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whiting, and on opening it, she found the ring own monsters, and with it-incredible to which she had lost seventy years before !" relate—the lost pockel-book !!

The following is curious :-"A gentleman “ Improbable as this circumstance may of Tewkesbury some time ago purchased a and must appear, it is fact. The friend from large flounder, of which he partook in com- whom the writer had it, was at the Isle of pany with a friend. After dinner the cook Wight at the period of its occurrence, and brought a gold ring into the room, which she has, in many instances, been corroborated in had found in the belly of the fish; it was the story, on mentioning it before comnearly black, and had the appearance of a manders of Indiamen. The circumstance is wedding ring."

barely accounted for, by supposing that the The subjoined is no less remarkable:- current had carried the book alongside the “ During the passage from Riga to Leith of vessel, and lodging, wedged it in the anchor the brig Harmony, Mack, and while she was at the moment of its being cast at St. Helen's becalmed off the Scot's Reef, a young man, Point. This incident is decidedly one of that employed in unbending the fore-topmast sail, class of strange contingencies which do happened to drop his knife overboard. The sometimes happen in this curious world weather being good, and a number of the against the occurrence of which exists no finny tribe sporting about the vessel, the lines positive moral or physical reason—and yet, were thrown out, an excellent take of fish upon the befalling of which, reason seems obtained, and among them a large cod, in the outraged and defied; and the mind slowly interior of which, on its preparation for cook- admits the most unqualified testimonies as to ing, the identical knife was found, and re- its veracity.” scored to its owner, four hours only having elapsed from the time of its fall overboard." Extraordinary as these recoveries appear,

THE CALENTURE. the following, extracted from the Naval and Military Magazine (to the truth of which the

“That malady Editor observes, he has himself frequently Which calls up green and native fields to view, heard gentlemen of the East India Company's From the rough deep, with such identity, service vouch, as also others who were upon

To the poor exile's levered eye, that he the spol, not of the profession), show they

Cau scarcely be restraiu'd from treading them." are not wholly to be discredited :-“ It is Tue calenture, is a disorder too well known customary for Indiamen, in their passage to require further description ; it is usually through the Downs, to anchor at the Mothers attributed to home-sickness, or an intolerabank, and from thence to drop down to St. ble longing for land at least; but does it not Helen's Point, and await a wind. A few rather originate in an acute sense of the years since, the fleet then lying at the Mother- prison-like narrowness and restraint of a bank, was, as usual, ordered off to St. Helen's ship? Does not the horrid certainty that he Point, when a young cadet, in one of the is immured in a machine, from whence vessels, anxious to see the process of escape is impossible but by death, overwhelpi • weighing anchor,' ran hastily to the ship's the unhappy patient ? who, having once ad. side, and having unfortunately his pocket- mitted into his bosom the contemplation of book in his hand at that moment, dropped it land and liberty, and the reminiscences of overboard! Great was the poor youth's home—the desire for them becomes outtribulation and dismay; for in that precious rageous, and is rendered more and more in. case was deposited all the little pecuniary tolerable by the despair attendant on the score which was to pay the expenses incident knowledge that they are unattainable. It is to bis voyage and sojourn in India, until the worthy of remark, that those persons are welcome receipt of the batta. However, soonest attacked with this malady who lathere was no help for the accident, all the bour under the misfortune of weak and irri. blame of it attached to himself; and as it table nerves.

How the illusion of this sin. was impossible to arrest the vessel's career, gular ocean mirage is produced, must remain and fish for a pocket-book in the bottom a secret with that of other species of de. less abyss,' he was obliged to conceal his lirium, and our nightly dreams; but that it chagrin, and reconcile his mind to so heavy is as complete as any that takes place, “ when a loss as well as he could. That evening the deep slumbers fall upon man,” is an estaship anchored at St. Helen's Point; but a

blished fact. That those unfortunates, who fair wind springing up about morning, she are suffering the insanity of this disorder, prepared, with the rest of the fleet, to sail. will also, unless narrowly watched, precipiOn heaving anchor, our unfortunate cadet tate themselves into the sea, is also notorious : again stood on deck, watching, with a painful

-a relation told me, that upon her once de. reminiscence, the cable gradually coil round volved the melancholy task of writing to a the windlass, and hearing,

young woman, informing her of the death of * At every turn the clangiog pauls resound.'

her husband (to whom she had been married

but three weeks), a fine young man, who had At length up came the anchor, rushing and drowned himself in the delirium of the malady splashing through the deep, like one of its in question.-Nuv. Mag. Vol. 1.

