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for this miscellany to say, that those habituated to peruse it, from the varied nature of its contents, and the wide range of subjects concentrated in its pages, must of necessity be well informed, and possessed of a general knowledge. By those readers who already possess a taste for literature, the EXTRACTOR will be adequately appreciated; while, where this taste is yet crude and immature, it will tend gradually to form and foster one.

The Editor may be allowed to express his own convictions of the work, without subjecting himself to the charge of arrogantly assuming the merit to himself; he candidly acknowledges this is wholly due to the excellent sources from whence (at a large expense of care and diligence, certainly) he has supplied his pages. Nor, while upon this topic, can he refrain from making his acknowledgments to the proprietors of the various works, whose pages have furnished his literary exchequer, for the liberal disposition they have evinced, in permitting him to appropriate the élite portions of their publications. At the same time, he must observe, he had hardly expected any exception would have been taken, as his selections (all made with the view of suiting the taste of the general reader) comprehend but a minimum part of their respective contents. In fact, it has been matter of surprise to the Editor, collecting, as he has regularly done from the commencement of the work, every individual periodical published in London, how small is the average amount of articles even the most fruitful furnish. But the design of the EXTRACTOR is to convey only the alcohol of these various publications. From its pages is rigidly inhibited whatever matter is mediocre in quality, from the nature of the subject devoid of interest to the general reader, or that relates to questions of party, whether of politics or religion.

In fine, it may be observed, that, adhering to the plan set forth in the prospectus, while the most comprehensive and diligent scrutiny is taken of every periodical that issues from the press, the ExTRACTOR only gives place to those articles which are enstamped with the seal of a sterling and unqualified excellence.

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The following extract from a letter addressed executed on a large scale, and with perfect to the Editor of the T'imes, gives an account precision, this will not appear extraordinary : of the progress of a machine for calculating nor that an expenditure of time, talent, and and printing mathematical tables. In this money, much beyond what was originally place, we may just notice, that such an in- contemplated, may take place without affordvention is by no means new, two machines ing room for any well-grounded charge of for a similar purpose having been constructed profusion. The work, meanwhile, continues in the time of Charles II. by the son of Sir in active and steady progress, but such is its Samuel Morland (the Statesman); and two extent, such the variety of mechanical movemore, to answer the same ends, by the late ments to be contrived and executed, and Earl Stanhope, about forty years since ; and such the elaborate perfection of workmanship it is said his lordship, when proposing a which it has been found necessary to bestow plan to Parliament for the reduction of the on all its parts, to afford a moral security for national debt, verified the truth of all his its successful action when put together, that calculations by means of them. Subjoined a very long time must yet elapse, and a very to this letter we have given a brief descrip- heavy further expense be incurred, before it tion of these instruments, as related in one can be completed : but no suspicion of a of our Encyclopedias. *

failure has yet arisen. On the contrary, every “ Having been requested by Mr. Babbage mechanical difficulty has been completely to superintend, in his absence, the progress overcome, nor has any obstacle occurred in of his important invention of a machine for the slightest degree calculated to raise a doubt calculating and printing mathematical tables, as to its ultimate success. and having been in consequence an eye-wit

“ J. F. W. HERSCHEL. Dess, for many months, of the work actually “ Slough, Aug. 15, 1828.” executing, as well as having been intrusted by him at the same time with the disbursement of the current expenses, I am enabled

MORLAND'S CALCULATING MACHINERY. to state, from certain knowledge, that the whole amount of the sum originally advanced “ MORLAND was master of mechanics to by government, has been bona fide expended Charles II., and invented the speakingon the object of its destination. It has, bow- trumpet; a fire-engine; a capstan, to heave ever, proved very far from sufficient to cover up anchors ; and two arithmetical machines, the expenses of the undertaking, the deficit of which he published a description, under having been supplied from the private purse the title of “The Description and Use of Two of the inventor. To those conversant with me. Arithmetic Instruments, together with a short chanism, and who are aware of the multitude Treatise, explaining the ordinary Operations of tools to be invented and constructed where of Arithmetic, &c. presented to bis most machinery of a nature entirely new is to be excellent Majesty, Charles II. by S. Morland, • Reex's.

in 1662.' This work, which is exceedingly Vol. I.



