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INTRODUCTION.

INVENTION OF THE MARINER'S signify a circle. But the greatest number COMPASS.

of competent inquirers have concurred in attributing this invaluable discovery to

Gioja. The invention of the Mariner's Compass is generally attributed to Flavio Gioja, an ingenious Italian mathematician.

He was born at Pasitano, near Amalfi, in the kingdom of Naples, about the year 1300. He is

POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS.* said to have first discovered the directive power of the magnet, and to have applied it to the

CHAPTER I. purposes of navigation, under the form of a compass, though in a rude and imperfect state. And to show this instrument to have been the invention of a subject of the king of From the long array of lexicographical Naples, who at that time was a junior works, placed at the foot of this page, it must branch of the royal family of France, he not be imagined, that we are about to enter marked the North point with a Fleur-de-lis. into an elaborate, and necessarily dry and As a memorial of this discovery, the terri. tedious analysis of the etymological portion of tory of Principato, in which Gioja was born, their contents; valuable as such an analysis bears a compass for its arms. Some authors, would in some respects unquestionably be. it is true, ascribe the invention to the Chinese; Etymological researches, have, indeed, been and Gilbert, in his book de Magnete, affirms too much neglected ; and this has chiefly hapthat Marco Paolo, a Venetian, making a jour. pened, from the prevalent but erroneous idea ney to China, brought back the invention with of the uncertainty which must ever attend him, in 1260. What strengthens this conjec- them. To the authors of the works of this ture is, that at first they used the compass in description before us, we are indebted for the same manner as the Chinese still do, viz. many important facts, adapted for supplying letting it float on a small piece of cork, instead of suspending it on a pivot. It is

* 1...The Perennial Calendar and Companion added, that their Emperor Chiningus, a cele

to the Almanac, illustrating the events of every day

in the year, as connected with History, Chronology, brated astrologer, had a knowledge of it 1120 Botany, Natural History, Astronomy, Popular years before Christ. But Ludi Vertomanus Customs and Antiquities, with useful rules of affirms, that when he was in the East Indies, Health; Observations on the Weather ; Expla

nations of the Fasts and Festivals of the Church, about the year 1500, he saw a pilot of a ship and other miscellaneous useful Information, com direct his course by a compass, fastened and piled fion Scientific Authorities, as well as from

the framed as those now commonly used. And Manuscripts of several distinguished persons, and Barlow, in his book called the Navigator's A. s., M.M. R , &c. of Corpus Christi College, Cam

revised and edited by T. Forster, M. B., F.L.S, M. Supply, anno 1597, says, that in a personal bridge. conference with two East Indians, they af 2 - Ancient Mysteries described, especially the En. firmed, that instead of our compass, they use glish Miracle Plays, founded on Apocryphal New Tes. a magnetical needle of six inches, and longer, scripts in the British Museum; including Notices upon a pin in a dish of white earth filled of Ecclesiastical Shows; the Festivals of Fools and with water; in the bottom of which they have Asses; the English Boy Bishop; the Descent into two cross lines for the four principal winds, Giants; Christmas Carols, &c. by William Houe. the rest of the divisions being left to the skill 3.-Supplement to the Etymological Dictionary of their pilots. Also in the same book, he says

of the Scottish Language, illustrating the words, in that the Portuguese, in their first discovery of cient and Modern Writers: showing their affinity

their different significations, by examples from Anthe East Indies, got a pilot of Mahinde, who to those of other Languages, and especially the brought them from thence in thirty-three Northeru;, explaining many terms, which though

now obsolete in England, were formerly common to days, within sight of Calicut. But Fan

both countries; and elucidating National Rites, chette relates some verses of Guyot de Pro. Custums, and Institutions, in their analogy to those vence, who lived in France, about the year of other nations. By John Jamieson, D. D. Fellow 1200, which seems to make mention of the of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, &c. &c

