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Turk, or a single hope expressed that the day Such was Paley. A man singularly with. was not very far distant when the Cossacks out guile, and yet often misunderstood or would be permitted to erect the standard of misrepresented ; a man who was thought to liberty in his capital.

have no learning, because he had no pedan. “ I will do your visitation for you (Mr. try, and who was too little of a quack to be Carlyle was chancellor of the diocese), in case reckoned a philosopher ; who would have of your absence, with the greatest pleasure been infallibly praised as a useful writer on it is neither a difficulty nor a favour.

the theory of government, if he had been “ Observanda-1. Compare every thing more visionary—and would have been eswith English and Cumberland scenery : teemed a deeper divine, if he had not been e. g., rivers with Eden, groves with Corby, always so intelligible ; who has been sus. mountains with Skiddaw ; your sensations pected of being never serious because he of buildings, streets, persons, &c. &c. ; e. g. was often jocular, and before those, it should whether the Mufti be like Dr. the seem, who were not to be trusted with a Grand Seignior, Mr.

joke; who did not deal much in protes “ 2. Give us one day at Constantinople tations of his faith, counting it proof enough minutely from morning to night--what you of his sincerity (we are ashamed of noticing do, see, eat, and hear.

even thus far insinuations against it) to bring “ 3. Let us know what the common people arguments for the truth of Christianity un. have to dinner ; get, if you can, a peasant's answered and unanswerable—to pour forth actual dinner and bottle: for instance, if you exhortations to the fulfilment of the duties see a man working in the fields, call to him enjoined by it, the most solemn and intense to bring the dinner he has with him, and de- and to evince his own practical sense of its scribe it minutely

influence, by crowning his labours with a

work to the glory and praise of God, at a “ 4. The diversions of the common peo- season when his hand was heaviest upon him ple; whether they seem to enjoy their amuse- -a work which lives, and ever will live, to ments, and be happy, and sport, and laugh; testify that no pains of body could shake for farm-houses, or any thing answering to them, á moment his firm and settled persuasion, and of what kind ; same of public-houses, that in every thing, and at every crisis, we roads.

are God's creatures, that life is passed in His “ 5. Their shops ; how you get your constant presence, and that death resigns us breeches mended, or things done for you, and to His merciful disposal. how (i. e. well or ill done); whether you see the tailor, conerse with him, &c.

66 6. Get into the inside of a cottage ; de. scribe furniture, utensils, what you find ac. LAW OF VEGETABLE LIFE. tually doing

“ All the stipulations I make with you for (From the Quarterly Journal of Agriculdoing your visitation is, that you come over

ture.–No. III.) to Wearmouth soon after your return, for you will be very entertaining between truth and lying. I have a notion you will find books, IT frequently happens that the results of but in great confusion as to catalogues, classe experience are extensively acted upon by prac. ing, &c.

tical men, in reference to particular operations, * 7. Describe minutely how you pass one long before the principle concerned in the day on ship-board ; learn to take and apply arrangement be distinctly recognised, or its lunar, or other observations, and how the application to objects under other circuminidshipmen, &c. do it.

stances, be deemed either possible or expe“ 8. What sort of fish you get, and how dient. The theoretical naturalist frequently dressed. I should think your business receives the first hint of his generalizations would be to make yourself master of the from those who have confined their attention middle Greek. My compliments to Buona- to effects merely, and who have marked these parte, if you meet with him, which I think even under peculiarly confined limits. Yet is very likely. Pick up little articles of dress, we must be contented to receive knowledge tools, furniture, especially from low life-as from every quarter, though in scanty poran actual smock, &c.

tions, and rejoice in every contribution likely “ 9. What they talk about; company. to accelerate the march of improvement.