D

VARIETIES.

Origin of the Word Culprit.—About the de. to the western coast it would be exceedingly rivation of this word there has been much advantageous. dispute. When a prisoner is brought to the In a geographical point of view, it would bar, inquiry is made of him whether he be exceedingly interesting; and such displeads guilty or not guilty. On his answer- coveries, Malte Brun justly observes, "ening Not guilty, the clerk of the arraigns says hance the dignity of human nature." (or formerly did say)—“ Quil paroit, let it Custom. We remember to have met with appear so.

Hence arose, from the sound a man of much native sagacity, who had of these French words, the vulgar practice been taken a prisoner from the frontier setof calling a prisoner a culprit: it was mis. tlements of Kentucky, at nine years of age, taken by the crowd for the legal denomina- and after leading the life of a hunter thirty tion of a criminal. Blackstone supposes the years among the Indians, in the remote reword compounded of two abbreviations : cul gions of the north-west, returned to Ohio. for culpable, which the clerk declares the pri. He had entirely forgotten bis mothersoner to be; and prit or prêt (Fr.) for ready tongue, and for iwo or three years after his to prove him so. Others again derive it from return, he could not but pity a people comculpa, in a fault, and præhensus, taken. pelled to use so clumsy a language as the

Peter the Great.--Among the papers English appeared to him; but when seven or which Evelyn communicated to the Royal eight years had elapsed, he was willing to Society, is a curious letter describing the admit, that he thought the whites could speak mischiefs done to his garden at Saye's Court, almost as sensibly as the Indians.-American by the uncommonly severe winter of 1683 Review. and 4. He has lamented in another place French Postage.-Such of our readers as the great injury his garden received from have correspondents on the Continent should the rough usage it underwent during the be careful to write upon thin post paper time he lent his house to the Czar Peter when they write to their friends abroad. for his residence while studying the art of The thinnest and lightest paper should be ship-building at Deptford. That great but used for this purpose, in order to comply rude sovereign, it seems, took a delight in with the regulations of the French governi. the pastime of being wheeled backwards ment on this bead-a regulation rather and forwards in a barrow through Mr. Eve. strange, and inconsistent with the tardy and lyn's “most glorious and impenetrable holly ponderous nature of the vehicles by which hedge,” which he mentions as the pride of correspondence is conveyed in France. A his garden. Evelyn died in 1706, in his neglect of this precaution subjects the person eighty-sixth year.

to whom the letter is addressed to double Bird-Catching.- The following simple but or treble postage according to the weight.ingenious method of catching wild fowl is Morning Journal. practised in Mexico. The lakes of the Recipe for Salting Beef.-Salt and water Mexican vale, as well as others of the king, have a wonderful penchant, chemically dom, are frequented by a predigious multi. ycleped affinity, for each other. Get, theretude of wild ducks, geese, and other water. fore, a tub of pure water, rain or river water birds. The Níexicans leave some large is best, let it be nearly full, and put the tongs empty gourds to float upon the water, where or two pieces of thin wood across it, and set those birds resort, that they may be accus- your beef on them, distant about an inch tomed to see and approach them without from the water ; heap as much salt as it will fear. The bird-catcher then goes into the hold on your beef, let it stand for four-andwater deep enough to hide his body, and twenty hours; you may then take it off and covers his head with a gourd; the ducks boil it, and you will find it as salt as if it had come to peck at it; and then he pulls them been in pickle for six weeks.-Gem. by the feet under water, and in this manner Consumption of Tea.-The British consecures as many as he pleases.

sumer of tea is obliged to purchase the East North West Passage.-It has been fre- India Company's tea (Congo) at six shil quently asked, what advantage would result lings to eight shillings per pound, which to the world from the discovery of a passage might be furnished to him by free traders, or round the northern part of America ? The Americans, at about the following rate fur companies of the north could well an. Congo, at

17d. per lb. swer this query. If a trade could be opened Duty, say 100 per cent. . 17 in furs with the natives on the northern Profit, 25 per cent.

