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to an Italian rhetoric; one the language itself nature if they cannot be novel, for dat --which is too loitering for the agile motion, very reason cannot be undignified : but, for and the so ü7x4580$o of rhetoric; and the the same reason, they are apt to become other in the constitution of the national mind, unaffecting and trite, unless varied and indiwhich is not reflective, nor remarkably fanó vidualized by new infusions of thought and ciful-the two qualities most indispensable feeling. The smooth monotony of the leadto rhetoric. As a proof of the little turn ing religious topics, as managed by the for reflection which there is in the Italian French orators, under the treatment of Jeremy mind, we may remind the reader that they Taylor, receives at each turn of the sentence have no meditative or philosophic poetry, a new flexure or what may be called a such as that of our Young, Cowper, &c.; separate articulation :* old thoughts are sur. a class of poetry which existed very early veyed from novel stations and under various indeed in the English literature, (e. g. Sir angles : and a field absolutely exhausted T. Davies, Lord Brooke, Henry More, &c.); throws up eternally fresh verdure under the and which, in some shape, has arisen at some fructifying lava of burning insagery. Ilstage of almost every European literature. man life, for example, is short-human
Of the Spanish rhetoric, á priori, we happiness is frail : how trite, how obvious should have augured well : but the rhetoric a thesis ! Yet, in the beginning of the Holy of their pulpit in past times, which is all that Dying, upon that simplest of themes how we know of it, is vicious and unnatural; magnificent a descant! Variations the most whilst, on the other hand, for eloquence pro- original upon a ground the most universal, found and heart-felt, measuring it by those and a sense of novelty diffused over truths many admirable proclamations issued in all coeval with human life! Finally, it may quarters of Spain during 1808-9, the national be remarked of the imagery in the French capacity must be presumed to be of the very rhetoric, that it is thinly sown, commonhighest order.
place, deficient in splendour, and above all, We are thus thrown back upon the French merely ornainental; that is to say, it does pulpit orators as the only considerable body Do more than echo and repcat what is already of modern rhetoricians out of our own said in the thought which it is brought 10 language. No writers are more uniformly illustrate ; whereas, in Jeremy Taylor, and praised; none are more entirely neglected in Burke, it will be found usually located This is one of those numerous hypocrisies so and amplify the thought, or to fortify it by common in matters of taste, where the critic some indirect argument of its truth.-- Blackis always ready with his good word, as the wood's Mag. readiest way of getting rid of the subject. To blame might be hazardous; for blame demands reasons; but praise enjoys a ready dispensation from all reasons and from aí CANALS AND ROADS IN ENGLAND discrimination. Superstition, however, as it
AND FRANCE." is, under which the Frer.ch rhetoricians hold their reputation, we have no thought of at. tempting any disturbance to it in so slight ENGLAND possesses an immense superiority and incidental a notice as this. I.et critics over France, in relation to agriculture. The by all means continue to invest them with causes of this superiority, says a French every kind of imaginary splendour. Mean. writer (M. Moreau de Jonnes),“ are the drainuime let us suggest, as a judicious caution, ages, the irrigations, the improvement of the that French rhetoric should be praised with soil by manure, the breeding of animals, the a reference only to its own narrow standard : extent of artificial pasturage, the practice of for it would be a most unfortunate trial of its pretensions, to bring so mcagre a style it is that constitutes the peculiar and characterisiug
# We may take the opportunity of noticing what of composition into a close comparison with circumstances in Burke's manner of compositivu. the gorgeous opulence of the English rhetoric It is this—that under his treatment every truth, be of the same century. Under such a com
it what it may, every thesis of a sentence, grows iu
the very act of unfolding it. Take any sentence you parison, two capital points of weakness would please from Dr. Johusen, suppe-se, and it will be force themselves upon the least observant of found to contain a thought-good or bad—Fully critics—first, the defect of striking imagery; have been the preconception, it receives a new de
preconceived. Whereas, iu Burke, whalever may and, secondly, the slenderness of the thoughts. termination or inflexion at every clause of the seu. The rhetorical manner is supported in the tence. Some collateral adjunct of the main propoFrench writers chiefly by an abundance of sition, some temperament or restraint, some oblique ohs and ahs-by interrogatories-apostrophes found to attend the progress of his sentences-like --and startling exclamations : all which are the spray from a waterfall, or the scintillations from mere mechanical devices for raising the style: the iron under the blacksmith's hammer. Hence, but in the substance of the composition, look back upon his thoughts, Burke looks forwardapart from its dress, there is nothing properly and does in fact advance and change his own station rhetorical. The leading thoughts in all pulpit concurrently with the advance of the sentences eloquence being derived from religion, and, the habit of extempore speaking, but not to thut in fact, the common inhicritance of human only.