“ 10. Describe your impression upon first It is well known, that, in the animal seeing things ; upon catching the first view of kingdom, all those circumstances which acConstantinople; the novelties of the first day celerate the growth of the body, exercise a you pass there.

proportional influence on the reproductive “ In all countries and climates, nations and system, so that the period of puberty is languages, carry with you the best wishes of, dear Carlyle, “ Your affectionate friend,

* Ou a remarkable law of Vegetable Life, and its uniformly earlier in domesticated than in have been considering must be guarded wild animals, and in those which are fed against as an evil ; especially, for example, plentifully with food than in those which are with turnips and cabbage ; old seed proscantily supplied. These effects of an abun. ducing plants too much disposed to run to dant supply of food are exhibited throughout flower. the whole range of the animal kingdom, as Independent of the influence which this far as observation has hitherto extended. law exercises on the future plant, as the re. The very reverse of this arrangement seems sult of the condition of the seed, we have it to prevail in the vegetable kingdom. Where in our power to witness its operation under plants are furnished with an abundant supply other circumstances, in the growing plant of food, their reproductive energies develope itself. In the management of fruit-trees, themselves slowly, and flowers and fruit or there are a variety of plans pursued, which, seeds are late in appearing. On the other though obviously depending on this law of hand, when the supply of nourishment is the vegetable kingdom, are frequently but scanty; when the plant is, as it were, starved, imperfectly understood by the practical and when death is threatened, the reproduc- gardener. The transplanting of fruit-trees tive energies act with readiness, Mowers and hastens the production of flower-buds. A seeds are produced, and the extinction of the tree which for years has shown no tendency race guarded against ; or, in other words, to produce flower-buds, but which has been the scantier the supply of nourishment, the exclusively occupied in the extension of its earlier will a plant propagate its kind. Let roots and branches, will, upon being shifted us now attend to some of the exhibitions of from its place, soon exhibit symptoms of a this law, and their application to useful pure change. The roots, by this process, have poses.

influence on several operations in Horticulture and “ W. PALEY."

Agriculture, by the Rev. Dr. Fleming.

been in part injured, the supply of sap to the In reference to SEEDS, it has been long tree during the following season has in conknown to gardeners, that those which are new sequence become diminished, and the plant or fresh produce plants with more luxuriant ceasing in a great measure to extend its size, foliage, and less inclined to run into flower hastens to propagate its kind by the produce and fruit, than such as have been kept for tion of flower-buds, and the subsequent dis. some time, and are partially spoiled. In the play of blossoms and fruit. first case, the supply of nourishment, during The diminished supply of sap, and the the early stages of its growth, being in consequent hastening of the production of abundance, the plant enlarges rapidly in size ; fruit-buds, is accomplished by several other while, in the latter case, the scanty supply plans equally efficacious. When a rank causes the plant, in obedience to the law growing fruit-tree is engrafted on a slow which we have announced, to run more growing stock, or, in other words, when a directly to flower and seed. These circum. tree requiring much sap is compelled to restances are carefully considered in the culture ceive its supply through a tree having but a of cucumbers and melons, the seeds of which scanty supply, the engrafted branch will are seldom employed until several years old. come earlier into fruit than if it had been Such, indeed, is the attention paid to this always supplied with abundant nourishment. condition, that we find in books on horticul. This method of accelerating the production of ture the following grave recommendation :- fruit, and termed dwarfing, is particularly “ If new seed only can be had, it should be serviceable in enabling the cultivator of new carried a week or two in the breeches pocket, varieties to become early acquainted with to dry away some of the more watery parts.” their respective merits. A similar attention to this law, in reference When fruit trees are prone to run to wood, to the seeds of other vegetables, is productive gardeners are accustomed to lay bare a portion of equal benefit. Peas, for example, are well of their roots during winter. By this exknown 'as apt 10 run to straw, where the posure many of the fibres are destroyed, and ground is rich or moist. The employment the vigour of all greatly diminished; so that of old is the only suitable remedy. In some the sap, `during the following summer, is newly enclosed carselands, the evil of exces. transmitted to the branches in less quantity, sive luxuriance is frequently experienced to and the production of fruit-buds is the conan inconvenient degree during two or three sequence. years. The straw is great in quantity, but Fruit-trees, luxuriant in leaves and branches, the grain is always deficient. In vain is but bad bearers, are sometimes forced into a recourse had to early or thin sowing, while productive state, by having portions of the the use of old seed is neglected. We need bark removed by the knife, or wires twisted not here guard against misconception, by round the stem or the branches. In this case, stating in detail, that, where seeds are kept the ascent of the sap is indirectly diminished, too long, they either do not vegetate, or give by the obstruction of the vessels containing origin to a weak, sickly, useless plant. the proper juices, the death of the plant, or Where luxuriance of leaf and great size are portion of the plant, is threatened, and the the objects aimed at in the cultivation of reproductive organs speedily exercise their garden or farm produce, the influence we functions. The late Dr. Walker, Professor of Natural History in the University of ment producing luxuriance of growth rather Edinburgli, who had devoted much time to than early flowering. the investigation of vegetable physiology, In the management of plantations, the intimates, that the effects here produced by indications of this law may often prove of barking, or the twisting of wires, have been great value. Wherever we see a tree, in a accomplished by other means. He says, very young state, exhibiting its flowers (in his Economical History of the Hebrides, and producing fruit, we may anticipate its ii. p. 298), “ To some standard fruit-trees, early decay. The premature formation of honeysuckle indeed may be applied, with fruit-buds is the consequence of a scanty supgreat advantage; these, when even of con- ply of nourishment, arising, it may be, from siderable age, do sometimes continue to run the roots having been injured, but generally so much to wood, and especially towards the from the plant being placed in an untaheart of the tree, that it remains quite un- vourable soil. Fir-trees readily indicate their fruitful. To plant a vigorous honeysuckle disagreement with the soil by the production at the foot of such a tree, is an easy effectual of cones, while •yet young, and this early remedy, and much better than any pruning. fructification is the almost sure forerunner of The honeysuckle grows up, occupies the death. The Balsam- Fir, for example, which heart of the tree, checks its luxuriance, di- thrives well on a moist soil, will, if planted rects its vegetation towards the extremities, on a thin dry soil, begin in a few years to and renders it fruitful. A large apple-tree produce cones—then the bark appears covered of the above description, above fifty years with blisters, which, when opened, pour forth old, and which had always been barren, was a limpid resin, and the tree, after languishing rendered by this practice extremely fruitful. a few years, dies, after, in the course of a When this end is answered, which will hap. dozen of years, having attained the height of pen in a few years, the honeysuckle should from twelve to twenty feet. In looking at then be removed, before it become injurious." those decorated villas, near a large town,