41 coast, most important benefits might arise -the voyage to the East Indies, too, would

38. 21d. be shortened one-third, and to our traders

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In proof of the serious inroads which the A German translation of Lord Byron's use of tea, at the present exorbitant prices, works has also recently been published in makes on the earnings of the poor, and the 31 volumes. An edition in 18 small volimited incomes of the less indigent classes, lumes of Sir W. Scott's Life of Napoleon, we here subjoin some curious calculations, with plates, has been published by the same which were made some years ago, and bookseller (Schumann Zwickau), for the low which, though not intended to be applied to price of six rix dollars, which is about onethis subject, are quite in point.

sixth of the price it was published at in As much superfluous money is expended London. in tea and sugar in this kingdom as would At Frankfort, Weimar, and Leipsig, our maintain four millions of subjects in bread. best English works are often reprinted, and -Essay on Husbandry.

sold for a mere nothing. At the former The entertainment of sipping tea costs the place, Dr. Granville purchased Matilda, depoor each as follows:

lightfully printed as a pocket volume, for Tea

jd. one-fifth of the price at which it is sold in Sugar

London. At Leipsig all Moore's poetical Butter

1 works, including Lalla Rookh, the Loves of Fuel and wear of tea equipage

1 the Angels, the Fudge Family, the Irish

Melodies, &c. have been printed in one 2ļd.

volume 8vo. which sells for seven shil.

lings ! They would cost as many pounds in Tea, therefore, when used twice a day, England. amounts to about 77. 125. a head per annum. The Earth.-M. L. Cordier, professor of The same writer estimates the bread neces. Geology in the Garden of Plants, has pubsary for a labourer's family of five persons, lished a memoir, in which he endeavours to at 141. 58. 9d. per annum. By which it ap- prove that the earth is a cooled star, which pears, that the yearly expense of tea, sugar, has been extinguished only at its surface, &c. for two persons exceeds that of the ne- and that its interior is still in a state of cessary article of bread sufficient for a fa- fluidity ; that the mean thickness of the mily of five persons.—Essay on the Tea crust of the earth does not exceed twenty Plant.

leagues (sixty miles); that, according The consumption of tea in Great Britain to observations which have been made in fluctuates continually, but may be averaged the caves under the Observatory at Paris, at twenty-four millions of pounds annually. the heat increases so fast, that, at the depth The high price of tea obviously places it out of about a mile and a half under Paris, we of the power of the lower, and many of the should reach a temperature equal to that of middling classes of the people, the demands boiling water ; and that this solid crust is of of whose families are constantly increasing very unequal thickness in different counupon them, to indulge in the beverage of tries, bringing the fluid matter nearer the good tea ; and the privation is rendered so surface, and imparting in consequence a much the greater, because what was at first higher temperature to the soil, and a a luxury, has now, by the force of custom, warmer climate to the country.—New become a necessary of life, and the habits of Monthly Magazine. even the lowest classes require the use of Broken-winded Horses.—The public are tes. This indulgence, however, the present frequently imposed upon by horse-dealers exorbitant price of the article necessarily selling broken-winded horses, which are precludes them from, except it be in so di. termed “ roarers ;” and which defect they luted a state as to make it little better than contrive temporarily to conceal from the mere water.

purchasers in the following mannerWere the sums drawn from the population They thrust a quantity of leaden shot, inof the country in this way, thrown into the termixed with a portion of lard, down the Exchequer, the tax might be a source of less horse's throat, which so operates upon the dissatisfaction. But that two millions sterling lungs, that it keeps the breath of the horse in -the difference between the purchase of tea order for more than twenty-four hours, so in China, and its sale price in England as the most ingenious dealer cannot detect should annually be expended to paniper the the disease. If the animal can be sold appetites of a greedy monopoly, is an oppres. during this time, well and good ; if not, a sion which no poor man should quietly en- dose of castor oil removes the shot, &c. The dure, nor any rich man, though he may not next day the shot is again applied, and so feel its weight, silently connive at.-Oriental every alternate day the horse is fit to be exHerald.

posed for sale, which, in the end, seldom A collection of Sir Walter Scott's novels fails to entrap a purchaser.-Morning He. has been published in Germany in the En- rald. glish language, in 126 pocket 'volumés, in. The Souvenir.-It is stated in the preface cluding his last tales, and another edition of the Souvenir, that such is the expense of translated into German, in. 95. volumes. the publication, that a “circulation of less than from eight to nine thousand copies an inch asunder, A cubic inch of water will, would entail a loss upon the proprietors ;" of course, contain 64; a cubic foot, 110,592; and it is added, in a note, that if the copy- and a cubic mile, 23,888,000,000,000,000. right and copper-plate printing be taken into Now, allowing that one person could count consideration, one hundred guineas was the a million of these animalculæ in seven days, lowest cost of each of the engravings, and which is barely within the reach of possithat some of them indeed were from one bility, it would have required that 40,000 hundred and fifty to one hundred and seventy persons should have started at the creation of guineas each.

