the public judgment is utterly depraved and which are formed between physicians and vitiated, and men of talent and solid qualiticadruggists. The druggist gives the physician tions, who cannot lower themselves to their a per centage on bis prescriptions, either in arts, bave not a shadow of a chance. As in an open or covert form, and all his recom- law, the petty and notorious pettifogger, mnendations, which are very considerable, from though most exclaimed against, commits not large establishments in places filled by stran- half so extensive villany as the rich and apgers. The physician, in return, puffs and parently respectable knave, it so happens in prescribes the nostrums of the druggist (for physic that is eminent class of quacks is inexample, imitations of the salts of this or that finitely the most mischievous. It is very difspa), and robs every other house of its cus- ficult for us to determine why an individual tomers to serve him.

should be absolved from all the responsibility “ These pulse-pads, these bed-side banditti, and odium of charlatanism, merely because he that go snacks with their apothecaries, are has gone through the regular forms of one or villains of the first magnitude. Here the other division of his profession, or because he patient is in a sad predicament, being sure to avoids the gross exterior signs of quackery. be springed upon according to the depth of The man who perpetuates an organised syshis own purse, or the doctor's conscience; and tem of tricks and devices, is equally culpable, this I call both felony and murder; for the man whereveror however he may have been trained is first robbed and then killed.”—P. 267. in the profession. It is no palliation, but an

It is also customary for some physicians in aggravation of the conduct of any such man

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to say—“ But he demonstrated for Joshua lacked for the purpose; the vice was justitied Brookes for twelve months-he is a regular by the virtue. / Polygamy was allowed ; and bred man-he is a member of the College of the women, as in all savage communities, Surgeons." As much may be urged for were a degraded sex. As in India, widows Messrs. Goss and Co.- they are members of were consumed on tbe funeral piles of their the Royal College of Surgeons. Yet this is husbands; and according to the Arabic the shallow sophistry by which the deluded geographer, Yakut, she was not the only individuals, who lavish their money and con- victim; a slave was also sacrificed in the fidence upon knaves and impostors, excuse

This inhuman custom, their folly. Again, since it is generally ac- which both the Indians and the Slavi proknowledged that quacks are the most con- bably derived from the same source, was temptible of human beings, if they fail, it is originally founded on the notion that wives hard to conceive why they should obtain and slaves were doomed to serve their lords in countenance and popularity, if they succeed. the next world as well as in this; and that But the rule of public opinion in England, as until the former were put to death, the latter in Turkey, arbitrarily decides that " nothing would remain without the necessary aid. may properly be called nefas, if it can but Male children were reared for war; but if the win the epithet of prosperum." Black- female infants of a family were considered 100 wood justly remarks, that " kravery and numerous, they were destroyed at their birth. over-reaching have become thirgs to be A custom still more horrid was that of chilboasted of amongst us, and in this nice time dren leaving their aged and helpless parents may not be spoken against "

to expire for want.
But the root of the evil lies in the folly of But with all their ferocity and barbarism,
the people themselves, who go to these places, the early Russians were not unacquainted
and fall at once into their habits. A stranger with the softer arts of life.
inquires-“Who is your principal pric- “ In the sixth century, the northern Wi-
titioner?" and, five times out of six, is re- nidæ (a widely extended branch of the Slavi,
commended to some disgraceful character, or perhaps but anotber name for the old race)
who has risen by the arts which we have de- told the Emperor of Constantinople that
scribed ; and if it be but said, “O! he makes music was their greatest pleasure, and that
such great cures, and has such an extensive even in their journeys they seldom carried
practice,” the effect is overwhelming. We arms, but always lutes and harps of their own
hope, however, that civilization is advancing workmanship. They had also other instru-
even at our watering-places, and that the fre- ments, which still form the delight of the
quenters of them will no longer consent to Slavonian nations. it was not in the tran-
be wheedled by cook-maids, lodging-house- quillity of peace, and in their own country
keepers, pious persons, and the mere pay of only, that the Slavi indulged in music and
a watering-place, to surrender themselves to rejoicing: even in their warlike expeditions,
a fashionable illiterate purse-milker. Bath, and within sight of the enemy, they sang and
we know, is improving, and many able men made themselves merry. We learn from
are pressing on. Cheltenham, where society Procopius, that when attacked by night,
has yet reached no fixed level, is perhaps the A.D. 592, by a Greek general, the Slavi
most quacked town in the kingdom. Not were so much engrossed by their amusements
less than three physicians of known learning that they were surprised before they could
and abilities have left within these few years, adopt any measures of defence. Many
two of whom have succeeded in raising them- popular Slavonic songs of Lusatia, Luxem-
selves to eminence elsewhere. Leamington, burgb, and Dalmatia, appear very ancient;
we apprehend, is little better.