In the cultivation of flowering plants, a which to the citizen appear so captivating, knowledge of this law of vegetable life, and one may frequently discover the real character its extensive application, may prove of great of the soil, by this premature flowering of the importance. Sir James Edward Smith, in ornamental shrubbery. his Introduction to Botany, mentions, that Though plants differ from animals, in the Solandra grandiflora, a Jamaica shrub, reference to this singular law, which we have was for a number of years cultivated in the here ventured to establish from an extensive

English stoves, and prop ted extensively induction of particulars, they agree, in other by cuttings, each plant growing many feet in respects, in the influence which an abundant length every season, from the abundance of supply of nourishment exercises in the inmoisture and nourishment, without showing crease of the number and size of the proany signs of fructification. At length a pot geny. of the Solandra was accidentally left without water in the dry stove at Kew; and, in consequence of this unintentional neglect, the

COMPARATIVE HAPPINESS OF: luxuriant growth of its branches was greatly checked, and a flower came forth at the ex

THE SEXES. tremity of each. By a similar mode of treat

No. III. ment the same effect has since been frequently produced. Indeed, when the law is once

(From the Oriental Hcrald.-No. LX.) properly understood, its application to a variety of cultivated plants, which are slow in [The following article is a continuation of showing flower, must be obvious. We have the series of discussions on this subject, seen it practised with effect on several species which we have translated from the “ Gymof willows.

nase,” in our preceding numbers.-E..] In the cultivation of a farm, numerous examples are frequently occurring of the influ. THE CONDITION OF WOMEN AT DIFFERENT ence of this arrangement in the vegetable

EPOCHS OF SOCIETY. economy. The crops growing on the thin.

