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word, indeed, as well as the French joli, burning all the following day, or longer. A Wachter considers to come from jol, yule.) portion of the old clog of the preceding year,
Candles of a particular kind are in so:ne is sometimes saved to light up the fiew block places made for this season : for the candle at the next Christmas, and to preserve the that is lighted on Christmas Day, must be so family from harm, in the mean while: during large as to burn from the time of its being the time, too, that this log lasts, the servants lighted till the day be done, otherwise it in farm houses are entitled, by custom, to ale would be a bad omen to the family for the at their meals. subsequent year.
There is no reason to Of the various sports, games, and pas. doubt that this custom has been transmitted times, of this season of hilarity, such as the from the times of heathenisin. In the Ro. Lord or Abbot of Misrule, or Abbot of Unman Saturnalia, lights were used in the wor- ressoun-Hot Cochles-Hunt the Slippership of their Deity, and hence originated Guisers, or Gysars-He can do little that the custom of making presents of this kind. can't do this, &c.- it might be entertaining The poor were wont to present the rich with to give some etymology, but our already wax tapers, and Yule candles are still, in the overstrained limits will not admit of this. north of Scotland, given as presents by mer. It has ever been a great period for gaming chants to their stated customers. By many in most countries even the ancient Romans, who rigidly observe the superstitions of this by whom games of chance were prohibited, season, the Yule candle is allowed to burn provided an exception for the month of Deout of itself, by others it is extinguished, and cember. the remnant kept for luck.
For some unexplained cause, St. Stephen's There are other miscellaneous supersti- Day (December 26), was a great period with tions, in relation to this period, of which we our ancestors for bleeding their horses--a shall relate but two or three. In the morn. practice followed by people of all ranks, and ing, one individual rises before the rest of the recommended by Tusser in his Husbandry. family, and prepares food for them, which The custom is thus referred to by Barnaby must be eaten in bed. This frequently con. Googe. sists of cakes baked with eggs, called Care cakes. A Bannock, or cake, is baked for all " Then followeth St. Stephen's day, whereon doth in the house, and if any one of these should His Horses jaunt and course abrode, as swiftly as he break in the toasting, the person for whom it is baked will not, it is supposed, see another Until they doe extreemely sweate, and then they let Christmas :
: a part of this custom is evidently for this being done upon this day, they say doth do of Catholic origin— being the remnant of that them good, of baking cakes in honour of the delivery of And keepes them from all maladies and sicknesse the Virgin Mary.
through the yeare, Women seem, in some places, to have a pe
As if that Stephen any time tooke charge of Horses
here." culiar aversion to spinning on this day—a su. perstition which savours strongly of pagan. According to Mr. Dance, this is a very anism. Ovid affirms that Bacchus punished cient practice, and was introduced into BriAlcithoe and her sisters for presuming to tain by the Danes. Mr. Nicholls has also spin during his festival. There is a singular quoted money paid “for letting oure horses passage in Jhone Hamilton's Facile Traic- blede on Christmasse weke." tise, quoted by Jamieson, which, whilst it af. The Holy Innocents, or Childermass Day fords a proof of the traditionary antipathy to (December 28), commemorates the slaughter spinning on Yule Day, also shows how jea- of the Jewish children by Herod, and it is lous the Scotch Reformers were against the recorded by Macrobius (Saturnal. cap. iv.), observance of all festival days. After des that the savage order was so promptly execlaring the opposition of the Caluinian sect cuted, that one of the
sons of the tyrant, then to all haly-dayes except Sonday, he says- at nurse, fell a sacrifice with the other chil.