rare, is illustrated with twelve plates, in they were peopled with worms of the same which the different parts of the machine are shape as the former; but some, less than the exhibited; and whence it appears that the rest, were inclined to flesh colour, while the four fundamental rules in arithmetic are very others were entirely white. Having devoured readily worked, and, to use the author's the snakes, they anxiously sought to escape; own words, without charging the memory, but as he had taken more care than before in disturbing the mind, or exposing the ope- securing all the outlets in the box, they were rations to any uncertainty.' That these ma-, unable to effect this. Gradually they bechines were at the time brought into practice came more quiet, and, after some time, lay there seems no reason to doubt, as, by an motionless, as if asleep. Shrinking into advertisement prefixed to Mr. Morland's themselves, they imperceptibly took the form work, it appears that they were manufactured of an egg, and by the twentieth day they for sale by Humphry Adanson, who lived had all assumed this figure. At first they with Jonas Moore, Esq., in the Tower of were of a white colour, but by slow degrees Loudon."

became first golden, then red. Some remained of this colour, but the rest continued to be

come darker and darker, till they were quite EARL STANHOPE's CALCULATING MA- black; and, from soft and tender, their skin CHINERY

had changed to the hard and brittle shell of “The smallest machine, which is intended the chrysalis or aurelia. On examining these for the first two rules of addition and sub

more closely, he found the black ones were traction, is not larger than an octavo volume;

more strongly marked than the others, which and by means of dial-plates, and small in

were nearly smooth. At the end of eight dices moveable with a steel pin, the opera- days the red chrysalides burst, and from each tions are performed with undeviating accu

issued a fly of a dull ash colour, turbid, racy. The second, and by far the most dismayed, and, so to speak, wrinkled and curious, instrument is about half the size of unfinished,” with its wings yet unfolded : a common table writing-desk. By this, pro- but in the space of a quarter of an hour it blems in multiplication and division, of al- dilated its little body, unfolded its wings, most any extent, are solved without the pos

and, relinquishing the sad ash colour, it sibility of a mistake, by the simple revolu

was dressed in a vivid green, marvellously tion of a small winch. The multiplier and brilliant. It was now so much larger than multiplicand in one instance, and the divisor before, that it seemed impossible to conceive and dividend in the other, are first properly that its little shell could have contained it.” arranged; then, by turning the winch, the In fourteen days some of the black ones product or quotient is found. What always burst, and produced a larger fly,

black, appears singular and surprising to spectators marked with white, hairy on the abdomen, is, that, in working sums in division, &c., if and red at the nether end; such as daily the operator be inattentive to his business, frequent butchers' shops, or any place where and thereby attempts to turn the handle a sin- there is dead flesh.” gle revolution more than he ought, he is in- So many different flies from the same kind stantly admonished of his mistake by the of flesh, did not dismay, but, on the contrary, sudden springing up of a small ivory ball."

stimulated biin to fresli exertions; instead, therefore, of only one kind, he put many into different boxes, and obtained the same result as before, except that the different species of

insects were more numerous. EXPERIMENTS ON THE GENERA- He next put some skinned river frogs into TION OF INSECTS,

a glass vessel, which he left open; on the following day, he found them covered with

worms, some sporting in the fætid liquor that The celebrated Italiarr physician Redi, who had stilled froin the carcase, while the rest died in 1697, was the first to prore, by ex- depastured on the frogs. On the third day periment, that insects are not engendered he found they had all decamped, leaving in putridity. To prove the fact, he had nought of the frogs but the bones. three snakes, which he called Angui d'Escu- Some fish from the Arno were the next lapio, killed, and put into an open box. victims to his inquisitive spirit, and these These were soon covered with little worms, also were soon peopled; but on these, and all alike in shape, being conical, but of dif- the sides of the box in which they were ferent sizes, as they were produced at different placed, he observed not only worms, but also times, which increased daily both in size and some very small eggs, which, crushed benumber. Having consumed the flesh, they tween the nails, gave a white subtle liquid, all escaped through the fissures of the box, clearer and less viscous than the white of leaving the naked bones in a corner. He birds' eggs. By the twentieth day they were again had three of these snakes killed, and all batched, and the worms had increased to put them into a box as before ; in a few days twice their original size, and went about twenty-five or thirty to the grain; but next Not yet satisfied, he determined on making day they were so amazingly enlarged, as to a new experiment. He put some meat and weigh about seven grains each. Meanwhile fish into a large vessel, covered with very fine they continued devouring the fish, and finally gauze, which he also put into a large box, Jeft nothing but the bones; and these " they covered with the same gauze, that the air left as white and clean as if they had issued might penetrate to the meats, while it refrom the hands of the most diligent anatomist mained free from the intrusion of insects. in Europe."