The farther we look back into the past, nest parts of the soil, where the nourishment the more apparent to the eye of the observer is consequently in diminished quantity, are

is the inequality which exists in the division always the first to exhibit their flowers, and of moral and material advantages between to be ready for the sickle. In ill-managed the two sexes. We shall endeavour to prove farms, the harvest is usually much earlier this fact, and also to explain its causes. The (other things being equal), than in those less progress society has made in civilizawhere the crops are under the influence of a tion, the less are men enabled to make up better system. We have had an opportunity for their want of strength by artificial of witnessing the delay of harvest, upon the means; and, consequently, the more indisapplication of lime, for example, in conse- pensable becoines the development of their quence of this increased supply of nourish. physical faculties for the attainment of those



things which are necessary to life. In the countries where the climate invites hiin to absence of laws and associations amongst luxury and voluptuousness, to keep as inany men, an individual is exposed to continual females as his means admit of. Love, as a dangers; he must defend his prey or his moral passion, can only exist between beings field against his equals, and against ferocious who feel themselves equals, and of the same animals, the still more formidable rivals of nature; it is physical love only which reigns isolated man. In such a state of things, amongst the poets of antiquity and the the female, less advantageously endowed by Orientals. nature as regards physical powers, cannot Christianity, with its doctrine of equality, enter a list in which strength alone insures opened a new era for women. The chivalric triumph. She becomes a mother, and her manners of the middle ages made their descares are doubled, precisely when her own tiny a brilliant one; their cause was often existence as well as that of her childen de- preferred to that of the country; they prepends on her repose and release from labour. sided over the tournaments and courts of Every thing obliges her, then, where the love. Nevertheless, we must not be too law of the strongest is alone legitimate, to much deluded with regard to this celebrated seek the support of the most powerful sex; age of gallantry and devotion to the fair sex: but the contract of association between the it was a time, also, in which jealousy and two parties is that of a master with a slave; all the most violent passions frequently tythe female, in exchange for the protection rannized over them. Besides, all women which is afforded her, submits to the condi- were not princesses and the inhabitants of tions of an absolute dependence. Some por- castles ; neither were all men barons and tion of these barbarous manners still exists knights. The romances of chivalry say noamongst those classes of society devoted to thing of the fate of the poor vassals, the physical labours; the employment of strength companions, or rather the slaves, of the being the only means of obtaining subsist- serfs, dependent, like them, on the pleasure ence, it is the only quality which is held in of their lord. It is in feudal institutions consideration, and women are generally that we can most justly appreciate the sum treated with contempt and severity.

of moral and material advantages which beIn early stages of society, woman is natu- longed to them. War was still the principal rally the soonest reduced to slavery: she is element of society in the middle ages; the property of man, who sometimes em- strength and bravery were still, therefore, ploys her in the meanest labours, sometimes the most useful and the most highly esteemed Offers her from politeness to strangers, and virtues ; and women, consequently, notsometimes even makes a traffic of hier. withstanding the tribute of homage offered Amongst these barbarians, combats between to their beauty, could only have held a sethe different tribes are of daily occurrence; condary place in society. and in Greek and Roman antiquity, we also The successive progress of the arts has see nations organised entirely for war; mi- rendered a great development of physical falitary courage is therefore held in the high- culties less and less indispensable ; intellecest estimation. It is, in these ages of vio- tual ones have taken the precedence, and lence, the most useful of all virtues, and wo- women, being able to enter the lists in this men consequently are objects of contempt. more peaceful competition, have, from that Plato questions the fact of woman being a period, occupied the rank which belongs to human creature, and yet, by a singular con- them in society. Let me be perınitted here tradiction, he assigns her an important part to make a comparison : a child is ignorant in his republic. Others make her an in- of the cares and attention due to weaknessferior being, and even interdict her from en- does he feel his superiority over a younger tering their temples. Euripides calls her the sister? He abuses it, and ill treats her withmost

pernicious of all creatures. Cato says, out mercy, that, if the world was without women, men Arrived at the age of passion, a female bewould hold converse with the gods.

comes his idol-he pays her a kind of devoIn one country a female addresses her tion; but the very ardour of his love is to husband on her knees; in another she is for- her the source of infinite uneasiness and disbidden to enter her house by the same door; tresses. amongst some nations, she may not eat at It is only when years have ripened the the same table or sit in his presence; and judgment of childhood, and calmed the amongst others, the son is even authorised transports of youth-it is then only, that, in to raise his hand against his mother. One a being of the other sex, man finds an amiaRoman legislator grants to husbands the ble and sensible companion, whom he right of life and death over their wives; and esteems and cherishes without passion, and another condemns the soldier who shall de- who shares his griefs as well as his pleasert his standard, to be led through the sures. public streets in the garb of a female.