“ The ministers of Scotland.in contempt dren.* of the vther halie dayes obseruit be England “ It hath," saith the learned Gregorie, ---cause thair wyfis and seruants spin in op- “ been a custom, and yet is elsewhere, to pin sicht of the people upon Yeul day; and whip up the children upon Innocents' Day their affectionat auditeurs constraines thair morning, that the memorie of this murther tennants to yok thair pleuchs on Yeul day in might stick the closer ; and, in a moderate contempt of Christ's Natiuitie, whilk our proportion, to act over the cruelty again in Lord hes not left vnpunisit : for thair oxin kind.” a custom referred to by Hospinianran wod and brak thair nekis, and leamit sum "hujus lanienæ truculentissimæ ut pueri pleugh men, as is notoriously knawin in sin Christianorum recordentur et simul discant drie partes of Scotland.”
odium, persecutionem, crucem, exilium, The Christmas Log, or Yule or Yull Clog, is another superstition of the period : this is
* Macrobius relates, as one of the jokes of Augus. a large block, or log of wood, laid on the fire tus, that when he heard of this circumstance, he
exclaimed, “ Melius est Berodis portuou esse quan on Christmas Eve, and, if possible, kept filium." Voc. I.
egestatemque statim cum nato Christo inci. became more licentious, running about the piere, virgis cædi solent ini aurora hujus Diei country, and frightening the people in their adhuc in lectulis jacentes à parentibus suis." houses, so that the legislature was obliged to This was formerly a day of unlucky omen, put a final stop to the Féte de Pous in 1668. and an apprehension is still entertained by The resemblance of the above cry, to our Hog. the superstitious, that no undertaking can menay, Trololay, Give us your white bread and prosper which is begun on that day of the none of your grey; and the name Guisards, week on which Childermass last fell.
given to our Bacchanals, are remarkable cir. Lastly-New Year's Evemor as it is cumstances; and our former connexions with termed by the vulgar in Scotland, and in the France, render it not improbable that these north of England, Hogmanay, or Hogme. festivities were taken from thence, and this nay. This term is also transferred to the seems to be confirmed by our name of Daft entertainment given to a visitor on this day, Days, which is nearly a translation of Files or to a gift conferred on those who apply for de Fous. It deserves also to be noticed, it, according to ancient custom.
that the Bishop of Augres says, that the cry,
Au gui menez, Rollet Follet, was derived “ The cotter weanies, glad an' gay
from the ancient Druids, who went out to Wi pocks out oure their shonther, Sing at the doors for Hogmanay."
cut the Gui or mistletoe, shooting and holla
ing all the way, and on bringing it from the Dr. Jamieson has given us an interesting woods, the cry of old was, Au Gui l'an neuf, extract regarding this ceremony, from a fu- le Roi vient. Now, although we must not gitive piece in the Caledonian Mercury for suppose that the Druids spoke French, we 1792.
may easily allow that cry to have been “ The cry of Hogmanay Trololay, is of changed with the language, whilst the cus. usage immemorial in this country. It is
tom was continued. If the word Gui should well known that the ancient Druids went into be Celtic or Scandinavian, it would add force the woods with great solemnity on the last
to the above conjecture.* Perhaps, too, night of the year, where they cut the misle- the word Rollet is a corruption of the ancient toe of the oak with a golden bill, and brought Roman invocation of their hero Rollo." it into the towns, and country houses of the (Etymological Dictionary, Art. Hogmanay.) great, next morning, when it was distributed
In contirmation of this, it may be remarkamong the people, who wore it as an amuleted, that, in many parts of France, it is custo preserve them from all harms, and parti. tomary for young people, on the last day of cularly from the danger of battle. When December, to go about the towns and 'vilChristianity was introduced among the bar. lages, singing and begging money, as a kind barous Celiæ and Gauls, it is probable that of New Year's gift, and crying out du Guy! the clergy, when they could not completely L'an neuf! To the misletoe! the Newabolish the Pagan rites, would endeavour to
Year is at hand ; and, lastly, in England, it give them a Christian turn. We have abun. is still a common custom amongst the vuldant instances of this in the ceremonies of the gar, to hang up a branch of misletoe on Romish Church. Accordingly this seems to
Chrismas Day, under which the young men have been done in the present instance, for salute their sweethearts. This is evidently a about the middle of the 16th century, many relic of Druidism, as well as the custom alcomplaints were made to the Gallic Synods, ready referred to, of adorning the churches of great excesses which were committed on
