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ill mounted; the animals are small and of the sovereign- that is to say, of the public. badly dressed, their saddles so ill secured, He is also invited to theatrical entertain. and the rider sits so clumsily on bis seat, ments, quite as amusing, and almost as that any Englishman, who ever rode a horse refined, from Clapperton's description, as any with an English saddle, would upset one of which his Celestial Majesty can command to them the tirst charge with a long stick.” be exhibited before a forcign ambassador.
They soon arrived at the gate of Katunga, The king of Yourriba made a point of our which is said to be delightfully situated at traveller staying to witness these entertainthe point of a granite range of hills : a band ments. They were exhibited in the king's of music accompanied them, followed by an park, in a square space, surrounded by immense multitude of men, women, and clumps of trees. The first perforo...nce was children. They proceeded about five miles that of a number of men dancing and tumin the city before they reached the residence bling about in sacks, having their heads fanof the king, who was seated under a veran- tastically decorated with strips of rage, dah, with two red and two blue umbrellas, damask silk, and cotton of vari:gated colours ; supported on long poles held by slaves. and they performed to admiration. The The chiefs were observed to be holding a second exhibition was hunting the boa snake, parley with the king, which Clapperton by the men in the sacks. The huge snake, conjectured to relate to his being desired to it seems, went through the motions of this perform the usual ceremony of prostration. kind of reptile, “in a very natural manner,
“• 1 told them,' says he, 'if any such though it appeared to be rather full in the thing was proposed, I should instantly go belly, opening and shutting its month in the back' ; that all the cereinony I would submit most natural manner imaginable. A running to would be to take off my hat, make a bow, fight ensued, which lasted some time, till, as and shake hands with his majesty, if he lengih, the chief of the bag-men contrived to pleased.' This being granted, “We accord- scoich his tail with a tremendous sword, ingly,' says our author, went forwards; the when he gasped, twisted up, and seemed in king's people had a great to do to make way great torture, endeavouring to bite his asamongst the crowd, and allow us to go in sailants, who hoisted him on their shoulders, regular order. Sticks and whips were used, and bore him off in triumph. The festivities though generally in a good-natured manner ; of the day concluded with the exhibition of and I cannot help remarking ou this, as on the white devil, which had the appearance of all other occasions of this kind, that the
a human figure in white wax, looking miserYourribas appear to be a mild and kind ably thin, and as if starved with cold, taking people—kind to their wives and children, snuff, rubbing its hands, treading the ground and to one another—and that the government, as if tender-footed, and evidently meant to though absolute, is conducted with the great- burlesque and ridicule a white man, while his est mildness."
sable majesty frequently appealed to ClapThis ceremony of prostration before the perton whether it was not well performed. king is required from all
. The chiefs, who After this, the king's women sang in chorus, come to pay their court, cover themselves and were accompanied by the whole crowd. with dust, and then fall flat on their bellies, The city of Eyeo, called in the Houssa having first practised the ceremony, in order language Katunga, has a thick belt of wood to be perfect, before a large fat eunuch. round the walls, which are built of clay, There is something whimsical, wc admit, in about twenty feet high, and surrounded by a the comparison we are about to make; but it dry ditch ; they are fifteen miles in ciroumreally strikes us, that nothing is wanting at ference, and are entered by ten gates. The Katunga but the yellow screen, whose unex. houses are of clay with thatched roofs. The pected appearance occasioned some misgivings posts that support the verandahs and the in Lord Amherst's mind, to imagine the doors are carved in bas relief, with figures of scene described by Clapperton to be laid in a the boa killing an antelope or a bog, with provincial town of the Celestial Empire. warriors accompanied by their drummers, &c. The umbrellas—the negociations for the It has seven markets, held every evening, in ceremony-the rehearsal of it-the sticks and which are exposed for sale yams, corn, calawhips so good. naturedly laid across the vances, bananas, vegetable butter, seeds of shoulders of the crowd-are completely, and the colocynth, goats, fowls, sheep, cotton to the letter, Chinese; and these heavenly cloths, and various implements of agriculture. people of the east are successfully imitated The country produces small horses, but fine by the Yourzibas of the west, in the extraor. horned cattle, many of them with humps on dinary degree of politeness practised towards their shoulders like those of Abyssinia ; e ich oher : “when equals meet, they kneel sheep, hogs, muscovy ducks, fowls, pigeons, on one knee; women kneel on both knees, and turkeys. They have various kinds of the elbows resting on the ground.”