and so do many Russian couplets now current,
in which the gods of Paganism and the
Danube are celebrated. That river was

dear to our ancestors; for on its banks they CHARACTER OF THE EARLY

made the first essays of their valour, and obRUSSIANS.

tained their first triumphs. Probably those

airs, which were so sweet and peaceful among (From the Foreign Quarterly Review of the Winidæ, while military glory and success Karamsin's History of Russia.

remained unknown to them, were changed
into war-songs when their armies had ap-

proached the Roman empire, and penetrated The character of the Slavi, or early Russians, into Dacia. Hence the origin of poetry, was such as might be expected from their which among all nations is, in its commencehabits--in war courageous, but cruel, and ment, the organ for expressing love and hapgreedy of plunder; in peace barbarous, but piness, and for celebrating the bold deeds of simple and hospitable. So far was hospitality

the warrior."-Vol. i. p. 84. 'carried among them, that if a man were too

To this ardent enthusiasm for song among poor to entertain his guest, he was permitted

* See the trauslation of a curious article on this to steal from his richer neighbour what he suljret, in the Asiatic Journal for July, 1828.

the Slavonian and Tutonic nations, espe- (one of their gods, who was adorned with cially among the Poles, the Tyrolese, and the golden whiskers) was carefully provided with Gerians, we can ourselves bear testimony. a new and costly pair of appendages. But, We well remember-indeed we can never lest these acts of homage should be insufficient forget-bearing full 30,000 soldiers simul- to satisfy his divine protectors, he resolved to taneously join in one of their favourite songs add a human victim. He fixed on a youth, of triumph, as they were returning through a Scandinavian and a Christian, whose father, Germany, from their expedition to France, in not content with opposing the design, railed 1815. The effect was more than tremendous: with all his ight against the idols of the it was awful--far beyond what we had pre- country, and thereby exasperated the inbabitviously imagined possible.

ants of Kief to such a degree, that both he In the earliest stage of their society, the and his son were sacrificed in their own house. Slari had no regular form of government, It is, however, some consolation to think, nor did they recognise any authority beyond that if they were the first, they were also the the natural one which family relations impose. last Christian martyrs in that city ; for not To deliberate on affairs of general concern, only Kief, but the greatest part of Russia the warriors, and those " whom age had was about to embrace the pure faith. We taught wisdom," assembled in some ap- are not informed by what means the zeal of pointed place—often in one of their Pagan the grand duke in the cause of Paganism betemples. But superior bravery and success

gan to cool. Certain it is that he became in war soon brought superior power; mili- displeased with the deities he had made; so tary chiefs became the civil judges; and much so, that he resolved on the introducoften when the son of a hero inherited the tion of a better religion. But how select, great qualities, as well as the substance of when so great a number were offered to his his father, he succeeded to his dignity. choice? We are told that Christians, Maho