4.-A Glossary of North Country Words in use; compass under the name of marinette, or from an original manuscript. iu the library of John mariner's stone ; which shows it was used in George Lambton, Esq. M. P. with cousiderable adFrance near one hundred years before either ditions. By John Troiter Brockett, F. S. A London

and Newcastle. the Malphite or Venetian one. The French 5.--Horæ Momeuta Cravenæ, or the Craven Dia. even lay claim to the invention, from the lect, exemplified in two Dialogues between Farmer Fleur-de-lis with which most people dis- Giles and his neighbour Bridget; to which is an.

nexed a copious Glossary By a native of Craven. tinguish the north point of the card. With

6.-Observations on some of the Dialects of the as much reason Dr. Wallis ascribes it to the West of England, particularly Somersetshire, with English, from its name compass, by which

a Glossary of words now in use there: and Poems name most nations call it, and which, he and other pieces: exemplifying the dialect. By observes, is used in many parts of England to politan Literary Institution, London. VOL. I.

2 I

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INVENTION OF THE MARINER'S signify a circle. But the greatest number COMPASS.

of competent inquirers have concurred in attributing this invaluable discovery to

Gioja. The invention of the Mariner's Compass is generally attributed to Flavio Gioja, an ingenious Italian mathematician. He was born at Pasitano, near Amalfi, in the kingdom of Naples, about the year 1300. He is said to have first discovered the directive power

POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS.* of the magnet, and to have applied it to the

CHAPTER I. purposes of navigation, under the form of a compass, though in a rude and imperfect state. And to show this instrument to have

INTRODUCTION. been the invention of a subject of the king of From the long array of lexicographical Naples, who at that time was a junior works, placed at the foot of this page, it must branch of the royal family of France, he not be imagined, that we are about to enter marked the North point with a Fleur-de-lis. into an elaborate, and necessarily dry and As a memorial of this discovery, the terri. tedious analysis of the etymological portion of tory of Principato, in which Gioja was born, their contents; valuable as such an analysis bears a compass for its arms. Some authors, would in some respects unquestionably be. it is true, ascribe the invention to the Chinese; Etymological researches, have, indeed, been and Gilbert, in his book de Magnete, affirms too much neglected ; and this has chiefly hapthat Marco Paolo, a Venetian, making a jour. pened, from the prevalent but erroneous idea ney to China, brought back the invention with of the uncertainty which must ever attend him, in 1260. What strengthens this conjec- them. To the authors of the works of this ture is, that at first they used the compass in description before us, we are indebted for the same manner as the Chinese 'still do, viz. many important facts, adapted for supplying letting it float on a small piece of cork, instead of suspending it on a pivot. It is

* 1.-The Perennial Calendar and Companion added, that their Emperor Chiningus, a cele

to the Almanac, illustrating the events of every day

in the year, as connected with History, Chronology, brated astrologer, had a knowledge of it 1120 Botany, Natural History, Astronomy, Popular years before Christ. But Ludi Vertomanus Customs and Antiquities, with useful rules of affirms, that when he was in the East Indies, nations of the Fasts and Festivals of the Church, about the year 1500, he saw a pilot of a ship and other miscellaneous useful Information, com direct his course by a compass, fastened and piled from Scientific Authorities, as well as from the framed as those now commonly used. And Manuscripts of several distinguished persons, and Barlow, in his book called the Navigator's A.S., M. M R ,&c. of Corpus Christi College, CamSupply, anno 1597, says, that in a personal bridge. conference with two East Indians, they af. 2 - Ancient Mysteries described, especially the Enfirmed, that instead of our compass, they use

glish Miracle l'lays, founded on Apocryphal New Tes

tament Story, exiant among the unpublished manua magnetical needle of six inches, and longer, scripts in the British Museum; including Notices upon a pin in a dish of white earth filled of Ecclesiastical Shows; the Festivals of Fools and with water ; in the bottom of which they liave Asses; the English Boy Bishop; the Descent into