. Nor fruit, such as oranges, limes, and, so Clapare these dingy people outdone by the Ce. perton says, pears, and apples. The cotton cestials in another respect : the accredited plant and indigo are extensively cultivated ; traveller is subsisted entirely at the expense but the cominerce with the coast is almost ex. clusively in slaves, which are given in ex. (paste of Indian corn). Shortly afterwards change for rum, tobacco, European cloth, he paid him a visit, mounted on a beautiful and cowries. This intercourse, which is red roan, attended by a number of armed constant, is entirely by land, either from men on horseback and on foot; "and six Badagry, Lagos, or Dahomey. The price of young female slaves, naked as they were a slave at Jannah, as nearly as could be cal. born, except a stripe of narrow white cloth culated, was from three to four pounds ster- ticd round their heads, about six inches of ling; their domestic slaves, however, are the ends flying out behind ; each carrying a never sold, except for misconduct. In fact, light spear in the right hand." Each of the whole population may be considered in a these girls, on entering the door, put a blue state of slavery, either to the king or his cloth round her waist. Yarro promised our caboceers. The features of the Yourriba traveller every assistance, and kept his word. people are described as being less charac. On taking leave, he remounted his horse, teristic of the negro than those of Badagry; "the young ladies undressed; and away the lips less thick, and the nose inclined to went one of the most extraordinary cavalcades the aquiline ; the men well made, and of an I ever saw in all my life.” Extraordinary independent carriage ; the women of a more indeed! The following is his account of a coarse appearance, probably from drudgery second visitand exposure to the sun.
“ After the heat of the day was over, Though Clapperton remained at Katunga Yarro carne, attended by all his train. The from the 23rd of January to the 7th of March, most extraordinary persons in it were himself and though the river Quorra--the mysterious and the bearers of his spears, which, as and mis-called Niger---was not more than before, were six naked young girls, from fifthirty miles to the eastwarc, he was not able teen to seventeen years of age.
The only to prevail on the king of Yourriba to allow thing they wore was a white bandeau, or him to visit it; whenever he asked for per- fillet of white cloth, round the forehead, mission to do so, he was always put off with about six inches of the ends flying behind, some frivolous excuse ; and in this, too, the and a string of beads round their waists ; in old gentleman appears to have been as cunning their right hands they carried three light and as cautious as a Chinese mandarin--ob. spears each. Their light form, the vivacity serving at one time, that the road was not of their eyes, and the ease with which they safe-at another, that the Fellatas had pos. appeared to fly over the ground, made them session of the country; and what would the appear something more than mortal as they King of England say if any thing should flew alongside of his horse, when he was gal. happen to his guest? It was with some loping, and making his horse curvet and bound. difficulty, after all, that Clapperton could A man with an immense bundle of spears prevail on him to let him depart on his remained behind at a little distance, ap. journey ;-offered, if he would stay, to give parently to serve as a magazine for the girls him a wife ; of wives, he said, he himself to be supplied from, when their master had had plenty-he did not exactly know how expended those they carried in their hands.” many, but he was sure that, hand to hand, Here, as in other large towns, there were they would reach from Katunga to Jannah. music and dancing the whole night ; “men's
On departing from Katunga for Kiama, a wives and maidens all join the song and city of Borgho, Mr. Houtson took his leave dance, Mahomedans as well as Pagans." of our traveller, and returned to the coast, Female chastity, by our author's account, is where he shortly afterwards died. Clapperton little regarded. continued his route among ruined villages, “ Yarro asked me if I would take his that had been sacked by the Fellatas. These daughter for a wife; I said “Yes,' after a marauders, it seems, have a mode of setting great many thanks for my present. The old fire to walled towns, by tying combustibles to woman went out, and I followed with the the tails of pigeons, which, on being let king's head man, Abubecker. I went to the loose, fly to the tops of the thatched houses, house of the daughter, which consists of while they keep up showers of arrows, to several coozies, separate from those of the prevent the inhabitants from extinguishing father, and I was shown into a very clean the flames. Having crossed the river Moussa, one: a mat was spread-I sat down—and a considerable stream which falls into the the lady coming in and kneeling down, I Quorra, an escort appeared to conduct our asked her if she would live in my house, or I traveller to Yarro, the sultan, as they called should come and live with her : she said, him, of Kiama. They were mounted on re- whatever way I wished : very well, I said, I markably fine horses, but were a lawless set would come and live with her, as she had the of fellows, who plundered the villages as they best house. She kept her kneeling posture all went along, without mercy or remorse. the time I was in the house."