In the time of Charles (surnamed the coffee which is made in France is to be atProud) Duke of Somerset, who died in 1748, tributed to the chicorée powder which is put the roads in Sussex were in so bad a state, into it before boiling. · The truth, however, that, in order to arrive at Guildford from is, that this powder, which is made from the Petworth, travellers were obliged to make dried and roasted root of the cultivated dandefrom the nearest point of the great road lion, is only used in coffee-houses and other leading from Portsmouth to London. This places of public entertainment in France for was a work of so much difficulty, as to the purpose of adulteration, as the addition occupy the whole day, and the duke had a of a tea-spoonful of it to an ounce of coffee house at Guildford which was regularly used as will give as much colour and flavour as the a resting-place for the night by any of his addition of half an ounce of genuine coffee. family travelling to London. A manuscript The cost of the chicorée is something under letter from a servant of the duke, .dated three-pence per pound in France; but in this from London, and addressed to another at country, where it is justly recommended to Petworth, acquaints the latter that his Grace be mixed with coffee to correct its heating intended to go from London thither on a properties, it has been modestly advertised at certain day, and directs that “the keepers half-a-crown. The usual mode in which and persons who knew the holes and sloughs coffee is prepared in France at the coffeemust come to meet his Grace with lanthorns houses, is this. Cold water is poured upon and long poles to help him on his way." the ground coffee, in the proportion of one pint
The late Marquis of Buckingham built an to two ounces of the powder, with one-sixth inn at Missenden, about forty miles from or eighth part of the powder of chicorée London, as the state of the roads compelled added. This is then placed in the ashes of a him to sleep there on the way to Stow : a wood fire, and left stewing for several hours. journey which is at present performed It is then taken away and allowed to settle, between hreakfast and dinner.
and being poured off when perfectly clear, is M. Dapin, has told us in his Commercial warmed up for use, and served as café noir, Power of Great Britain, how the roads of without milk, in small cups, demi lasses, or France are managed to be continued in their with boiling milk, in the proportion of onepresent horrible state, in spite of the inter- third coffee to two-thirds milk. In private course with this country.
families in France, as in this country, the "In France, even the care of a by-path is coffee is made by infusion, without chicorée, scarcely ever intrusted to the inhabitants of or the latter is used only medicinally. Where the neighbourhood. Before a basket-full of the frequent use of coffee is found to overstones can be laid down on the most obscure stimulate the stomach, and to distress the departmental road, it is indispensably neces- nerves, occasioning pain and acidities, the sary that the cost of these materials should Paris physicians order a little Castile soap to form an item, first in the arrondissement be scraped into the cup with the coffee. This budget, then in the departmental budget, and produces scarcely any unpleasant taste, alafterwards be submitted to the grand though the contrary might be expected, and council of roads and bridges in an office is very bighly extolled by persons who use it. at Paris, at the distance of two hundred In Portugal, coffee is always made by inleagues from the spot where the work is to fusion, and is taken very strong an ounce be executed. The paltry charge in question being used for one good-sized cup; yet, having passed through all the delays of pro- from its cheapness, a small cup of coffee, infound investigation, the desired permission cluding sugar and milk, may be had in a firstis granted; provided, however, that not the rate coffee-bouse for a penny. In most parts slightest neglect of form should render it of Spain coffee is but little used, and is then necessary to undertake, for a second time, made very weak-an ounce only being used the task of exploring the immense labyrinth for eight or ten persons. Where there by an inverse course. The accounts, after are French coffee-houses, the French mode passing through an almost endless series of of preparing it is adopted. In France the progressive operations, retrograde with ground coffee at the grocers' shops is freofficial delay to their first source ! An quently adulterated with burnt chesnuts. It engincer is then permitted to execute at his ought to be added, that the coffee which is leisure the trifling repair of the road which used in private families in France, owes has occasioned this long and appalling train much of its delicious flavour to the fact of its of official formalities, ascending and descend- being used soon after roasting: The process ing."--London Mngazine.