On these he did not see a single worm, but Having taken means to prevent their flight, frequently saw the little creatures writhing which they all attempted, he watched their about on the outer gauze, trying to make gradual progress towards perfection. The their way through; and it was with difficulty perfect insects were of five kinds; four he had that he was once quick enough to prevent seen before, the fifth, a little black fly, greatly two of them from falling on the meat, for exceeding the number of its pupæ, which they had got their bodies half through the were black and large, he had never observed inner gauze. He also observed the flies, aitill then. Seeing this curious disproportion, tracted by the meat, and unable to make be opened one or two of the pupæ, and found their way to it, drop their eggs upon the that they contained upon an average from gauze; some of them alighiting upon it, twenty-five to thirty flies, but never more others hovering in the air during the operathan forty.

tion ; and he perceived that each left six or After this he made many more experiments seven eggs at a time. This was the point he on lion's flesh, tiger's, and in fact, mullitu- wished to attain, and he had now discovered dinous species of fish, flesh, and fowl, cooked that insects supposed to be engendered by and raw, and found that the insects were pro- corruption, were, in reality, propagated by miscuously produced on all kinds of meat; their own species.-Mag. of Nat. History. and, indeed, one piece would sometimes contain all the species he had observed, and he generally observed not only worms but eggs. The eggs reminded bim of the impurities left PHILOSOPHY OF QUACKERY.* upon meats by flies (that afterwards become worms), which butchers and housewives

(From the Athenæum.) guarded against by defending them with gauze coverings.

This made him doubt whether the eggs he Those who reside in the metropolis have no had perceived were not deposited on the idea of the extent of quackery and dece; tion meat by flies, similar to those they produced, which pervade many of our large country instead of being generated by the corruption; towns, and especially certain watering-places, the more, because he invariably found that

not even more distant than one hundred miles flies, resembling those afterwards produced are, indeed, “ the great asylums of ignorance,

from London. The last-mentioned situations from their eggs, alighted upon the flesh pre- blended and mixed up with knavery." To viously to the appearance of the worms; those who have not observed how closely the “ but rain would have been the doubt, if experience had not proved this.” To do so, folly and credulity of the high may approach he put into four wide-necked flasks, a snake,

to the prejudice and infatuation of the low, it some river fish, some cels from the Arno, and may appear extraordinary that the great and some veal, and covered the mouths with the grand supporters of the march of humbug.

fashionable, not the vulgar and ignorant, are paper, tied on tight, and sealed. As many If an order of men, not superior to common inore Hasks, containing similar meats, he left tradesmen, some of whom (we are prepared open.

In a few days, the fishes and meat in with proofs) can neither speak nor write comthe open flasks were, as usual, covered with

mon sense, common English, nor common worms; in the closed flasks, the flesh, al- grammar, have not exclusive possession of though putrid, was entirely free from worins,

the field, nor the leading honorary distinctions though, on the outside of the paper, there and appointments in these places, they at least were a few worms as well as eggs; the obtain the richest patients, and by far the first former, in vain, using every endeavour to

individual practices. Fortunes, from various enter. After this, he made many similar have been made by this sort of illiterate, half

amounts up to one hundred thousand pounds, experiments, and always found that uncovered meats shortly teemed with life ; while, on educated persons, within these last fifteen the contrary, those that had no communica- years, upon the strength of some species of tion with the external air, corrupted, but imposture gross and absurd almost beyond never verminated. During the course of belief. According to the Editor of Percival's these experiments, he ascertained the curious

“Medical Ethics,” and some other authorities fact, that when the common fly dies, it serves

“Medical Ethics; or, a Code of Institutes and as a nest for its own species equally with any Physicians and Surgevus. By the late Thomas

Precepts, adapted to the Professional Conduct of other kind of dead flesh.

Percival, M.D. &c."

