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and, by throwing himself upon his shoulders, only strangled the man, but actually broke breaks his neck, and terminaets his struggles his neck, as was perceived by his head sudin an instant.

denly falling forward on his breast with a But for very heinous offences they have a jerk; indeed I thought I heard the neck more imposing execution, well adapted to break. In this situation he was left for impress the mind with awe, though not more twenty minutes, after which he was unbound painful to the suffering party than the other. from the post and seat, and laid on his back The following is an account of an execution on the stage by the side of the post. of this kind which I witnessed :

The other criminal, who had stood a miseTwo men had been found guilty of forging rable, trembling spectator of his associate's the paper currency of the country to a very execution, was then supported up to the same considerable amount, and to make a proper place, for by this time terror had rendered example of them, an old law, which had lain him too feeble to walk without assistance dormant for nearly a century, was put in and the horror he had endured for the last force; this law submitted them to be burnt hour, in being obliged to witness such a scene, alive. But as even the Portuguese (as well and in which he was soon to bear a principal as ourselves) are too refined now to relish part, must have been a punishment far greater roasting our fellow creatures, as an epicure than the death itself. does a lobster, they were first allowed to be The same ceremony and execution again strangled.

took place; and after this man was also laid These wretched men, habited in long on the stage, the executioner left it, and the loose white dresses, were on the day of exe fire was applied to the fuel beneath. The cution brought from the prison, and accom, flames soon rose through the openings of panied by several priests, slowly marched to the floor, which had been left for that purthe Caes do Soctre.*

pose, and seized the linen robes that covered In the centre of the square a stage was the bodies, which, in about half an hour, erected, the flooring of which was of thick were entirely consumed. oak; but the planks were left about an inch Their ashes were then collected and asunder, to admit the ascending flames when thrown into the river, according to the the fuel, which was placed beneath, should sentence. be lighted. The stage itself was about six One curious circumstance attended the feet from the ground; in the middle of it burning of these men. They were placed on was a post about eight feet high, and in front the platform side by side; and after the of that, and connected with it, was a seat for rope, which confined their arms behind, was one person.

burnt, the contraction of the muscles of When the men arrived at the place of the arms, by fire, caused them gradually to execution, a priest addressed them for some rise in a perpendicular direction from the time, after which one of them ascended the stage, extending towards heaven; and the platform, and was placed on the seat with his cords which confined the wrists together, back against the post. The executioner then not being burnt through, the hands remained bound him, by a rope passed round his mid- clasped, as in the act of supplication. The dle, to the stake ; another rope confined his arms continued in this posture till the whole thighs to the seat, and his feet were also of the bodies were consumed, when they fell firmly tied down to the flooring ; his hands into the flames. The effect of this circum: were tied before him, secured at the wrists, stance was uncommonly awful ; even after and a cord behind him bound his elbows close death, they seemed to implore mercy from to his sides. Thus secured, he could not their God, while one atom of their persons by any exertion or convulsion move a limb. existed.

A priest then mounted the platform, and Upon the whole, I could not but consider stood for a long time talking to the poor the method of thus strangling a criminal, inwretch. After he had administered the sa- finitely superior to our indecent mode of crament, he quitted the scaffold, and the exe- hanging. Here the whole person was concutioner proceeded to his office; he pulled cealed by a white full drapery; and so sethe hood of the white dress the criminal wore cured that not a motion or convulsion could over his head, so as to entirely conceal his bé perceived through the whole time of their face, and then passed a circular rope over suffering; whereas, with us, every struggle his head, bringing one part of it round the of agonized expiring nature is exposed to front of his neck, and passing the other part view, with savage and indecent inhumanity. (or bite) of it through a hole in the post be Never can I forget an execution I was once hind, and then through the loop of that he forced to witness. Three men were burg passed a short stick, by turning which round together (for rebellion in Grenada, West Inhe gradually tightened the rope round the dies, in 1796-7), on a gallows, and that man's neck, and then, instantly, with all his being very narrow, they were necessarily might, and with the utmost velocity, twisted hung rather close together; the consequence the cord, by means of the stick, till it not was, that in the spasinodic struggles of death,

by jerking up their knees, and turning round • A small square so called, near the river, and open and round, as suspended by the rope, they towards it. Caes signifies a Quay.

were for five minutes alternately "kicking VOL. I.

