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1370 insane from drunkenness; the liver is lation-totally distinct from disorders of confessedly affected by ardent spirits, and circulation originating from without-when thus apparently by sympathy-for want of a the blood is either excessive or defective. better name--the brain. In the hospitals of External heat-coups-de-soleil violentexParis, also, 185 out of 2507 were insane ercise--spirits-stimulating aliments, and from drunkenness, and of these 59 women- medicines-mechanical injuries-all excite notwithstanding the supposed comparative the circulation. Any of these stimuli are sobriety of the French people.
capable of producing the diseases usually The morbid state of the viscera occupied called nervous-most of which probably oriin concocting the chyle is, again, sympathe- ginate in a disordered state of the circulatically, a canse of mental derangement. Ir- tion, and lead, first or last, to perfect insanity. ritations in the stomach, through the same On the other hand, if the circulation be demysterious agency, is a inore frequent cause fective, the functions of the brain cannot prothan is usually imagined. Long continued perly be performed. Such is the condition nausea-and violent sea-sickness have pro- of those who are in a state of fatuity. duced mania within Dr. Burrowes's own Here then is a view imperfect confessedly knowledge in three instances. Irritations of of the main causes of insanity-consisting, the intestines, also-worms—bad diet-ap- first, of moral causes, that is, chiefly of exparently, are frequent causes of sympathetic cessive emotions, which operate, sooner or irritation of the brain. Reciprocal sympa- later, upon the circulation, and are thus thies between the brain and the uterine eventually physical ones; next of what are system are frequent and better known. originally physical-hereditary predisposiPuerperal mania is quite common. Of fifty- tion, which seems to amount to constitutional seven cases, not more than half were con- susceptibility-sympathies, that is, local and nected with hereditary predisposition. Scro- organic disorders, which consecutively affect fula is a frightful cause of insanity, and of the brain-and, finally, disorders of the the most inveterate character--for scrofula Derves and the circulation. is almost the despair of medicine.
The medical man, who contents bimself Different temperaments appear to some with observing-above all who renounces the physicians to predispose to particular species mental theory, and gives up the expectation of insanity--the sanguine, tomania—the of curing madness, by reasoning, is appanervous, to both manja and what is termed rently in the right course. The proximate monomania--the dry or melancholic, cha- cause--so far as we can see and act upon it racterised by timidity and inquietude, to -is always physical-always deranging ormelancholy--the moist and choleric, to ma- gans--and anatomy--morbid anatomy and nia and melancholy, and sometimes to fa- physiology-is thus of more importance than tuity—the apoplectic, with a large head, to philosophy. No mental remedies are to be fatuity; but this seems putting the matter hoped for. We know not how the intellect too generally, though, doubtless, constitu- is generated-its ideas furnished, or multitional peculiarities announce the nature of plied, or modified, independent of corporeal approaching diseases.
agency. The disturbance of the brain proOf the infinence, again, of the planets and ceeds from the same source. The exciting the moon-notwithstanding the name of lu- disease must be attacked in its seat and stanatics, and the vulgar impressions—no tion—what will oure there, will probably proof whatever exists. Yet physicians of cure the insanity, which appears to depend eminence-Mead even-have said—“ The upon it. Be the cause moral or physical, ravings of mad people kept lunar periods, the body-the organs--the constitution, in accompanied by epileptic fits." The moon, whole or in part, is the diseased point, and apparently, is equally innocent of the thou- the subject of medical treatment. sand things ascribed to her. When the pa Upon those who are yet sane, and upon roxysms of mad people do occur at the full those who are the subject of hereditary taint, of the moon, Dr. B. inclines to explain the the necessity for caution should be early and matter thus :—" Maniacs are, in general, perseveringly inculcated; and the more the light sleepers; therefore, like the dog which cause is understood and felt, surely, the more bays the moon, and many other animals, irresistibly will such caution operate. Avoid remarked as being always uneasy when it is exciting occasions. The offspring of the inat the full, they are disturbed by the fitting sane has double motives for shunning them ; shadows of clouds, which are reflected on and if he must marry, let him match with a the earth and surrounding objects. Thus sane person, though, as Rousseau said, “ he the lunatic converts shadows into images of be a king, and she be the hangman's daughterror; and, equally with all whom 'reason ter." Useful lessons may be taken from the lights not,' is filled with alarm, and becomes cattle-breeder-judicious crossing will wear distressed and noisy."