In this we see a picture of the fate of woFrom the right of property which man men in the different stages of society. Bearholds over woman, he has been easily led, in ing, at first, the misery of their weakness; Vol. I,

2 N

afterwards idolized in an age of enthusiasm, equally useful, in the present state of our but far from enjoying an unalloyed happi- manners, to be a good mother, as to be a ness; and, lastly, by the progress of reason, courageous soldier. The cultivation of senplaced in that sphere wbich belongs to them timents is as important as that of under--that of an equality founded, on one side, on standing; and if it is true, as every thing the protection of force; on the other, on seems to prove, that the superiority is degentle and kind attentions.

cidedly on the side of woman, as regards the Have we yet reached this ripe age of ci- faculties of the soul, as it is on that of man, vilization? We can, at least, foresee it. The as regards those of the mind, why should more moral ideas assame an empire over not this portion of public education be conmaterial strength, the more will the lot of fided to her? This is not the place in which women be ameliorated; and this ameliora- to examine what will in future be the inflution naturally begins in those classes which ence of woman--what place she will occupy are not compelled to physical labours. As in a social organization more conformable to to the others, it appears that for them the the wants of the human mind—and what diage of iron and the reign of power has not vision of labour will be assigned to her. The yet ceased.

occasion will present itself for the examinaOur institutions preserve, as regards fe- tion of this interesting question, and we males, the stamp of ancient doctrines--of shall not fail to avail ourselves of it. For those even which preceded Christianity. the present, let it suffice us to prove, that, in Expressions such as the following one, in spite of the ameliorations successively efright of husband, sufficiently attest this fact. fected in the condition of women by the proThe French Revolution itself even did not gress of knowledge, they are still far from place females in their proper situation; performing that part in society which bethere is, in fact, in our social organization, longs to them, since they have no sbare in none assigned to them. The application of the establishments of the institutions by the system of unlimited competition, com- which they are governed-since the nature bined with the imperfect education which of all public functions is such, that men they receive, tends to perpetuate their pre- alone can fill them, these functions baring carious condition. Left to themselves, they been made only for them ;-this is a remfind they are unable to struggle against the nant of the ancient basis of organization, other sex; misery awaits them, and fre- the preponderance of strength. quently one only resource is left them Must we, in concluding, anticipate one prostitution. The inevitable state of de objection? It will be said that a public life pendence in which their inferiority retains frequently demands a complete renouncethem, the scorn which attacbes itself to the ment of all family ties, a renouncement, victims of seduction, without pursuing the painful to the firmest and most masculine seducer, all contribute to precipitate thein characters, and of which a female would be into the abyss. The laws framed for the totally incapable. This firmness, this civil protection of weakness are not directed to courage, since that is the name generally wards the preservation of innocence from applied to it, can only display itself in rethe snares of the rich libertine; and educa- sistance to a social order, which is at vation, still more powerful than laws, tends as riance with the interests of families, that is little to this end.

to say, in the times of revolution. But such A young man on his entrance into the events are happily only transient. Political world learns that his part is to attack--the institutions, re-organised, are so constituted female's to defend herself; so much the as to be firin, and adapted to the happiness worse for her if she falls: it is a triumph of individuals. From that moment the inwhich gives glory to her conqueror. It terests of the state, and the interests of famiseems that man, not content with treating lies become identified; these deplorable trouwomen as inferiors, as regards social privi- bles cease; and domestic affections become leges, desires also to retain them in an intel- the duty of every good citizen. It is easy to lectual minority, instead of hastening that conceive that, in such a state of things, state of moral perfection in them, which that is to say, in the natural situation of would so powerfully contribute to his own society, that women, prepared by a careful happiness." Accustomed as we are to esteem education, might with advantage, and that as frivolous everything which regards fe- they no doubt will, at some future period, males, the instruction which is given to fill public functions analogous to the peculiar them amongst us bears the character of this capacities of their sex. frivolity. Far be from me the thought of wishing the two sexes to be brought up in the same manner. Their future destinies are different; they ought, therefore, to be INTO life's bitter cup true friendship drops differently prepared for them. But why

Balsamic sweets, to overpower the gall; should not the same care and attention be

True friends, like ivy and the wall it props,

Both stand together, or together fall. bestowed on each? It is equally noble, and

Forget Me Not

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