Hell; the Lord Mayor's Show; the Guildhall two cross lines for the four principal winds, Giants : Christmas Carols, &c. By William Hove. the rest of the divisions being left to the skill 3.--Supplement to the Etymological Dictionary of their pilots. Also in the same book, he says of the Scottish Language, illustrating the words, in that the Portuguese, in their first discovery of cient and Modern Writers: showing their affinity the East Indies, got a pilot of Mahinde, who to those of other Languages, and especially the brought them from thence in thirty-three Northeru: explaining many terms, which though days, within sight of Calicut. But Fan

now obsolete in England, were formerly common to

both countries; and eluendating National Rites, chette relates some verses of Guyot de Pro. Customs, and Institutions, in their analogy to those vence, who lived in France, about the year of other nations. By John Jamieson, D. D. Fellow 1200, which seems to make mention of the of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, &c. &c

4.- A Glossary of North Country Words in use; compass under the name of marinette, or from an original manuscript, in the library of Jolin mariner's stone; which shows it was used in George Lambton, Esq. M. P. with cousiderable adFrance near one hundred years before either

ditions. By John Troiter Brockett, F. S. A London the Malphite or Venetian one. The French

5.-Horæ Momenta Cravenæ, or the Craven Diaeven lay claim to the invention, from the lect, exemplified in two Dialogues between Farmer Fleur-de-lis with which most people distinguish the north point of the card. With nexed a copious Glossary By a native of Craven.

6.--Observations on some of the Dialects of the as much reason Dr. Wallis ascribes it to the West of England, particularly Somersetshire, with English, from its name compass, by which a Glossary of words now in use there and Poems name most nations call it, and which, he and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By

James Jeunings, Honorary Secretary of the Metroobserves, is used in many parts of England to politan Literary Institution, London. VOL. I.

2 I

and Newcastle.

a chasm, which has existel in the history of “ An this lile (little ) book'll gi' the onny many literary and Archaiological points. Let plezer efter a hard day's wark, I sall be feaful us take for example the Dictionary of the fain on't. Bud sud onny outcumlins, Scottish Language of Dr. Jamieson. With. (Germ. Ankömmling, a stranger), ivver awn out such a key, many ancient British MSS. "visit) this outside staany plat, it may happen are totally useless, and many of the old Acts gee'em some inseet into awyer plain mack of Parliament, of the works written at an im. o'talk; at they may larn, as awyer discowerze portant period of British Fistory, and which hez a meanin in't as weel as theirs ; at they record the valiant deeds—delineate the man- mayn't snert an titter (laugh) at huz, gin ners, or exhibit the religious zeal of the (as if) we wor hauf rocktons, (?) but may periods of their production, would excite but undercumstand, and be insensed by this book, little interest in our time, because they would lile as it is, at ya talk's aqual to another, be in a great measure unintelligible. seeabetide it explains yan's thoutes. Sud

In such a work, too, many ancient cus- t'lads o'Craven yunce git a gliff (glimpse) toms, popular superstitions, &c., otherwise o'what a seet o’words I've coud togither unknown or involved in obscurity, are ex. (collected) it'll happen mack'em nut so keen, plained and illustrated, under the words at iv'ry like, o'luggin into th' country a which refer to them; and, as the knowledge parcel of outlandish words, er seea shamm'd of ancient manners removes the obscurity of o'talking their awn. For, oʻlat years, young language, reciprocally ancient language often foak are grown seea maachy (proud, Teut.) affords the best elucidation of manners. Thus an see feeafully geen to knackin (speaking the lexicographer, " that harmless drudge,” affectedly,) at their parents er ill set to knaw as Johnson, himself one of the craft, has de. what their barns (Moes. barn, a child,) er signated him, “that busies himself in tracing javverin about.”—P. v. the original, and detailing the signification of The above is a specimen of the language words," is of necessity an historian--and of the northern portion of England, in its Etymology becomes History.