with it; and both may be viewed as a tradithe last night of the year, and on the first of tionary vestige of its consecration, in the January, during the Féte de Fous, by.com- worship of the ancient Britons. panies of both sexes, dressed in fantastic ha
The above catalogue has extended to so bits, who ran about with their Christmas unexpected a length, as to leave us but little Boxes, called Tire Lire, begging for the space for comment. One circumstance must Lady in the Straw, both money and wassels. have struck every one, in its perusal—the These beggars were called Bacheleltes, Gui- intimate connexion between the customs of sards; and their chief Rollet Follet. They nations remote from each other, and indi. came into the churches, during the services cative of their common origin. In tracing of the vigils, and disturbed the devotions by nations to their particular sources, the chief their cries of Au gui menez, Rollet Follel, reliance has generally been placed upon etyAu gui menez, tiri liri, mainte du blanc et point du bis. Thiers, Hist. des Fêtes et des The word Gui seems to us to be of Celtic origin. Jeux. At last, in 1598, at the representa- The Misletoe was a sacred plant with the Druids, tion of the Bishop of Augres, a stop was put plant par excellence. In all the dialects of the Cel. to their coming into the churches : but they ic, the word Gui, in some form or other, signifies mology; bat a close investigation of customs set the public right upon this point. It was is of no less importance : in every such histo. not indeed easy to believe he was the political rical investigation, indeed, they ought to go priest his liberal biographers make him. hand in hand. We have seen that most of Paley took in his daily newspaper (a minisour rites and superstitions are of_gothic terial one by the bye), read it with avidity, as origin; whilst others are as clearly Druidi. people in the country are apt to do, and made cal, or Celtic; and both resemble those of a vernacular comment or two upon the state the East, and especially of Persia. This is questions that chanced to be uppermost, ac readily accounted for. Both Celts and Goths the club in the evening betwixt the deals, were originally Oriental. The Celts, having much more concerned as to whether he emigrated at a much earlier period than the should cut the king than whether the king Goths, had probably fewer ceremonies; hence would cut him, and as little dreaming that the paucity amongst us, of Celtic supersti- he was a politician, as Sganarelle, the faggottions.
trees. In the Celtic, Guez signifies trees-Guezecg • In Northumberland, the month of December is and Guezennecq-a place abounding in trees. Ju the called Hogmana, which Lambe derives from the Armoric, or Bas Breton-Guezen is a tree-guesGreek ayru perinthe holy moon, but this is trees-Guezennic--shrubs whilst in the Welsh doubtful. Oihers maintain it to be merely a cor. Guid is a tree, and Guidhele bushes, brambles, &c. raption from the French homme est né --man is from which the misletoe was termed G'ui, as parson borg-in allusion to the Nativity!
was derived from persona the person.
maker, dreamed that he was a doctor of The religion of the Nomadic Goths, was physic. What, then, would have been his also, at first, we have but little doubt, com- surprise to find himself held up to posterity paratively simple: the great change in that in the character of a devout Whig, somewhat of the Scandinavians, being wrought by the embarrassed, indeed, by his profession, but arrival of Odin, who introduced amongst in his heart a determined opponent of restricthem the splendid mythology of the East, tions in church and state : and even unwill. and subsequently received his own apothe- ing to accept the Mastership of Jesus College, osis. Other observances have reached us, Cambridge, from a conviction that he should through a Grecian or Roman channel, but not be able to keep in with Pitt for a month! these again bear striking evidence of an Ori. Has a Master of Jesus College so much to do ental origin. The mythology of Greece, is with the prime minister of the day, and are unquestionably Oriental; and the Romans the concerns of that learned body, in addition derived theirs from the Greeks. Hence to his other troubles, the subject of so much many of our superstitions, nursery tales, &c. of a premier's official solicitude ? Paley talks, may have descended to us by various streams it is true, of the divine right of kings being -originally, along with our Celtic or Gothic the same as the divine right of constables ; ancestry, and subsequently by the route of and puts the case of the Rock of pigeons more modern conquest--most, however, une- striving to gather corn for one, and that, quivocally exhibiting the like Oriental pa- perhaps, the weakest of them all, in a manrentage.