out the taint. But there are still other physical causes But though nothing is to be done, menwhich demand our notice, and among these tally, with the actually insane, moral the most conspicuous are disorders of circu- discipline is as indispensable as medical
treatment ; for external objects, according of memory unimpaired. But the difference to circumstances, are all calculated to in individuals is immense—to some, the exacerbate or to soothe : and here, accord- retrospect is a perfect blank-to others like ingly, is an ample field for the employment a dream-whilst others are in possession of of the best intelligence either of the pro- all the realities of it; some refer to it with fessional or unprofessional attendant; and indifference—some with thankfulness for of course the more sensible and intelligent escape-others with pain and abhorrence. will be the more effective agent. Few rules Of course they must be treated accordingly. can be laid down-every case requires its The most satisfactory sign of convalescence own treatment. No individuals are precisely is the fading of long delusions, and not realike, and in insanity, less than in any other placed by new ones-especially if the patient disorder, apparently, are assimilations to be allows them to have been delusions. To looked for. "Never, however," says Dr. B., reason with a lunatic is folly—to oppose or “ exercise the mind of the insane in the deny his hallucination is worse, because it is sense of his delirium-never oppose his sure to exasperate. If we wish to make an morbid ideas, affections, or inclinations, impression on him, it must be by talking at but rather by diversity of impressions, give him, not to him. Though he will not listen rise to new ideas and feelings, and thus, by to what is addressed to him, he will readily exciting fresh moral emotions, revive the apply what bears upon his own situation, dormant faculties—and never commit your more forcibly than any body else can do. self by promise ; but if, inadvertently, a To break the chain of morbid ideas by promise be given, adhere to it, unless the fraud, trick, terror, or surprise, is always fulfilment will obviously be attended with hazardous. The chances are greatly against worse consequences than the breach of it.” success, and failure makes matters worse.
The critical period is when the bodily Nothing is found of equal effect with endisease is giving way. Generally, returning gaging the confidence of the patient. A reason follows, as an effect of its cause; and cheerful, encouraging, and friendly address if it do not, the case becomes hopeless. The - kind, but firm manners-patient to hear, least glimmer of reason should be cherished but prudent in answering-never making a and encouraged; but the common mind and promise that cannot safely be performed, and the cultivated will not bear being treated when made, never to break it—vigilant and alike. This is the moment to reason with decided-prompt to control when necessary; the patient—to talk to him as to a rational and willing, but cautious, in removing it person—to assist in expelling fading illusions when once imposed—“ These are the quali-to soothe remaining irritations—to repress ties," says Dr. B.," which will always acquire his impatience for freedom.
the good will and respect of lunatics, and a In the worst cases, the first symptom of command over them that will accomplish returning reason is usually some sense of what force can never attain." the decencies of life—the dropping of some From all which it must be evident that pertinent remark, or asking some appro- great personal and individual attention is priate question, though hesitatingly, relative indispensable. No hope, generally, can there to his own situation, or that of his family, or be of success, where patients are huddled giving way to his former obstinate defence together, and treated, in classes, all on one of delusions. Sometimes convalescence an- system. There must be great separation, nounces itself by the gradual revival of the and constant vigilance and inspection, and moral affections, and the feelings are often this involves great expense. Asylums, supmoved to tears. “No augury,” says Dr. B., ported by contributions, or by counties, well " is more favourable than such emotions; attended to and superintended—where though feeble and transient, they should be money-making is not the object of the encouraged, and every effort of returning institutions-seem to be the only means of reflection be guided with a gentle and im- effecting material good, and especially among perceptible hand. No mistakes should be the poor. These institutions are every-where noticed, lest the exposure shock and dis- spreading. Liberal, but not extravagant recourage him. If painful recollections rise on muneration should be given to conductors, reasoning on any, remaining, delusion, the rewards in proportion to cures-every ensubject must be changed, and resumed on a couragement given to personal care and more favourable occasion. All questions kindness-all useless and severe restraint relative to domestic matters should be forbidden—and the forbiddance rigorously answered promptly, where there is nothing enforced by the authority of superiors. to excite, but discreetly and shortly. The very flood of reminiscences endangers, and the difficulty, of course, is in hitting the
ON TIME. medium.
The memory is more impaired than is TIME by momeuts steals away generally suspected. Lunatics recognise
Fiisl the hour, and then the day,
Small the daily loss appears, readily; but that appears to be the only part Yet it soon amounis tv years.
LITERATURE OF RUSSIA.