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(see Sir A. B. Faulkner's “Rambling Notos"), are at a stand either in the cause or its cure.'' the people of fashion go in regular series, first Hippocrates is generally silent relative to the to Bath, to have all their diseases cured by an success of remedies : he thought a thorough instrumental panacea; next to Cheltenham, knowledge of the disorder

the most important to have their skins soaked in muriatic acid step towards its cure. But the practice of tuhs ; and lastly, to Leamington, to have these persons seems to indicate that it is untheir heads shaved and inundated in cold necessary to be able “ to distinguish between vat:r.-Pp. 264–317. It seems that from a kettle and a cart-wheel.” The Editor of two and four guineas a day, to twenty guineas the “ Ethics” gives several instances of those per month, are paid for all these beautiful cures, wbich are nothing but frauds. We expedients, either to the wand-bearer who have never seen one of them that stood a year. operates at Bath, to the whale who throws Mr. Wadd says, that “the late Lord Gardeout his tub, or to the surgeon-barber (for stone, himself a valetudinarian, took the pains such, in fact, was the customary practice of to inquire for those persons who had actually that ancient order), who shaves and deluges attested marvellous cures, and found that the skull. The Editor mentions some Ho

more than two-thirds of the number died very nourable,” who underwent a curative process shortly after they had been cured. Sir Rofor a disordered stomach, paid three hundred bert Walpole, Lords Bolingbroke and Winguineas for the same, and departed re infectú. nington, were killed by cure-mongers!" -P. 263. The fashionable part of English To this system of lying, some few accessasociety, a class of beings extremely " wayward ries may be added. Moliere's “Medecin and skittish in all their movements,” are fol- malgré lui” wished “ that he did but know lowed wherever they go by a legion of quacks, a few physical hard words.” The Paracelsian as a leaky ship by the sharks. These good style of high-flown bombast, and solemn and people migrate from place to place, and always pompous exclamations in a peculiar verbiage, to men of the same class, as an old writer ob- with a certain pomp and circumstance in the serves, spending their physical substance arrangement of exteriors, among physic-harpies, and their ravenous at

" With books and money placed for show," tendants, nurses, quacks, apothecaries,” &c. The Editor of the Medical Ethics" relates like nest-eggs, to make patients lay, and, the following anecdote :-—“Lord A. (Anson, above all, the constantly counterfeiting of er we have heard) some years ago sent for an cessive employment, are useful additions. old woman to Cheltenham to attend his child, The third step is to convert all diseases whose method of cure consists in wagging her into one, and reduce the treatment to a single thumb over them. She wagged her thumb method. One disease, and one remedy are for hours over the cradle; but the infant died, very antiquated features of pure quackery. though his lordship had assured the physician Our author says, that there is a peculiar policy in attendance that she was infallible. This in adopting the more mysterious parts of the woman' keeps a carriage, and gets 1000l. per frame for the seats of all diseases. annum at the expense of aristocratical wis- “ Among those single organs, which have dom!"—See page 276 of Moore's “ History been destined here and there to be the source of Vaccination."

of all diseases, and of great wealth, the rectum The elements of modern quackery are much has achieved more celebrity than the Norththe same as formerly, but, of course, modified west Passage, and proved more lucrative than by change of time and manners. Its most a gold mine. Indeed, touched with the enstriking and prominent features are :- chanter's wand, like Midas, it has turned

First, Unparalleled lying. The aspiring every thing into gold.”—P. 258. genius must be what old Wilding calls “ “ It has become so fashionable to have conconstitutional liar, telling you more lies in tractions of the rectum, and to be poked with one hour than all the circulating libraries put a bougie, that scarcely visitors of any age or together publish in a year.” He must be sex go to some certain places (Bath we imacapable of curing any thing and every thing, gine), who do not devote their persons to that by remedies that have nothing short of mi- curious process.”—P. 259. raculous agency, and, at the same time, of Fashion in disease is not rare. Voltaire re- ' convincing others that all who have preceded lates, that, after Louis XIV. was-operated on him in the treatment of a case have been guilty for fistula in uno, all the French Court would of consummate ignorance. The very basis of have that disease, and be cut for it. his success is a reputation for making

The fourth, and not least important means, traordinary cures." All men of observation, is intrigue through puffers. Painted Jesabels whether in or out of the profession, know that and card-playing old maids, who have a certo give assurances of cures in chronic diseases, tain gossiping influence in coteries, are most is the conduct of none but gross impostors. invaluable allies, with a gang of cook-maids, "I am well satisfied,” says old Baynard, lodging-house-keepers, and kept-mistresses “that all these confident and most Corinthian to men of rank. The author mentions an old assurances are but prostituted hopes and pro- stager, whose recommendations were valued mises of your trifling prescribers, when they at 5001. per annum. It is the practice of

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