purity; for, although the dialects of Nor. If we inquire into the character of the vari. thumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, ous provincial dialects existing in Great and Lancashire, vary, in some respects, Britain, we must be struck with the im- from it and from each other, we may place it portant illustrations which the history of our antithetically with the following extract from language is capable of receiving from them. Mr. Jennings's “ Specimens of the West of These provincial or local words may be con- England Dialects," which is scarcely less sidered as constituting three great divisions ; discrepant from correct English, than the the first, comprising the words, Saxon, passage we have already cited. It is from a Danish, &c. which may have become ob- piece entitled “ Mary Ramsey, a Monologue solete, partly, from the introduction, from to er Scholards ;" the subject, however, is of time to time, of terms considered more little importance; and, if it were, Mr. Jenfashionable-partly from disuse, and which nings has not afforded us much choice. are consequently retained, only, or chiefly, Now Miss Whitin, the dunces be a gwon, in counties remote from the capital, where let I hire how pirty you can read. I always modern refinements do not easily find their zed that Pâson Tuttle's grandáter ood lorn er way, or are not readily adopted—instances of book well. Now, Miss, what ha ye a got these we have in the northern words-ar there? Valentine an Orson. A pirty story, (Dan. ar) a mark or scar--- stith (Sax.) bit I be afeard there's naw moril to it.' What strong, hard.—Smiddy, or Smithy, (Sax. be all tha tuthermy (other) books you a got smiththa) a blacksmith's shop.—Prin (Dan. by yer good-hussey (threadcase) there in tha preen) a pin, &c. &c.

basket ? Gee's-zee-'em, (let me see them) nit Under such circumstances, the authors of you please, Miss Polly.--Tha Zeven Chamthe provincial Glossaries before us, are en- pions --Goody Two ShoesPawems vor Intitled to the thanks of all, but especially fant Minds.- Theäzamy here be by vur tha of the philologist and the antiquary, for best. There is a moril to mooäst o’m; an preserving many ancient and emphatic terms, thâ be pirty bezides — Now, Miss, please ta in danger of total extermination.

read thic. Tha Notorious Glutton--Pal Let us take as an example of variation Came! turn tha glass ! dwont ye zee tha from the correct English, the specimen, as zond (sand) is all hirnd (run) out ;-you'll given in the preface of the Horæ momenta stâ in school tha longer vor't nif you dwon't Cravene, and we will venture to assert, that mine it. Now, all o' ye be quiet to hire Miss without•the aid of a glossary, it would be un. Whilin read.-There now, what d'ye za to intelligible to all, except to a native of the jitch radin as that ?--There, d' ye hire, Het West Riding, or of some part of Yorkshire; Came! she dwon't drean (drawl)- hum, the mere inversions of sound, and differences hum, hum.-I shood like ta hire er vessy of pronunciation, would of course be compre. (read verses) wi' zum o'ye; bit your bad hended.

radin ood spwile her good."- Jennings, To 'th Conpero' my Book.

p. 186.)