& striking analogy between the Latin and (From the Foreign Review, No. IV.)
the Russian ; but we have never been able
to detect any similitude except in a few soliThe literature of Russia is but imperfectly tary instances. In the names of familiar known to her immediate neighbours, and objects, and the verbs used to express ordistill less in this country; yet a language pary actions, there is not the slightest respoken by nearly forty millions of people, semblance; nor do we think it would be containing upwards of eighty thousand possible for any one to find a single senprinted works, may reasonably be supposed tence in which he could make out the sense to deserve soine attention, and to possess of two words, merely by being acquainted some treasures for the reward of the diligent with Latin. There is, however, one pecustudent
liarity common to both languages, namely, Had any one, half a century ago, inquired the want of the articles. This may be conwhether the Germans possessed a literature, sidered as a defect; yet, in reading Russian, he would probably have been told, either we have rarely found difficulty or perplexity, that . High Dutch” was the most barbarous as the demonstrative pronoun is generally and dissonant of modern idioms, utterly in- used to supply the deficiency in those cases capable of eloquent or elegant expression; where it would occasion ambiguity. Of the or that their only writers were dull com- successive changes which the language has mentators, and insufferable pedants—for the undergone, of the influence of the Mongol very idea of German poetry was an absur- dialect during the thirteenth and fourteenth dity. Our conclusions on Russian are centuries, of earlier literary records and about as accurate : we meet with mis-spelt, monuments, we shall not here attempt to ugly-looking pames, which we at once de- speak. clare to be unpronounceable, and then affirm
In Russia, as in our own country, the earthat the language is a most miserable liest writers were chroniclers and ecclesiasjargon.
tical annalists. Historical and moral tales But the Russian language has powers borrowed from the Greek, with traditional and capabilities. No tongue, with which narratives and ballads, constituted for several we are acquainted, combines, in a greater ages all the literature of Russia. With the degree, the qualities which render lan- dynasty of Romanov commences the moguage agreeable in itself, and a compre- dern history of Russian literature. On this hensive interpreter of thought. It is so
event a new impulse was given to the gonorous, varied, harmonious; equally adapted verament; towns and fortresses were erected to the terrible and the pathetic, the gay in Siberia ; commerce was extended, manuand the plaintive; the sublime and the factures were established ; public schools familiar; exceedingly rich and copious, were founded; the clergy brought with them abounding in synonyms, and susceptible of from the Universities of Italy and Poland a bold and significant combinations. It is en
taste for polite learning; and in 1682, .an abled, moreover, to render, by different academy was founded at Moscow, for the forms of the same primitive word, those de- study of theology, philosophy, rhetoric, and licate anances and shades of expression, the liberal sciences. Literature, however, which otherwise demand adjunct terms
cannot be said to have flourished even in a circumstance highly favourable not only to the reign of Peter the Great; and, notwithprecision, but to condensation and rapidity. standing his extensive patronage, he lived In fact, it is often necessary to employ five not to behold the seed which he had sown or six words in English to convey the mean-spring up and luxuriate. ing of two in Russian. As a vehicle for too, was inundated at that time by a number poetry, it is, perhaps, superior to most mo
of foreign words; while the style employed dern European languages, from its nu- in composition was vague and unsettled, nor merous polysyllabic words, its great variety was there any model of sufficient authority of accent, and its abundant store of poetic to serve as a standard. The Metropolitan terms. Some writers have pretended to find of Novgorod, Theophanes Prokopovitcha
(1681-1736), is almost the only writer of • Rassia has natnralized almost every produc- the period who distinguished himself by the tien of eminence belonging to the literatuie if other force of his compositions; and some specicontrjes. Il possesses many translations of Byron, Moore, Scott, &c, although foreign pames are fre
mens of his sacred oratory, notwithstanding quently so metamorphosed in the Russian, that it is their blemishes, deserve to be considered difficult to recognise them: for instance, Moure is models of commanding eloquence and powrendered Mur; Rousseau; Russo, so that unless the erful thought. Prince Antioch Dmitrievich rame be already known, there is great danger of spelling it incorectly, in translating it from the Kantemir, the next who deserves to be menRussiau characters; for who would deciplier in such tioned, was an individual of rare and truly words as Gero, Gerd, Kuper, Vulet, the names of estimable qualities, not more distinguished Herezo, Heard, Cooper, and Woolleit! Some of the by the splendour of his birth, than by his change, the Fugitive being substituted for that of devoted attachment to literature and the Waverley, aud ühe Pantaus for Old Mortality. sciences. A soldier-for he accompanied