At Kiama, he was well received by Yarro, Kiama is one of the largest cities in who assigned him an excellent house, within Borgho. Clapperton estimates it to contain, a square inclosure, and sent him milk, eggs, at least, thirty thousand inhabitants ; but, bananas, fried cheese, curds, and foo-foo like the rest of the people of this kingdom, they are represented as great robbers. Yarro, “ I had a vis't, amongst the number, however, behaved very well to our traveller, from the daughter of an Arab, who is supplied him at once with horses and bearers, very fair, calls herself a white woman, is and advised him to go by Boussa, and not by rich, a widow, and wants a white husband. Youri, as the latter was at war with the She is said to be the richest person in Wawa, Fellatas. Profiting by this advice, he pro. having the best house in the town, and a ceeded towards the former, and in the way, thousand slaves. She showed a great regard he fell in with a coffle or caravan from for my servant Richard, who is younger and Ashantee and Gonja, on their route to better looking than I am : but she had Houssa.
passed her twentieth year, was fat, and a “At ten, we fell in with the Houssa cara- perfect Turkish beauty, just like a walking vans. They occupied a long line of march: water-butt. All her arts were unavailing on bullocks, asses, horses, women, and men, to Richard : she could not induce him to visit the amount of a thousand, all in a line, one her at her house, though he had my per. after another, forming a very curious sight; mission.” a motley group, from the nearly naked girls This widow, it seems, was not disposed to and men carrying loads, to the ridiculously waste time by making regular approaches, and gaudily dressed Gonja traders, riding on like those by which Widow Wadman under. horseback, some of these animals being lame, mined the outworks of the unsuspecting and going with a halt, and all in very bad Uncle Toby, but was determined to carry condition. The poor girls, their slaves, are the citadel by storm. compelled to travel with a heavy load on their 66 The widow Zuma has been kind enough heads, yet are as cheerful and good-natured to send me provisions ready cooked, in great as if they were at home grinding corn in their abundance, ever since I have been here. Now own native country.'
that she has failed with Richard, she has At Wawa, another city of Borgho, our offered Pascoe a handsome female slave for a traveller was well and hospitably received, wife, if he could manage to bring about the old governor of which told him, that every matters with me. Not being much afraid of thing should be done that he wished. Being myself, and wishing to see the interior ar. 80 near that part of the Quorra, where rangement of her house, I went and visited Mungo Park perished, our traveller thought her. I found her house large, and full of he might get soine information of this melan. male and female slaves ; the males lying choly event.
about the outer huts, the females more in “The head man's story is this : that the the interior. In the centre of the huts was a boat stuck fast between two rocks; that the square one of large dimensions surrounded people in it laid out four anchors a-head; by a verandah, with screens of matting all that the water falls down with great rapidity around except in one place, where there was from the rocks, and that the white men, in hung a tanned bullock's hide; to this spot I attempting to get on shore, were drowned ; was led up, and, on its being drawn on one that crowds of people went to look at them, side, I saw the lady sitting cross-legged on a but the white men did not shoot at them as I small Turkey carpet, like one of our hearth had heard ; that the natives were too much rugs, a large leather cushion under her left frightened either to shoot at them or to assist knee ; her goora pot, which was a large oldthem ; that there were found a great many fashioned English pewter mug, by her side, things in the boat, books and riches which and a calibash of water to wash her mouth the sultan of Boussa has got; that beef cut out, as she alternately kept eating goora and in slices and salted was in great plenty in the chewing tobacco-snuff, the custom with all boat; that the people of Boussa who had ranks, male or female, who can procure eaten of it all died, because it was human them : on her right side lay a whip. At a flesh, and that they knew we white men eat little distance, squatted on the ground, sat a human flesh. I was indebted to the messenger dwarfish, hump-backed, female slave, with a of Yarro for a defence, who told the narrator wide mouth but good eyes : she had on no that I was much more nice in my eating than clothing, if I except a profusion of strings of his countrymen were. But it was with some beads and coral round her neck and waist. difficulty I could persuade him that if his This personage served the purpose of a bell story was true, it was the people's own fears in our country, and what, I suppose, would that had killed them; that the meat was in old times have been called a page. The good beef or mutton ; that I had eaten more lady herself was dressed in a white coarse goats' flesh since I had been in this country muslin turban ; her neck profusely decorated than ever I had done in my life: that in Eng. with necklaces of coral and gold chains, land we eat nothing but fowls, beef, and amongst which was one of rubies and gold mutton."