the world to complete the enumeration of A New Trojan Horse. --The equestrian those contained in a cubic mile of sea-water. statue of George III. about to be erected at - Athenæum. Windsor, is of such magnitude, that twelve Typolithography.A remarkable specimen of Mr. Westmacott's men have at one time of printing from types transferred to stone together taken lunch in the interior of the has lately appeared. It is a publication by horse, the door through which they entered Ridgway, of a tabular system of gardening, being the saddle place.- Times.

printed at the typolithographic press, How. Improvement in the Stamping of News. ard-street, on an imperial sheet. One side, papers.—The quantity of newspaper stamps which may be called the front, is entitled issued from Somerset House exceeds “ The Gardener's Remembrancer, and Apia. 100,000 per day. These are worked by rian's Monthly Calendar, and consists of in. ten machines, each requiring the attendance structions for the management of bees, garof three men, and six additional ones to wet dens, green-houses, hot-houses, &c. during the paper for the whole. The process of each month of the year. The months are wetting may now be dispensed with alto. arranged circularly around a figure of the gether, a machine having been invented by sun in the centre. The reverse of the sheet, Mr. Boyce, foreman at Messrs. Pouchee's which is divided into two tables, under the type foundry, which works them dry, pro- titles of “ The Gardener's Vegetable Seed ducing a far better impression, and a consi- Calendar,” and “ The Gardener's Fruit Caderable saving of time to the proprietors of lendar,” contains directions for the cultiva. newspapers, who were before obliged to give tion of the kitchen and fruit garden, in grafiforty hours notice when they required stamps, ing, &c. These tables, we understand, are in order to give time for the wetting and drawn up by a gentleman of Suffolk, who has stamping. By the new machine 36,000 may had much experience in gardening; but, inbe worked off in six hours.-Weekly Free dependently of their use, the work presents Press.

an interesting example of the manner in Green Colour of the Sea, produced by which typolithography may be applied, and Animalcule.-In the Greenland seas, about the progress which the art has made. The one part of the surface between the parallels, impression of the types is as clear and dis. of 74 deg. and 80 deg. is of an olive, or grass- tinct as in the finer descriptions of letter. green colour, which often occurs in long bands, press printing. It is one of the advantages or streams, from a few miles to ten or fifteen of ty polithography, that any embellishments miles in breadth, and from two to three de- or graphic illustrations may be embodied in grees of latitude in length. These belts of the letter-press; but in this instance embel. green water are frequently separated as dis- lishment has been very sparingly introduced. tinctly from the transparent blue water, as The ground on which the types of the titles the waters of a large muddy river on enter- are placed has a novel and striking effect, ing the sea. This colour has been ascertained and something of the kind, we think, might to be caused by an animal of the medusa be advantageously employed in the orna. kind, from one-twentieth to one-thirtieth of mental title-pages of books.-- Times. an inch in diameter, the surface of which is Lord Norbury's Last.—Why should we marked with twelve distinct patches or ne

not also have what the newspapers call bulæ of dots of a brownish colour, disposed Lord Norbury's last !- It seems that Mr. in pairs, four pairs, or sixteen pairs, alter- Dawson has some property in Dublin, on nately composing one of the nebula. The which a fish-market had been held from body of the medusa is transparent. The time immemorial. Not long ago he caused fibrous or hair-like substances were more it to be all newly fitted up, with convenient easily examined, being of a darker colour. and showy stalls. But the Nereids of They varied in length from a point to one. Dublin being Catholics, none of them would tenth of an inch, and, when highly magnified, support the speculations of one they consi. were found to be beautifully moniliform. In dered an Orangeman, and not one of the the largest specimens these bead-like arti. fine stalls was Jet. In one week however, culations were about thirty, and the diameter after the speech at Derry, not one remained of each about the 8-300th part of an inch. unlet. Upon this being told to Lord Nor. The number of these animalculæ, particularly bury, he answered—“Aye-I thought that medusa, was found to be immense, in olive. speech was all from sel-fish motives.-Longreen sea-water, being about one-fourth of don Magasine.