ner, for aught we know, to the satisfaction of Lastly, the wide extent of superstition a Whig; but if these passages, and a few amongst us superstition too, in many cases, others such as these, are adduced as fair of the most idolatrous character, affords a samples ( medio ex acervo) of Paley's polihumiliating subject of reflection; and it is a tics, the spirit he was of is not perceived. It striking proof of the tyrannical influence of was not the humour of the man to wrap up custom on the mind, that many, who have his propositions in cotton wool, otherwise no faith in these observances, could not feel how little could have been made of either of comfortable, were they to neglect them. We these formidable bug-bears. Suppose he had recollect a naval officer, high in rank, smiling said that he did not hold the doctrine of at the superstitions of the profession, and divine right, nevertheless that he submitted especially at the almost universal belief, that to every ordinance of man, whether to the whistling on deck is capable of raising the king, as supreme, or to the constable, as apwind, yet declaring, in the same breath, that pointed by the king-what would have been he should not feel at ease, were any one on alleged then? Or suppose he had said that deck to whistle in tempestuous weather—a the extremely unequal division of property better instance we could not give of the power has a very unnatural aspect—that there must of superstition :
be some very great good resulting from it, to 11 Tis a history
justify the state in securing to one subject Handed from ages down; a nurse's tale
half a county and to another scarce half-aWbich childreo open ey'd and mouth'd devour, crown; and then suppose (as he actually And thus as garrulous ignorance relates, We leain it and believe."
does) he had gone on to show that there American Quarterly Revicu.
really was such a good- what would have been said then ? Indeed a desire to recur to first principles in practice, or to stir the
foundations of society, was as alien from the POLITICS AND CHARACTER OF
nature of Paley as anything we can imagine. PALEY.
He had a great deal too much of the epicu(From the Quarterly Review. rean in him for any such exploits.
He was No. LXXVI.)
apt to think (perhaps too apt) all well that
ended well. The construction of the House A LIFE of Paley by his son, prefixed to a of Commons may be open to a thousand corrected edition of his works, will tend to objections ;-Paley was not blind to them, nor are we: indeed we know few sights more the cry set up. But every invasion of the lamentably ludicrous than an election. Let constitution, of the liberty and rights of the a stranger be introduced, for the first time, to subject, every stretch of power or prerogative, such a scene- let him be shown a multitude every breach of promise or oath, does not of men reeling about the streets of a borough- justify resistance. But the positive evil of town, fighting within an inch of their lives, the abuse, whatever it is, must outweigh the smashing windows at the Black Bear, or probable evil of the attempt to correct it. where
But the interest of the whole society must be
consulted, not that of one or more of its paris ; “ High in the street, o'erlooking all the place The Rampant Lion shows his kingly face,''
so that it was the duty of an American, for
instance (the case is Paley's own) (Mor. and yelling like those animals in Exeter Philosoph. b. vi. c. 2), to weigh what 'Change at supper time; and then let him England was likely to lose by his revolt, as be told that these worthies are choosing the well as what America was likely to gain by. senate of England-persons to make the laws it, before he could strike a blow with a clear that are to bind them and their children, conscience. But the case of oppression must property, limb, and life, and he would be strongly made out; a species of necessity certainly think the process unpropitious. for opposition must arise; the advantage Yet, in spite of it all, a number of individuals proposed must be, not indeed certain, yet all are thus collected, who transact the business but certain :-nothing extravagant, nothing of the nation, and represent its various chimerical, nothing doubtful in any considerinterests tolerably well. The machinery is able degree, can be deemed a sufficient reason hideous, but it produces not a bad article, for putting