“A singular custom has been preserved in metans, and Jews, sent the most learned. of some villages of Lusatia and Brandenburgh: their doctors to demonstrate the superior exthe labourers secretly choose from their own cellency of their respective modes of faith ; body a king, to whom they pay the same each was anxious to boast the honour of contribute as their ancestors paid to the jupans. verting so renowned a Pagan. As this is a Lastly, in Serria, Dalmatia, and Bohemia, subject important in itself we willingly make sovereigns assumed the title of krali, or

room for the following extract:karali, that is, according to some authori- “The first ambassadors," says Karamsin, ties, punishers of crimes, from the word chiefly from Nestor, “were from the Bulgakara, punishment."-Vol. i. p. 92.

rians of the Volga. The religion of MahoThese dignities, however, were not origi met, propagated by the victorious arms of the nally hereditary; indeed, some of them never

Arabs, already reigned over the eastern and became so. The people reserved to them- northern borders of the Caspian ; the Bulgaselves the right of electing, and often of rians also had embraced it, and they wished deposing their chiefs, if convicted, or even Vladimir to do the same. The description suspected of mal-practices. When some of of the Mahomedan paradise, with its smiling them became at length hereditary, the inno- houries, inflamed the imagination of this vation was effected by force; and the people voluptuous prince;* but then he disliked derer ceased to lament the extinction of their circumcision, and the prohibition of wine he right to elect their rulers. In Carinthia the thought foolish. “Wine,' exclaimed he, 'is election of a voyvod, or duke, was accom- the chief delight of the Russians; we cannot panied by a curious ceremony. The object of their choice appeared before the people clothed in the meanest attire. A labourer

* Vladimir was truly the Soloinon of his age, if it

be true that be had four wives and eight hundred Fas seated on a huge stone which served as

concubines. The first of his wives, Rogucda, who a throne; before him the new ruler swore to had been affianced to his brother Yaropolk, whose defend religion and justice, and to support father and brother he had assassinated, and whom widows and orphans. The labourer then de- death of her dearest relations, but not his infidelities. scended from the throne: the duke ascended, She showed her resentment, and was in consequence and every one present swore fidelity to him. driven from his palace, and compelled to reside in a

solitary building on the Libeda, near Kief. There, TUE RELIGION OF THE SLAVI.

however, she was sometimes visited by her busband! As he was one night sleeping by her side, she resolved, in a sudden fit of jealousy and revenge, to take away bis life. She accordingly raised a dagger

to plunge it into his heart; but that instant he The grand duke Vladimir, who piqued opened his eyes, and was fortunate enough to arrest bimself on his superior piety, and who was

the descending blow. He arose, intending to put her

to death, when the child of both rushed between aoxions to testify his gratitude to the gods, them, and besought pardon for the mother. After a for his success in restoring the unity of power, short struggle, nature triumphed: Vladimir emand in increasing his territories by his wars

braced the child, and left the house.

persuaded by his pobles not only to pardon Rogueda, with the surrounding states, caused new sta

hut (probably to remove her) to settle on her the tues to be erected to their bonour, and Perune principality formerly beld by her father.

He was I


do without it.' The deputies from the Ger- worship, and with little favour of the Catho-
man Catholics harangued him on the great- lic; but of the Greek ritual with the greatest
ness of God, and the vanity of idols. Go enthusiasın.”—Vol. i. p. 260.
home,' replied the prince, our forefathers The representations of his deputies, and the
never received a religion from the Pope.' conviction that Olga, “the wisest of inortals,"
After listening to the Jews, he asked them would not have embraced a bad religion, soon
where their country lay. * At Jerusalem,' determined Vladimir. But he had no notion
was the reply ; ' but in his anger God has of being baptized like other men; he could
dispersed us throughout the earth. What!' not allow the humble priests, who had been
said Vladimir, ‘do you, who are the cursed permitted to settle in Kief, to administer the
of God, pretend to teach others ! Away! we sacred rite to him; he could not condescend
have no wish to be without country as you to receive it from any one below an archbishop
are. At length, a Greek philosopher (his at least. Would be solicit the Greek em-
name is unknown), after demonstrating, in a perors (Basil and Constantine then reigned)
few words, the falsity of other religions, ex- for the favour? Not he: he would declare
plained to the grand duke the spirit of the war against them, and compel them to see
Old and New Testament—the creation, ori- that his baptism was celebrated with all due
ginal sin, our first parents, the deluge, the splendour. Hostilities accordingly com-
people of God, redemption, Christianity, the menced, and he eventually succeeded in ob-
seven (Ecumenical councils; finally, he drew taining his admission not only into the
a forcible picture of the last judgment—the Christian church, by no less a dignitary than
subsequent happiness of the blessed, and the the Archbishop of Cherson, but even into the
punishment of the damned. Struck with this imperial family : as he forced the two brothers
description, the prince sighed and said to bestow on him the hand of their sister the