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about once in seven weeks, in their dirt-carts, EGYPTIAN MANUSCRIPT. or in hampers on mules, and the stench caused by disturbing it for removal is insup. At the sitting of the Aix Academy, on the portable.* In the lesser streets, lanes, and 3d of August, M, Sallier read a report of alleys, it is never removed, except when the some very important discoveries in Egyptian violence of the winter rains carries it into the history, made at his house, and amongst his Tagus.

Egyptian papyri, by M. Champollion, jeune. There is, however, a law, though it is very The latter gentleman was on his way to Egypt little attended to, which strictly forbids the with M. Rosellini, and stopped two days with throwing of anything from the windows M. Sallier previous to proceeding to Toulon before the hour of ten at night, and then the for the purpose of embarking. During this person who throws it ought to give warning short period he examined ten or twelve by first calling out three times Aguva vai Egyptian papyri, which had been purchased (water is coming); a transgression of this some years ago, with other antiquities, from regulation incurs the penalty of a fine, which, an Egyptian sailor. They were principally if not paid, is changed into imprisonment. prayers or rituals which had been deposited Nevertheless you are in danger of, at least, with mummies ; but there was also the condirty water every hour in the day, though, tract of the sale of a house in the reign of one should this happen, the occupier of the house, of the Ptolemies; and finally three rolls (or floor), from whence the annoyance was united together and written over with fine de. thrown, is obliged, on application, to pay you motic characters, reserved, as is well known, the full price of the article which may be thus for civil purposes. wetted and spoiled, whether hat, coat, or any The first of these rolls was of considerable other part of your dress.t. Should he refuse, size, and to M. Champollion's astonishment the party injured has only to fetch a police contained a History of the Campaigns of soldier, who, on a further refusal, lugs him Sesostris Rhamses called also Sethos, or Sé. off to prison till he complies; and, at all thosis, and Sesoosis, giving accounts the events, is himself entitled to four dollars for most circumstantial of his conquests, the being called in to settle the dispute. The countries which he traversed, his forces, and only difficulty is to ascertain from which details of his army. The manuscript is window the offence was committed ; for most finished with a declaration of the historian, of the houses being many stories high, and who, after stating his names and titles, says every story inhabited by a different family, he wrote in the ninth year of the reign of you must be very sure that you fix on the Sesostris Rhamses, king of kings, a lion in right floor, before you make your demand of combats, &c. complaint; and, in general, the offending M. Champollion has promised, that, on his person withdraws from the window so quick, return from Egypt, he will fix the manuscript that it is almost impossible to detect him. on cloth for its future preservation, and give

The surest way of avoiding a salute of the a complete translation. The period of the kind, which at night is doubly unpleasant, is, history is close to the time of Moses; and in passing through a wide street, to walk in apparently the great Sesostris was the son of the middle of it, and in narrow streets to keep the king who pursued the Israelites to the as close as possible under the houses, at the borders of the Red Sea. same time being on the watch whenever you On the same MS. commences another com. see a dirt heap; for as one window on each position, called Praises of the great King floor is ever used to throw their filth from Amemnengon. There are only a few leaves (generally a passage window), it conse- of it, and they form the beginning of the quently always falls in the same place, and history contained in the second roll. This there accumulates. The window set apart for Amemnengon is supposed to have reigned this purpose may always be known by the before Sesostris, because the author wrote in filthy wall of the house under it.- Athenæun. the ninth year of the reign of the latter. * I should imagine that this prevalence of offen

The third roll relates to astronomy or sive stells may have originally been the cause that astrology, or more likely to both these sub. produced the disgusting custom of spitting I have jects. It has not been far opened ; but will vias may be tasted as well as smelt, and then spit: probably prove of the utmost interest, if, as ting instinctively follows. Thompson had the same is expected, it contains any account of the idea relative to sweets.

system of the heavens as known to or acknow. " Or taste the smell of dairy."-SpringThompson. ledged by the Egyptians and Chaldeeans, the

+ 1 had an opportunity of knowing that the same authors of astronomical science. penalty is incurred if a person's dog injures you. I A small basaltic figure was purchased with saw the lap of a gentleman's coat torn off, as he was

the MSS., and it is supposed found with walking very quietly along, by a dog which had laid bold of it slily. The gentleman followed the dog into

them. On the shoulders of the figure is his master's house, who, on finding what he had written in hieroglyphic characters the name, done, paid the gentleman twenty-four dollars for a with the addition of clerk and friend of new coat. The dog belonged to a rich lawyer, on whom I was billeted at the time.