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The second division of provincialisms, con- periods—an investigation calculated to illus. sists of words derived directly from some trate our ancient poems and romances, and foreign language, as from the Latin, French, to recal to memory the narrations to which, German, &c. ; but so corrupted by passing at different periods of life, each of us must through the mouths of the illiterate, as to have occasionally listened, either in the have their origin scarcely recognizable. The nursery, or when of larger growth, we trust above quotations have afforded examples of that an historical sketch may be formed, this character; and the following are addic which may be deemed not upinteresting. In tional. Brownleemers—a word used in the some instances, it will be remarked, that the North of England, and signifying ripe, brown, superstitions are of such remote antiquity, as nuts, from the French bruns, brown, and to have actually outlived the knowledge of tesmurs, ripe ones ;-the Jackalegs, a large the causes that gave them origin ; whilst clasped knife, corrupted from Jacques de others shed light on ancient customs, and Liege, the Cutler-the word Riff-raft, from point out the analogy between those of difthe Danish Rips-raps, the dregs of the ferent nations ; so striking, indeed, it will be people— Quandary, from the French qu'en found, is the coincidence between the mandirai ? what shall I say of it ?--Bob Ruly, ners of our ancestors, and those of the inin the western country, corrupted from Bois habitants of some other countries, that, if we brulé, burnt wood, so called by the French had no other historical record, it would suf. because of the quantity of burnt wood in the ficiently evidence the connexion which must neighbourhood : or the sign of the Bull and have originally existed between them. Mouth, in Bull and Mouth-street, London, The reader who has not reflected on the corrupted from Boulogne Mouth, or Har- subject, will be astonished to find so many bour--and of the Bull and Gate, corrupted of the festivals in the calendar, of ethnic ori. from Boulogne Gate-or of the Bell Savage, gin ; but, on investigation, his astonishment commonly represented by a black man and a will cease. At the

time of the triumph of bell, but really corrupted from the French, Christianity, the heathens were of course Belle Sauvage—the beautiful savage-or that delighted with the festivals of their gods, and of the Swan with tuo Necks, intended for, unwilling to part with those delights; and, and corrupted from the Swan with two Nicks, as for the attainment of so important an or Notches, in its bill, as marks by which it object as the supplanting of Paganism, by might be known ; or a thousand others, of the religion of our Lord and Saviour, it bethe like nature, that might be enumerated. came a matter of moment to sacrifice what

The third and ląst division consists of mere were esteemed to be minor points, Gregory, arbitrary words, not accurately deducible from (Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocæsarea, who any primary source or language, but ludi. died in 265,) to facilitate their conversion, crous nominations from some apparent quali- instituted annual festivals to the saints and ties in the object or thing, being at first martyrs. Hence it happened, that, for exscarcely current out of a district, but, by ploding the festivals of the heathens, the time and use, gradually extending themselves, principal festivals of the Christians suc. such as, perhaps, Bridewain-applied to a ceeded in their room, as the celebration of waggon laden with furniture, which was Christmas with joy and feasting, &c. in the formerly given to the bride, where the father room of the Bacchanalia and Saturnalia : could afford it, when she left his house the celebration of May-day with flowers, in Devil's dung, for assafoetida, &c. &c. the room of the Floralia ; and that of the

But the portion of the works before us, to festivals to the Virgin Mary, John the Bapwhich we are more immediately desirous of tist, and divers of the Apostles, in the room drawing attention, is that which treats of of the solemnities at the entrance of the sun popular rites and ceremonies ; on which into the signs of the Zodiac, in the old points, each of them affords us some in. Julian Calendar. formation, especially those of Dr. Forster and The strong attachment of a people to their of Mr. Hone, which, indeed, as their titles ancient festivals, is, as we have mentioned, a import, are devoted almost exclusively to sufficient excuse, in most instances, for the such inquiries. From the unconnected and continuance of them, even when, as in the consequently unsatisfactory manner in which case before us, of an ethnic character : but, the former of these is thrown together, the at the same time, it must ever be accounted, facts are frequently so vaguely detailed, as to as a general principle, a dangerous policy be unavailable ; whilst the latter comprises which retains the superstition, whilst it only a few subjects, and these perhaps of in- merely changes the object or the name. ferior interest to the general reader : these Before referring to particular superstitions, deficiencies, it will be our endeavour, in the we may remark, that the belief, that some following pages, to supply; and, by pursu. human beings could attain the power of in. ing the order adopted by Dr. Forster, in the ficting ills on their fellow creatures, and of Perennial Calendar, and tracing not only controlling the operations of nature, is one of the observances of particular days by the the highest antiquity.* Christian world to their sources, but also the popular superstitions connected with those # Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons, iii. 130,

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