the tranquillity of a nation to and with this Paley is satisfied. The House hazard, and disturbing the calm in which a of Lords, again, is composed, in a great good man desires to pass the days of his degree, of officers of the army and navy, sojourn upon earth. (See Fast Sermon, xvi. courtiers, ecclesiastics, young men of one-and- vol. vii.) Now, with all these drawbacks, twenty, and country gentlemen, occupied in (which we have given as nearly as possible in the care of their farms, and their studs, or Paley's own words,) we say the proposition their game. This description does not in- in question is as harmless as the sentence clude all, but very many of the members. against Antonio, that the Jew might exact What should qualify such an assembly for the pound of flesh, provided he shed no being the court of last appeal in the gravest blood, and did not cut off more or less by the and most intricate causes ? Paley is well estimation of a hair. Nay, no sooner does he aware of the apparent anomaly; the ma. find the people actually a disposition to vote chinery looks unpromising, but still it works that the interest of society no longer required well ; and again he is content. A standing- government to be obeyed, and that the time army is the bye-word of every liberal politi. was come when redress was to be sought in a cian ; it is a ready instrument of oppression change of system, than he hastens to send out in the hands of an arbitrary government, and a judicious damper (which caused Dr. Parr, may stifle the voice of law and reason-inter we are told, to hang his picture the wrong arma toga silet. Paley, of course, perceives side upwards), in the shape of “ Reasons for all this, but he believes that a certain quantity Contentment, addressed to the Labouring of military strength is necessary for the well. Classes ;” and in one of his Fast-day being of the commonwealth, and he thinks Sermons (vol. vii. ser. xv.), he positively goes one good soldier and two industrious peasants out of his way to remark that Nineveh was better than three raw militiamen, too clownish saved, not by a politioal change, for of that to drill men, and too military to drill turnips. we hear nothing, but by a personal reforma. The machinery, he will allow, is dangerous, tion among all classes of the community. but again it works well; and again Paley is The truth was, when the question became pleased. It need not be denied, that he now serious, and the application of principles was and then puts forth a bold dictum, which called for, Paley had too much common startles for a moment but only let us hear sense to be satisfied with that “ enlarged him out. The sting of Paley's chapters is view" of his subject for which Mr. Meadley much more often in the head than the tail. commends him on an occasion that little He throws in qualifications, and exceptions, justified his praise. Then his “enlarged and restrictions so dangerous (though often view,” if he had ever entertained it in his inconsiderable when taken individually), that closet, narrowed surprisingly, and well it the man-mountain, which at first sight might. We do not dispute, that in the looked ready to turn and overwhelm a nation, obnoxious passages of his Moral Philosophy is wholly unable to stir, and may be safely to which we have referred, and in others like gazed at by Lilliputian naturalists, as a very to them, Paley may seem to treat princes and curious and a very innocent monster. For potentates with less ceremony than is their instance, “ government is to be obeyed so long due. But in all this, we are persuaded, there as the interest of the society requires it, and was no mean jealousy of high station at work, no longer." “A second Daniel !” is now much less anything like studied insult in
tended. It was the Sabine simplicity of and would probably have been equally amused Paley's mind, which quite unfitted him for at the grave attempts made to draw him into, being a respecter of persons. The pomp, or withdraw him from any political bias.”the circumstance, the chivalry of rank were Life, p. 191. lost upon him. He had a touch in him of He would employ himself in his Natural Peter Bell
Theology, and then gather his peas for dinner,
very likely gathering some hint for his work "A primrose on the river's brim,
at the same time. He would converse with A yellow primrose was to him, And it was nothing more.'