of roasting is carried on there by retail
which our coffee is prepared, bas, generally
speaking, been roasted several months pre-
A GENERAL belief prevails in this country, that the acknowledged superiority of the
almost continually in action both hy night and friend of the late Dr. Gall, is now at and by day. They either walk, creep, or Toulon, examining, by permission of the goadvance rapidly by prodigious bounds; but vernment, the skulls of all the convicts. He they seldom run, owing, it is believed, to the writes to his friends, that he expects, from extreme flexibility of their limbs and verte- these examinations, to procluce many decided bral column, which cannot preserve the ri- proofs of the correctness of his doctrine. gidity necessary to that species of movement. Alligators swallowing Stones.-It is well Their sense of sight, especially during twi- known that many species of birds swallow light, is acute; their hearing very perfect, small stones, for the purpose, as is supavd their perception of smell less so than in posed, of aiding digestion ; but it is, we bethe dog tribe. Their most obtnse sense is lieve, an anomaly amongst other orders of that of taste; the lingual nerve in the lion, animals. The following notice, accoraingly, according to Des Moulins, being no larger struck us as singular, if not incredible. The than that of a middle-sized dog. In fact, Indians on the banks of the Oronoko assert the tongue of these animals is as much an that, previously to an alligator going in organ of mastication as of taste; its sharp search of prey, it always swallows a large and horny points, inclined backwards, being stone, that it may acquire additional weight used for tearing away the softer parts of the to aid it in diving and dragging its victims animal substances on which they prey. The under water. The author being somewhat perception of touch is said to reside very incredulous upon this point (how could he be delicately in the small balbs at the base of otherwise ?), Bolivar, to convince him, shot the mustachios.-Wilson's Illustrations of several with his rifle, and in all of them were Zoology.
found stones, varying in weight according to Anecdote of Painc. - During the time the size of the animal. The largest killed Paine was confined in the Luxembourg, an was about seventeen feet in length, and had arret of the committee of public welfare had within him a stone weighing about sixty or given directions to the administrators of the seventy pounds. The author, however, still police, to enter all the prisons with additional remains sceptical (very properly, we think), guards, and dispossess every prisoner of his and has some doubts whether these stones knives, forks, and every other sharp instru- are not calculi secreted in the stomach!ment, as also to take their money froin Recollections of Venezuela and Colombia, by them. - As this cere:nony appeared to Paine an Officer of the Colombion Nary. an atrocious plunder, he determined to avert Faculties of Brutos.- The dog is the only its effects, as far as it concerned himself. animal that dreams, and he and the 'eleHe had an English bank-note of some value, phant the only animals that understand and some guineas and gold coin in his looks; the elephant is the only animal, pockets; and as he conceived the searchers that, besides man, feels cnnni; the dog, would rifle them, as well as his trunks the only quadruped that has been brought (though they did not do so by any one), he to speak. Leibnitz bears witness to a hound took off the lock froin the door, and hid the in Saxony, that could speak distinctly thirty whole of what he had about him in its in- words.-Medical Gazette. side. Shortly after the fall of Robespierre, Contrivance of the Elephant and Rhi. Paine was released, and recovered his mo noceros.— To protect themselves from flies, ney.-Argus, 1796.
the elephant and rhinoceros roll themselves in Dryden.- All for Love; or, The World mud for the purpose of forming an impenewell Lost. A Tragedy, as it is acted at the trable crust upon their skin, when it becomes Theatre Royal, and written in imitation of dry. Their mest formidable pest in Africa Shakspeare's style. By Joba Dryden, ser is an insect called Isaitaya, belonging, it vant to His Majesty, Sold by H. Herring- would appear from the description, to Člair. mian, at the Blue Anchor, in the Lower Walk ville's class Haustellata. It is not larger of the New Exchange.--Advertisement from than a common bee, but is more terrible to the London Gazette, of March, 1678.- those two animals than the lion himself. '. It Query. Is this tragedy said any where else has ro sting, but insinuates its sucker (hausto have been written in Shakspeare's style ? tellum) through the thickest skin in the same
Turkeys picked alive-In France, they manner as our cleg (Hæmatopata pluvialis) sometimes pick turkeys alive to make them does. The effects of this sucking are such, tender, of which I shall only say, that the that the part not only blisters but
frequently man that can do this, or order it to be done, mortifies, and in the end destroys the animal. ought to be skinned alive himselt. Ile who But the coating of dried mud over the skin can deliberately inflict torture upon an animal, in order to heighten the pleasure his affords them effectual protection. May it palate is to receive in eating it, is an abuser not be that the wallowing of the sow in the of the authority which God Las given him, mirc is for a similar pr:rpose ? and is indeed a tyrant in his heart. Who would think himself safe, if at the mercy of such a man ?--Cobbett.
Phrenology.--Dr. Spurzheim, the pupil