What bliss for the good, and misery for the princess Anne, and returned triumphant to
wicked!" "Be baptized,' replied the philoso- Kief, with his royal spouse, with priests,
pher, ' and heaven will be your inherit- books, vases, and relics without number.

Vladimir was not satisfied with bis own “ Having dismissed this philosopher, conversion ; he insisted that his subjects laden with presents, Vladimir assembled his should imitate his example, and the means he boyards; he acquainted them with the dis- adopted for the purpose were efficacious courses of the Mahometans, Jews, Catholics, enough. He did more in a single day than and Greeks, and requested their opinion. would have been performed by a thousand * Prince,' replied the boyards and elders, preaching missionaries. He began by de

every man praises his own religion ; but if molishing the idols, which had so lately been you wish to choose the best, send wise men the objects of his worship, and which he had into different countries, to ascertain what probably loved the more from their being his people honour God in the manner most own workmanship. Poor Perune found his worthy of him.' Accordingly, the grand fine whiskers of little avail; as he was the duke selected for this purpose ten of the greatest of the gods, so be was doomed to rewisest persons he could find. Among the ceive the greatest measure of contempt. The Bulgarians, they saw nothing but wretched- deitied log was tied to the tail of a borse, and looking temples, tedious prayers, and sorrow- while dragged to the top of a hill to be rolled ful faces ; among the German Catholics, down into the river, it was soundly cudgelled ceremonies without dignity or magnificence. by twelve lusty soldiers. When all these At length they reached Constantinople. visible signs of Paganism were removed, the 'Let them see the glory of our God!' said royal convert ordered that bis subjects should the emperor. Knowing that a barbarous every where confirm to the new faith-an mind is more forcibly struck with external order obeyed without opposition. On a cersplendour than with abstract truths, he con- tain day all the inhabitants of Kief were ducted the ambassadors into the church of assembled on the banks of the Dnieper; and, St. Sophia, where the patriarch himself, in on a signal from the monarch, all plunged into liis pontifical vestments, was celebrating the the river, some to the waist, others to the divine office. The magnificence of the place, neck ; parents held their children in their the presence of the clergy, the splendour of arms while the ceremony was performed by the sacerdotal garb, the ornaments of the the priests in attendance. Thus a nation realtars, the exquisite odour of the incense, the ceived baptism, not only without murmuring, delightful melody of the choristers, the but with cheerfulness; for all were convinced silence of the people, and finally, the holy and that a religion, embraced by the sovereign mysterious majesty of the ceremonies, power- and boyards, must necessarily be the best in fully affected the Russians. They thought the world. In all places, however, this the temple the residence of the Most High, change was not immediate; in some of the and the place where his glory was manifested more sequestered districts Paganism subsisted to mortals. On their return to Kief, they until the twelfth century. gave Vladimir an account of their mission. They spoke with contempt of the Mahometan


sively on it, becomes a queen in all respects.

The birth of a queen is an important event How soon is Beanly's work complete!

in the hive ; for on ber depend the future A glance secures a slave: When Beauty's regal steps they meet,

welfare, and even existence of the society. How humbly bend the brave!

