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Purification from Sin by Squeezing.- world receives from us that which will not Multitudes of pilgrims annually visit Mala- bear a comparison with what we have given bar Point, near Bombay, for the sole pur them before. Yet these sufferings have their pose of squeezing themselves through a nar- rewards. To bear up against ill health by a row cleft in the rock, apparently not wide sudden and strong effort, to shake off low enough to receive the body of a child, as a spirits, and drive away the mists which lie sure way of squeezing out their sins !-Gra- thick and heavy upon the mind, gives a new ham's Journal.

state of being to the soul cheerful as the The Jaculator Fish of Java.--An ac- light. To sit at home in our easy chair and count is given, in the last number of the Edin- send our gay thoughts abroad, as it were, on burgh Journal, of these extraordinary animals, wings to thousands—to imagine them laughby a gentleman who found them in the ing over the odd fancies and drolleries which possession of a Javanese chief. The fish had made us vain and happy in secret, mulwere placed in a small circular pond, from tiplies and spreads our sympathies quietly the centre of which projected a pole upwards and happily through the world. In this way, of two feet in height. At the top of this too, we can pour out before the world thoughts pole were inserted small pieces of wood, which had never been laid open even to a sharp-pointed, on each of which were placed friend, and make it feel our melancholy, and insects of the beetle tribe. When all had bear our griefs, while we still sit in the become tranquil after the placing of the

secret of our souls. The heart tells its story beetles by the slaves, the fish came out of abroad, yet loses not its delicacy; it lays their holes, and swam round about the pond. itself bare, but is still sensitive.-- American

Common Place Book. One of them came to the surface of the wa. ter, rested there, and, after steadily fixing his late traveller in Italy, “ asked a Neapolitan

Writing down a Face.-" I once," says a, eyes for some time on an insect, it discharged fisherman to sit for me to paint him. He from its mouth a small quantity of watery did not in the least understand the nature of fluid, with such force and precision of aim, as to force it off the twig into the water, and my proposition ; but after some difficulties in an instant swallowed it. After this, an

on his side, and many assurances on mine

that I would not hurt him, he consented, and other fish came, and performed a similar

followed me. When I had finished, his astofeat, and was followed by the others, till nishment at beholding his portrait was amusthey had seized all the insects. He observed, ing; and, descending with me to the street, that if a fish failed in bringing down its prey I heard him exclaim to his comrades, *that at the first shot, it swam round the pond till Signore has written down my face.' So it came opposite the same object, and fired high is their idea of writing, that they can again. In one instance, he remarked one of imagine no superior or more lofty name, for the animals return three times to the attack what appears to them a similar sort of conbefore it secured its prey ; but, in general, juration." they seemed to be very expert gunners, bring- Vehicular State.When the lamp of life ing down their prey at the first discharge. is extinguished, the immortal part, enclosed This fish, in a state of nature, frequents in an invisible integument, escapes to its the shores and sides of the sea and rivers, in aërial habitation. Here communication with search of food. When it spies a fly set- one another is conducted either by forming tling on the plants that grow in shallow characters on the exterior of the vehicles, or water, it swims on to the distance of from sending out small particles of the fluids, five or six feet from them; and then, with which surround them, or by a thousand surprising dexterity, it ejects out of its tubu- methods we have no conception of; and can lar mouth a single drop of water, which transport themselves from place to place after never fails to strike the fly into the sea, the manner of a ship. The vehicles having where it soon becomes its prey.

been in the body for a longer or shorter A Periodical Editor.To know that our time, are stamped with the character of the hour for toil is come, and that we are weak person to whom they may have belonged. and unprepared : to feel that depression or Thus we unknowingly fit ourselves for imlassitude is weighing us down when we must mortality. To this opinion, I have a great feign lightness and mirth; or to mock our predilection on account of the numbers that secret griefs with show of others not akin, pass without any preparation, which proves must be the fate of him who labours in such the soul to be formed previous to the body. a work. This is not all. When our work is When a vehicle arrives, the oldest inhabitants done, and well done, the excitement which instruct the soul in its new duties.--Tucker. the employment had given us is gone, the Royal African Titles.-The Sultan of spirits sink down, and there is a dreadful Durfoor is styled the “Buffalo;" “ the offvoid in the mind. We feel as powerless as spring of a Buffalo;" “ the Bull of Bulls ;" infancy till pushed to the exertion of our “ the Elephant of superior strength!!!"powers again ; even great success has its Bulletin des Sciences Geog. terrors. We fear that we shall never do so well again ; and know how churlishly the

enc.Nunnery

state.