DR. HERSCHEL'S HYPOTHESIS OF them ; we may therefore admit, that in the THE SUN BEING INHABITED. very extensive atmosphere of the Sun, from

causes of the same nature, similar phenomena (From the Philosophical Transactions.) will take place; but with this difference, that

the continual, and very extensive decomposi.

tions of the elastic fluids of the Sun are of a Among the celestial bodies the Sun is cer. phosphoric nature, and attended with lucid tainly the first which should attract our appearances, by giving out light. notice. It is the fountain of light which il- The exceeding subtilty of light is such, that lumines the earth! It is the cause of that in ages of time its emanations from the Sun heat which maintains the productive power cannot very sensibly lessen the size of this of nature, and makes a fit habitation for man! great body. To this may be added, that, It is the central body of the planetary system ; very possibly, there may also be ways of and what renders a knowledge of its nature restoration to compensate for what is lost by still more interesting to us, is, that the num- the emission of light; though the manner in berless stars which compose the universe ap- which this can be brought about should not pear, by the strictest analogy, to be similar appear to us. Many of the operations of bodies. Their innate light is so intense, that nature are carried on in her great laboratory, it reaches the eye of the observer from the which we cannot comprehend ; but now and remotest regions of space.

then we see some of the tools with which she That our Sun has an extensive atmosphere is at work. We need not wonder that their cannot be doubted; and that this atmosphere construction should be so singular as to induce consists of various elastic fluids, that are more

us to confess our ignorance of the method of or less lucid and transparent, and of which employing them, but we may rest assured that the lucid one is that which furnishes us with they are not a mere lusus nature. I allude light, seems also to be fully established by to the great number of small telescopic comets all the phenomena of its spots, of the faculæ, that have been observed; and to the far greater and of the lucid surface itself.

number that still are probably much too small There is no kind of variety in these ap- for being noticed by our most diligent searchers pearances, but what may be accounted for after them. This throws a mystery over their with the greatest facility, from the continual destination, which seems to place them in the agitation which we may easily conceive must allegorical view of tools, probably designed take place in the regions of such extensive for some salutary purposes to be wrought by elastic fluids. It will be necessary, however, them; and whether the restoration of what is to be a little more particular as to the manner lost to the Sun by the emission of light, the in which I suppose the lucid matter of the Sun possibility of which we have been mentioning to be generated in its atmosphere. This lucid above, may not be one of these purposes, I matter is neither liquid nor an elastic fluid, shall not presume to determine. The motion as is evident from its not instantly filling up of the comet, discovered by Mr. Messier, in the cavities of the spots, and of the uneven- June, 1770, plainly showed how much its orbit ness of the mottled parts. It exists, therefore, was liable to be changed, by the perturbations in the manner of lucid clouds, swimming in of the planets ; from which, and the little the transparent atmosphere of the Sun; or agreement that can be found between the ele. rather of luminous decompositions taking ments of the orbits of all the comets that have place within that atmosphere. An analogy been observed, it appears clearly that they drawn from the generation of clouds in our may be directed to carry their salutary in. own atmosphere, seems a very proper one, and fluence to any part of the heavens. full of instruction. Our clouds are, pro- My hypothesis, however, does not lay me bably, decompositions of some of the elastic under any obligation to explain how the Sun fluids of the atmosphere itself, when such

can sustain the waste of light, nor to show natural causes, as in this grand chemical that it will sustain it for ever; and I should laboratory are generally at work, act upon also remark, that, as in the analogy of

The following observations were made with an generating clouds, I merely allude to their proimproved apparatus, and under the most favourable duction, as owing to a decomposition of some circumstances

of the elastic fluids of our atmosphere, that The Sun is mottled every where.

analogy, which firmly rests upon the fact, The mottled appearance of the Sun is owing to an will not be less to my purpose, to whatever inequality in the level of the surface. The Sun is equally mottled at its poles and at its equator; but

cause these clouds may owe their origin. It the mottled appearances may be seen better about is the same with the lucid clouds, if I may the middle of the disc than towards the circum- so call them, of the Sun. They plainly exist, ference, on account of the Sun's spherical form.

The unevenness, arising from the elevation and de. because we see them; the manner of their pression of the mottled appearance on the surface of being generated may remain an hypothesis ; ihe Sun, seems, in many places, to amount to as and mine, till a better can be proposed, may mueh, or to nearly as much as the depression of the stand good ; but whether it does or not, the shining substance, without including faculæ, which consequences I am going to draw from what are protuberant.

has been said will not be affected by it. VOL. I.

E

No. 2.-NOVEMBER 8, 1828.

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