Sesostris.-Bull. Univ., G. x. 200.

'VARIETIES.

Sir Walter Scott and Dr. Gall, the Phreno- of Havre, states, from his own experience of logist.---It has been aptly remarked, that the long continuance, that when bottles containadvocates of the phrenological system care- ing wine are closed by tying a piece of parchfully publish every fact which supports their ment or bladder over their mouths, instead theories, but none which oppose them. Whe- of using corks in the ordinary manner, the ther the following anecdotes merely prove wine acquires, in a few weeks only, those an error in judgnient of the celebrated qualities which is only given by age in the founder of the system, or the heads examined ordinary way after many years.-- Nouvean to be examples of perverse configuration, we Jour. de Paris. shall leave others to decide.

Indications of Wholesomeness in MushWhen Dr. Gall was in this country, he rooms.-Whenever a fungus is pleasant in went, in company with Dr. H., to visit the flavour and odour, it may be considered studio of our eminent sculptor Chantrey. wholesome; if, on the contrary, it have an Mr. Chantrey being engaged, they amused offensive smell, a bitter, astringent, or stypthemselves in viewing the various efforts of tic taste, or even if it leave an unpleasant his skill. Dr. Gall was requested to say, flavour in the mouth, it should not be consifrom the organs exhibited in a certain bust, dered fit for food. · The colour, figure, and what was the predominant propensity or fa- texture of these vegetables do not afford any culty of the individual.' He pronounced that characters on which we can safely rely; yet the original must be a great poet. His at- it may be remarked, that in colour, the pure tention was directed to a second bust. He yellow, gold colour, bluish pale, dark or declared the latter to be that of a great ma- lustre brown, wine red, or the violet, belong thematician. The first was the bust of to many that are esculent; whilst the pale or Troughton, the eminent mathematician; and sulphur yellow, bright or blood red, and the the second, that of Sir Walter Scott. greenish, belong to few but the poisonous.

Talent, the phrenologist asserts, is propor: The safe kinds have most frequently a comtional to the development of the cerebral pact, brittle texture; the flesh is white; mass. Mr. Chantrey exbibited to Dr. Gall they grow more readily in open places, such drawings of numerous heads. The cranio- as dry pastures and waste lands, than in scopist selected one, whose ample cerebral places humid or shaded by wood.

In genedevelopment gave (as he decided) a sure ral, those should be suspected which grow in index of vast talent-it was a fac-sjinile of caverns and subterraneous passages, on anithe head of the Earl of Pomfret.

mal matter undergoing putrefaction, as well The New Zealanders.- It is a singular as those whose flesh is softor watery.—Quarfact, that many of the customs of the New terly Journal of Science. Zealanders bear a close resemblance to those Method of finding the Course of the Air of the ancient Jews. Among other pecu- when the Wind is still-Place a basin of liarities, it is esteemed unclean to eat twice water in a free exposure, throw a red hot cinout of the same basket; and the principal der into it, and observe how the smoke occupation of the women, therefore, is the which it produces inclines. Sailors throw a constant manufacturing of baskets from the piece of live coal into the sea for the same bark of the palm-tree, for their lordly masters, purpose ; and also wet'a finger, hold it up in after whose meals out of them these articles are the air, and then by feeling which part carefully consumed. In other respects there becomes (by evaporation) cool, they judge of are a multitude of circumstances which ren- the direction of the current of air. An der things clean or unclean in the code of instrument on the last principle has been inthe natives.

vented by Dr. B. M. M. Forster-Mec. Mag. Grecian Coffee. The coffee is never roasted Method of preserving Seeds fit for Vegetanor ground till about to be used, and is then tion.-Fill an old cask half full of earth, put considerably more burned, and reduced to a the seeds as near as possible to the middle of finer powder, than with us. In preparing it, the cask, then fill the latter entirely with & small tin vessel, holding exactly the quan- moist earth, pressing it down, and fipally tity to be used (generally about a wine-glass closing the cask so that neither air nor water full), is placed upon the fire, containing at may enter it. Keep it from contact of sea the same time the coffee and sugar, all which water. In this manner seeds may be broaglit are boiled together, poured into a little china from the East Indies or New Holland in a cup, and, when the sediment has fallen to state of perfect preservation and fit to vege the bottom, drunk without any admixture of tate.-Gardener's Magasine. cream or milk.

Maturation" of Wine.-M. de St. Vincent,

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