beads; her eyebrows and eyelashes blacked, At this place Clapperton had nearly, her hair dyed with indigo, and her hands and though innocently, got into a scrape with the feet with henna : around her body she had a old governor, by coquetting with a young fine striped silk and cotton couptry cloth, and buxom widow.
which came as high as her tremendous breasts, and reached as low as her ankles; in her able. The women good-looking, and the right hand she held a fan made of stained men strong and well made, partly Mahomegrass, of a square form. She desired me to dans and partly Pagans. sit down on the carpet beside her, which I From hence, it was settled that our traveller did, and she began fanning me, and sent should proceed across the Quorra, to a city hump-back to bring out her finery for me to called Koolfu ; but as Boussa was higher up look at; which consisted of four gold brace. the river than the common ferry of Comie, lets, two large paper dressing-cases, with and he was determined to visit the spot looking-glasses, and several strings of coral, where Mungo Park perished, the governor silver rings, and bracelets, with a number of promised to forward his servant and baggage other trifling articles. After a number of to the former place, where he was to meet compliments, and giving me an account of all them after his visit to Boussa. This town her wealth, I was led through one apartment he found, on his arrival, to be situated on an into another, cool, clean, and ornamented island formed by two branches of the Quorra, with pewter dishes and bright brass pans. the smaller and more westerly one named the She now told me her husband had been dead Menai, which he crossed by a canoe, the these ten years, that she had only one son, horses swimming over. On waiting on the and he was darker than herself; that she sultan, by whom, as usual, he was kindly loved white men, and would go to Boussa received, his first inquiry was concerning with me; that she would send for a malem, some white men, who were lost in the river or man of learning, and read the fatha with some twenty years ago, near this place. me. I thought this was carrying the joke a “ He seemed rather uneasy at this queslittle too far, and began to look very serious, tion, and I observed that he stammered in on which she sent for the looking-glass, and his speech. He assured me he had nothing looking at herself, then offering it me, said, belonging to them; that he was a little boy to be sure she was rather older than me, but when the event happened. I said I wanted very little, and what of that? This was too nothing but the books and papers, and to much, and I made my retreat as soon as I learn from him a correct account of the could, determined never to come to such close manner of their death ; and that with his quarters with her again.”
permission, I would go and visit the spot Wawa is said to contain from 18 to 20,000 where they were lost. He said no, I must not inhabitants ; it is surrounded by a good high go; it was a very bad place. Having heard clay wall, and dry ditch ; and is described as that part of the boat still remained, I asked the neatest, most compact, and best walled him if it was so: he replied that such a retown between it and Badagry. The follow. port was untrue; that she did remain on the ing, however, is no very flattering account of rocks for some time after, but had gone to its inhabitants.
pieces and floated down the river long ago. I “ The virtue of chastity I do not believe to said if he would give me the books and exist in Wawa. Even the widow Zuma lets papers it would be the greatest favour he out her female slaves for hire, like the rest of could possibly confer on me. He again asthe people of the town. Neither is sobriety sured me that nothing remained with him held as a virtue. I never was in a place in every thing of that kind had gone into the my life where drunkenness was so general. hands of the learned men; but that if any Governor, priest, and layman, and even some were now in existence he would procure them of the ladies, drink to excess. I was pestered and give them to me. I then asked him if for three or four days by the governor's he would allow me to inquire of the old daughter, who used to come several times in people in the town the particulars of the a day, painted and bedizened in the highest affair, as some of them must have seen it. He style of Wawa fashion, but always half appeared very uneasy, gave me no answer, tipsy; I could only get rid of her by telling and I did not press him further." her that I prayed and looked at the stars all Not satisfied with this, Clapperton renight, never drank any thing stronger than turned to the subject :roa-in-zafir, which they call my tea-lite- “The sultan, when I inquired of him rally hot water: she always departed in & again to-day about the papers of my unforflood of tears. Notwithstanding their want tunate countryman, said that the late imam, of chastity, and drunkenness, they are a a Fellata, had had possession of all the books merry people, and have behaved well to me. and papers, and that he had fled from Boussa They appear to have plenty of the necessaries some time since. This was a death-blow to of life, and a great many of the luxuries, all future inquiries here ; and the whole of some of which they would be better without the information concerning the affair of the this being the direct road from Bornou, boat, her crew, and cargo, which I was Houssa, and Nyffé, to Gonja, Dahomey, and likely to gain here, I have already stated. Jannah."