his father, the Hospodar of Moldavia, in a beheld the fruits of his own labours and campaign against Persia, in 1722-a diplo- those of his co-operators : all the arts which matist, in which quality he visited both are auxiliary to warfare and military science our own country and France; a courtier, attained to perfection during his reign. Our high in favour with his sovereign-he, ne- victories announced to the rest of Europe vertheless, preferred to all these titles those that we had artillery, fleets, engineers, expert of philosopher and poet. In an exceedingly and active seamen. What more could you interesting sketch, entitled, “ An Evening expect of us within so short a space ?-inwith Kantemir," Batiushkov has given a tellectual treasures—the fruits of science, conversation between the Prince, Montes- the productions of the fine arts, eloquence quieu, and an Abbé. The two latter surprise and poetry? Grant us but time and favourthe ambassador in his study, where they find able circumstances, and you shall be comhim surrounded by bis papers. At first they pelled to admit that we are not destitute of imagine him occupied with official business, the higher powers of mind. You contend but are informed, to their astonishment, that the influence of climate is paramount. that he is writing verses—(verses in the I admit that it is considerable, yet this inlanguage of the Scythians and Hyperbo- fluence (as you yourself have observed in reans)? The following reply, made by Kan- your own admirable book) is considerably temir, to the remarks of the French philoso- iodified and weakened by the form of gopher, touching the unpropitious influence of vernment, and by the state of morals and of the climate of Russia, may serve to refute society. Our climate itself, too, is exceedsome of the prejudices, even yet entertained, ingly varied. Speaking of our country, on that subject.
strangers imagine Muscovy to be covered “I was born at Constantinople, of a fa- with perpetual snows—to be inhabited by mily, whose ancestors, at one time, sat on savages. They do not consider the vast exthe throne of the eastern einpire: Greek tent of Russia; they forget that, at the very blood, therefore, still runs in my veins, time that the inhabitant of the frozen shores and í love, with unfeigned attachment, of the White Sea is chasing the marten, the the azure skies and ever-verdant olive more fortunate occupier of the banks of the groves of the South. In my youth I tra- Volga is reaping his fertile harvest. Even velled with my father, the inseparable com- the northern regions are not so full of horpanion and loyal friend of Peter the Great, ror, for they produce all that the cultivator and visited the extensive vales of Rus- of their fields finds requisite for his wants. sia, from the Dnieper to the Caucasus- The plough is the foundation of society—the from the Caspian sea to the banks of the link which unites its members together, the glorious Moskva. I know both the country support of the laws; and what district is and its inhabitants : the hut of the peasant there throughout all Russia where this inand the lordly tower of the boyar are equally strument leaves not its beneficent traces? familiar to me. Instructed by the precepts The progress of civilization will change the of my father, who was one of the most en face of the country, and, I may venture to lightened men in Europe, trained up from say, will transform Russia into one of the my earliest years in the school of philosophy most enlightened empires in Europe. When and experience, associating continually, in Tacitus described Germany, did he imagine the closest intercourse, with strangers of all that elegant cities and splendid capitals would nations, it was impossible that I should re rise up on the site of its gloomy forests, or tain any barbarous prejudices, and I accus that the light of intellect would diffuse its tomed 'myself to contemplate my country rays from the recesses of Pannonia and Nowith the eye of an impartial observer. At ricium? Certainly not: but the illustrious Versailles, in the cabinet of your sove- Peter, wielding in his single hand the destiny reign, in the presence of his ministers, I of millions, consoled himself with the subam the representative of the monarch of a lime idea that the tree of science would, great people ; but here among friends, and sooner or later, flourish on the banks of the conversing with one of the most eminent Neva, and bring forth fruits to enrich, not geniuses of Europe, I consider it my duty to only his own people, but those of other speak unreservedly, preferring rather to be nations. You, President, are a constant obaccused of ignorance, than of either pre- server of the political world—its phrases and judice or insincerity. This then is my revolutions : in the ruins of past ages, in answer: you know what Peter accomplished the ashes of baughty Rome, and the once for Russia; he created his subjects—no, he beautiful Greece, you have detected the cause only developed their inental powers, and of the changes which we now hehold, and eradicated the disorder which had so long have learned to predict the future. You oppressed them--popular ignorance; and cannot but know, therefore, that the progress under his guidance, the Russians soon showed of civilization insensibly alters institutions that talents are a universal property, confined and forins of government; nay, you have to no particular tace or climate. Ere fifteen already perceived these changes in Russia. years had elapsed, that illustrious monarch Time destroys and re-models-spoils and