According to the best authority, the nascent And Beauty deigns po look but one,

queen finds herself in undisputed possession One inakes the conquest sure :

of the government, as her predecessor and Her locks outslıine the lucid dawn,

parent, guided by unerring instinct, leaves And bid ber power endure.

the hive, at the head of a swarm, a few days How true the winning words appear,

or hours before her birth. The very first act On Beauty's lips that dwell:

of authority, on the part of the new sovereign, When Beauty's voice enchants the ear, and indeed the act of the first hour of her No wisdom breaks the spell.

existence, is one of apparently unnatural Alas! my beating heart is lost,

severity. Diligently exploring the royal As I on Beauty gaze: Amid a sea of passions tost,

cradles, she inserts into each her long curved I follow all her ways.-Oriental Herald.

sting, and kills every royal pupa. Often, the workers endeavour to prevent the deadly act

“ No sooner," says Huber, “ does she ap

proach, than the bees bite, pull, and harass CURIOUS OBSERVATIONS ON BEES.

her, so that she is forced to remove; but the

royal cells being numerous, scarce can she (From the American Quarterly Review. find a place of rest. Incessantly animated

with the desire of attacking the other queens,

and as incessantly repelled, she becomes THE QUEEN BEE.

agitated, and hastily traverses the different The queen bee, distinguished by her su- groups of workers, to which she communiperior size and dignified carriage, her short cates her disorder. At this moment nunand feeble wings, her long and curved weapon, bers of bees rush towards the aperture of the her higber colour, and the care, attention, hive, and, accompanied by the young queen, and respect of her numerous subjects, is sel- forsake it, to seek another habitation. "After dom seen by the apiarian, except in the bive the departure of the colony, the remaining of glass, or at the head of a swarm, when a workers set another queen at liberty, and colony is sent forth from the parent hive. drive her from the royal cells; she also, perOne of our most eminent apiarians, in a petually harassed, becomes agitated, departs, close watcb from gray dawn to sunset, for ten and carries a new swarm along with her. In weeks, did not see the queen make an excur- a populous hive, this scene is repeated, with sion from the hive.

the same circumstances, three or four times The queen, and certain fertile workers, are during summer.” the only mothers of the hive, and they are When the bees, having sufficient room, do oviparous. The eggs, productive of workers, not go off in swarms, the new queen either are laid in common cells; those which form kills her sisters, before they emerge from drones, in longer cells; while those from their cells; or destroys them in single comwhich royal insects are to spring, are depo- bat after they come forth. sited in apartments of a totally different form In these combats the workers take no part; and structure.

but when a stranger of royal degree is put In a few days the egg of a drone, or into a hive they immediately surround her, worker, produces a worm, or larva, which, cling to her, and, finally, either suffocate ber, fed on the pollen of flowers mixed with a or starve her to death. Huber supposel little honey, called “ bee-bread,” after a that, even in this case, the stranger was space of from three to six days, encloses killed by the reigning queen, while Rheim itself in a cocoon, and remains for some time and Schirach ascribed her death to the in the state termed pupa, or aurelia ; and weapons of the workers; but the minute inthen, issuing from its woven tomb, exhibits vestigations of the Rev. W. Dunbar, revealed the lively, useful, winged insect, in its full the more inglorious cause of destruction. developinent. The worker appears on the That such is the mode of destroying her, twenty-first day: the drone, on the twenty- is proved even by Huber's experiments. On fifth ; and the queen, on the sixteenth. the loss of a queen, if a stranger be intro

The food of the royal larva is termed duced within twelve hours, she is soon found “royal jelly;" and is a pungent acidulous dead. If less than eighteen hours have substance, entirely different from common elapsed, she is at first imprisoned; but finally bee-bread. Fertile workers are supposed to escapes, and governs the hive. After an inowe their developed ovaries to the accidental terregnum of twenty-four hours, the new use of a small portion of royal jelly, because queen is joyfully and instantly received, and a Forker's grub, three days old, fed exclu- admitted to the sovereignty of the hire.

* B

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