Every one, in fact, appeared uneasy when I They are, notwithstanding, said to be asked for information, and said it had haphonest, cheerful, good-natured, and hospite pened before their remembrance, or that they did not see it. They pointed out the place made of two canoes joined fast together, where the boat struck, and the unfortunate with an awning or roof belind; that he, the crew perished. Even this was done with sultan, had a gun, double-barrelled, and a caution, and as if by stealth ; though, in sword, and two books that had belonged to every thing unconnected with that affair, they those in the boat; that he would give me the were most
ready to give me what information books whenever I went to Youri myself for I asked ; and never in my life have I been them, not until then."* treated with more hospitality or kindness."
The last account of this unfortunate tra The place where the vessel was sunk is in veller, is stated to be from an eye-witness. the eastern channel, where the river breaks that is married to one of my landlady's fe;
“ This evening I was talking with a man over a gray slate rock extending quite across it. A little lower down, the river had a fall male slaves, called her daughter, about the of three or four feet. Here, and
still farther when he gave the following account of the
manners of the Cumbrie and about England; down, the whole united streams of the Quorra were not above three-fourths the breadth of death of Park and of his companions, of the Thames at Somerset-house. On return.
which he was an eye-witness. He said that
when the boat came down the river, it haping to the ferry, Clapperton found a mes. senger from the King of Youri, who had sent the Fellatas first rose in arms, and were ra
pened unfortunately just at the time that him a present of a camel. “ He said the king, before he left Youri, of 'Boussa, on hearing that the persons in the
vaging Goober and Zamfra; that the Sultan had shown him two books, very large, and boat were white men, and that the boat was printed, that had belonged to the white men that were lost in the boat at Boussa ; that he before, as she had a house at one end, called
different from any that had ever been seen had been offered a hundred and seventy mit. his people together from the neighbouring galls of gold for them, by a merchant from towns, attacked and killed them, not doubtBornou, who had been sent by a Christian on
ing that they were the advanced guard of purpose for them. I advised him to tell the the Fellata army then ravaging Soudan, king, that he ought to have sold them ; that under the command of Malem Danfodio, I would not give tive mitgalls for them ; but the father of the present Bello; that one of that, if he would send them, I would give the white men was a tall man with long hair ; him an additional present; and that he would that they fought for three days before they be doing an acceptable thing to the King of were all killed; that the people in the neighEngland by sending them, and that he would bourbood were very much alarmed, and not act like a king if he did not. I gave him great numbers fled to Nyffé and other for his master one of the mock-gold chains, a countries, thinking that the Fellatas were common sword, and ten yards of silk, and certainly coming among them. The number said I would give him a handsome gun and of persons in the boat was only four, two some silk, if he would send the books. On white men and two blacks; that they found asking him if there were any books like my great treasure in the boat; but that the journal, which I showed him, he said there people had all died who eat of the meat was one, but that his master had given it to that was found in her. This account I bean Arab merchant ten years ago; but the lieve to be the most correct of all that I merchant was killed by the Fellatas on his have yet got; and was told to me without way to Kano, and what had become of that my putting any questions, or showing any book afterwards he did not know.”
eagerness for him to go on with his story. Upon this, Clapperton sent a person with a letter to Yarro :
* This is not exactly what the sultan says in his " Mohamed, the Fezzanie, whom I had letter, of which the following is a translation by Mr.
Salamé:hired at Tabra, and whom I had sent to the
“This is issued from the Prince of Lord of chief of Youri for the books and papers of Yaory to Abdallah, the English captain, salutation the late Mungo Park, returned, bringing me and esteem. Hence your messenger bas arrived and a letter from that person, which contained brought us your letter, and we uuderstand what you
write. You inquire about a thing that has no tiace the following account of the death of that
with us. The Prince or Lord of Bunssy is older for unfortunate traveller; that not the least in- gealer) than us, because he is our grandfather. jury was done to him at Youri, or by the Why did you not inquire of him about what you people of that country; that the people of wish tor! You were at Boossy, and did not inquire
of the inhabitants what was the cause of the destrucBoussa had killed them, and taken all their lion of the ship and your friends, nor what happened riches; that the books in his possession were between them of evil; but you do now inquire of given him by the imam of Boussa; that
one who is far off, and knows nothing of the cause
of their (the Christians') destruction. they were lying on the top of the goods in
“As to the book which is in our brand, it is true, the boat when she was taken; that not a and we did not give it to your messenger, but we soul was left alive belonging to the boat; will deliver it to you, if you come and show us a that the bodies of two black men were found letter from your lord. You shall then see it and in the boat chained together ; that the white bave it, if God be pleased; and much esteem and
salam be to you, and prayer and peace, unto the last men jumped overboard; that the boat was of the apostles.--(MOHAMMED.)"