his classical neighbour, Mr. Yates, or he
would reply to his invitation that he could When the idea of a kirg presented itself to not come, for that he was busy knitting. He Paley, it was merely that of an individual would station himself at his garden wall, which invested with great substantial power, to be overhung the river, and watch the progress of wielded for the benefit of his people. Crown a cast-iron bridge in building, asking ques. and sceptre, beef-eaters, state-coaches and tions of the architect, and carefully examinguardsmen, the trappings, in short, of royalty, ing every pin and screw with which it was did not enter in as elements. Not that he put together. He would loiter along a river, affected contempt of such matters, for he with his angle-rod, musing upon what he knew human nature too well to think that supposed to pass in the mind of a pike when they were to be despised; but they were not he bit, and when he refused to bite; or he the matters to make any impression on his would stand by the sea-side, and speculate mind; to use an engraver's phrase, they upon what a young shrimp could mean by would not bite. He preaches before the jumping in the sun. judges and grand jury--wigs, trumpets, - With the handle of his stick in his javelins, white wands, all vanish at once, and mouth, he would move about his garden in a he sees nothing before him but a set of falli. short hurried step, now stopping to contemble men, called upon by their country to rule plate a butterfly, a fower, or a snail, and with diligence; and he suggests to them the now earnestly engaged in some new arrangetrue principle, and exhorts them faithfully ment of his flower-pots.” with all his power. He delivers another ser- He would take from his own table to his mon to the younger clergy: he is nothing study the back-bone of a hare or a fish's moved by the gowns, cassocks, and clerical head'; and he would pull out of his pocket, apparatus which offer themselves to his eye; after a walk, a plant or stone to be made triall he can find is an assembly of men of like butary to an argument. His manuscripts passions as others, and with some temptations were as motley as his occupations; the workof their own, needing admonition; and ad- shop of a mind ever on the alert: eridences monition he gives them, with a hearty good. mixed up with memorandums for his will ; will not to be mistaken :-“ Mimic not the an interesting discussion brought to an unvices of higher life, hunt not after great ac- timely end by the hiring of servants, the letquaintance;" “ be sober, be chaste;" keep ting of fields, sending his boys to school, reout of public-houses ;" " learn to live alone;" proving the refractory members of an hospi. “ divide your sermons into heads—it may be tal; here a dedication, there one of his chil. dispensed with in the hands of a master ; in dren's exercises
in another place a receipt yours, the want of it will produce a bewil- for cheap soup. He would amuse his fire. dered rhapsody.” These are very homely side by family anecdotes :-how one of his maxims, and conveyed in very homely ancestors (and he was praised as a pattern of phrases, yet there is no assumption of autho- perseverance) separated two pounds of white rity in it all, no desire to give offence, no and black pepper which had been accidentally acrimony, no suspicion of the character of his mixed" patiens pulveris," he might truly hearers. It was simply the plain speech of a have added; and how, when the Paley arms single-hearted man, earnest in his calling, were wanted, recourse was had to a family looking upon different stations as merely tankard which was supposed to bear them, bringing out different types of man's nature, but which he always took a malicious pleawhich was radically the same in all; and, in- sure in insisting had been bought at a sale deed, making so little account of artificial distinctions, that whether his congregation were gentle or simple, peasants or prebends,
Vita solutorum miserâ ambitione gravique;" city or village, Paley would give them the very same sermon in the very same words. the life of a man far more happily employed Let us not make him a politician against his than in the composition of political pamwill, and against the general evidence of his phlets, or in the nurture of political disconlife and pursuits. In his serious hours he tent. Nay, when his friend Mr. Carlyle is was occupied, abundantly occupied, in con- about going out with Lord Elgin to Constancerns for a clergyman more appropriate, and tinople, the very head-quarters of despotism, for any man more weighty.
we do not perceive, amongst the multitude of “ He never seemed to know," says his son, most characteristic hints and queries which " that he deserved the name of a politician, Paley addresses to him, a single fling at the
“ Hæc est