perfects everything. In the course of a few Mr. Thomas. Better had he not had facts centuries, or perhaps within a shorter period, to bear him out in so doing.–Consider we favouring Providence may send to us some now some portions of the evidence. bold mind that will complete the grand First-For it interests us the most we idea conceived by Peter; and at his creative are delighted to learn that the boys who, voice, the empire, which is the most exten- from six till eight in the evening, pester all sive on the globe, will become illustrious as passengers between Leicester-square and the guardian of laws, and of the freedom Temple-bar with play-bills are, like King founded on them;-of morals, which give Arthur's three celebrated serving-men, “all stability to laws—in one word, of civiliza- of them thieves."- We are delighted at this, tion. Delightful, inspiring hopes ! In time because, supposing the laws to be duly adye will be fulfilled! The benefactor of my ministered, it affords some prospect of the family—the benefactor of Russia, reposes in youthful gentry aforesaid being removed the tomb; but his spirit, that great, that from the streets above indicated to the generous spirit, hath not deserted the land tread-mill, the hulks, Botany Bay, and, it is of his affection: it still remains to inspire it to be hoped, the gallows, respectively. Every with fresh life and energy. Methinks I con- unhappy but peaceful liege subject of his stantly hear himn exclaim to his countrymen gracious majesty King George the Fourth,
-“ Advance in the career which I have who may have occasion to pass along that opened for you; nor stop till you shall line of the said king's highway, denominated have reached the goal to which Ï have di- “ the Courts, and so on to Covent-garden, rected you.”-Batiushkov, vol. i. p. 65. between the hours above indicated-and,
The following is from one of Kantemir's besides the theatres, there are many subsatires. It is put into the mouth of a stantial reasons why, at those hours, an indrunkard :
dividual so progressing-to wit, that range " When mortals ride across the blue profound ;
of most delectable refectories, beginning a And stars are sparkling seen upon the ground:
Joy's and ending at the Bedford (and wha When mountain streams with liquid file shal burn; a vast degree of culinary skill and vinous And long-past ages once again retum:
eminence does not that small bit of ground When monks, in Lent, shall on dry biscuit dine, Then will I pore o'er books—abjuring wine!"
include !)-every such liege subject must be assaulted, attacked, and, if not battered, bothered to death by the juvenile vermin above-mentioned-running between one's legs, and bawling “ Bill of the play-your
honour !-only a penny, Sir!-only a penPOLICE OF THE METROPOLIS.
ny!--Common-garden and Doory-lane, Sir!
-only a penny, Sir!"-Yes, in the nine(From the Loncion Magazine.)
teenth century, many dwellers in the metropolis of these kingdoms have to undergo a
purgatory such as this. Nay, you have to Ma. THOMAS, the constable of St. Paul's run the gauntlet through these imps--for Covent-garden, has been giving some very they now stretch as far as Coventry-streetcurious evidence before the Police Commit- and they increase in numbers and vigour as tee. Mr. Thomas himself is, by no means, you approach “the Garden." We rememan ordinary person : being somewhat of an ber, not long since, upon being thus assailed enthusiast in performing the duties of a con- for the third time, before we had got through stable --and has been not a little snubbed Cranbourne-alley, ejaculating to the urchin, and thwarted by the regular practitioners, thus-“This is too bad!--you are the third who like business to go on in a quiet, cosey rascal that has pestered me within the last sort of way, in consequence. But it seems two minutes-- now the next who does it, I that his zeal, notwithstanding, has not outrun will break his bones, and, recollect, you have his discretion-inasmuch as nearly all the fair warning!" Our friend, who was with charges he has preferred have been followed us, said this warning was Hibernian--but, by convictions. Moreover, the evidence he depend upon it, it would do exceedingly well has given is manifestly that of a shrewd, in- to act upon. However, Mr. Thomas tells us telligent, and quick-sighted man—who has that these dispensers of drainatic intellipicked up a vast mass of facts in compara- gence are almost particular and preternatively a short time, who draws most sensible tural thieves--and, therefore, we hope they general conclusions from these facts, and may be all hanged accordingly, and that, who proposes, thereupon, what seems to us like the beef-steak, it may be done quickly, very sound remedies for the evils he brings Next, Mr. Thomas informs us, that when to light. If in the course of his investiga- he began with his new broom to sweep tions he represents a portion of these evils clean the very dirty purlieus of Coventas springing, in some measure, from the garden--the officers of police threw every persons whose duty it is to prevent them, we sort of impediment and impertinence in his confess we do not think the blame of such a way. A man who put down thieves in their representation being made rests at all with district would injure them in two ways.