INVENTION OF THE MARINER'S signify a circle. But the greatest number COMPASS.

of competent inquirers have concurred in attributing this invaluable discovery to

Gioja. The invention of the Mariner's Compass is generally attributed to Flavio Gioja, an ingenious Italian mathematician.

He was born at Pasitano, near Amalfi, in the king. dom of Naples, about the year 1300. He is

POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS.* said to have first discovered the directive power of the magnet, and to have applied it to the

CHAPTER I. purposes of navigation, under the form of a compass, though in a rude and imperfect And to show this instrument to have

INTRODUCTION. been the invention of a subject of the king of From the long array of lexicographical Naples, who at that time was a junior works, placed at the foot of this page, it must branch of the royal family of France, he not be imagined, that we are about to enter marked the North point with a Fleur-de-lis. into an elaborate, and necessarily dry and As a memorial of this discovery, the terri. tedious analysis of the etymological portion of tory of Principato, in which Gioja was born, their contents; valuable as such an analysis bears a compass for its arms. Some authors, would in some respects unquestionably be. it is true, ascribe the invention to the Chinese; Etymological researches, have, indeed, been and Gilbert, in his book de Magnete, affirms too much neglected ; and this has chiefly hapthat Marco Paolo, a Venetian, making a jour. pened, from the prevalent but erroneous idea ney to China, brought back the invention with of the uncertainty which must ever attend him, in 1260. What strengthens this conjec. them. To the authors of the works of this ture is, that at first they used the compass in description before us, we are indebted for the same manner as the Chinese still do, viz. many important facts, adapted for supplying letting it float on a small piece of cork, instead of suspending it on a pivot. It is

*1-The Perennial Calendar and Companion added, that their Emperor Chiningus, a cele

to the Almanac, illustrating the events of every day

in the year, as connected with History, Chronology, brated astrologer, had a knowledge of it 1120 Botany, Natural History, Astronomy, Popular years before Christ. But Ludi Vertomanus Customs and Antiquities, with useful rules of affirms, that when he was in the East Indies,

Health; Observations on the Weather; Expla.

nations of the Fasts and Festivals of the Church, about the year 1500, he saw a pilot of a ship and viber miscellaneous useful Information, comdirect his course by a compass, fastened and piled fion Scientific Authorities, as well as from the framed as those now commonly used. And Manuscripts of several distinguished persons, and Barlow, in his book called the Navigator's A S., M. M R ,&c. of Corpus Christi College, CamSupply, anno 1597, says, that in a personal bridge. conference with two East Indians, they af.

2 – Ancient Mysteries described, especially the Enfirmed, that instead of our compass, they use

glish Miracle l'lays, founded on Apocryphal New Tes.

tament Story, extant among the unpublished inanu. a magnetical needle of six inches, and longer, scripts in the British Museum; including Notices upon a pin in a dish of white earth filled of Ecclesiastical Slows; the Festivals of Fools and with water ; in the bottom of which they have Asses; the English Boy Bishop; the Descent into

Hell; the Lord Mayor's Show; the Guildhall two cross lines for the four principal winds, Giants; Christmis Carols, &c. By William Hone. the rest of the divisions being left to the skill 3.- Supplement to the Etymological Dictionary of their pilots. Also in the same book, he says of the scolush Language, illustrating the words, in that the Portuguese, in their first discovery of cient and Modern Writers: showing their attivity the East Indies, got a pilot of Mahinde, who to those of other Languages, ad especially tbe brought them from thence in thirty-three Northeru: explaining many terms, which though

now obsolete in England, were fornerly common to days, within sight of Calicut. But Fan

both countries; and elucrating National Rites, chette relates some verses of Guyot de Pro. Customs, and Institutions, in their analogy to those vence, who lived in France, about the year

of other nations. By John Jamieson, D. D. Fellow 1200, which seems to make mention of the of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, &c. &c.

4.-A Glossary of North Country Words in use; compass under the name of murinette, or

from an original manuscript, in the library of Jolin mariner's stone ; which shows it was used in George Lambton, Esq. M. P. with cousiderable adFrance near one hundred years before either

ditions. By John Troiter Brockett, F. S. A London

and Newcastle the Malphite or Venetian one. The French

5.-Horæ Momenta Cravenæ, or the Craven Dia. even lay claim to the invention, from the lect, exemplified in two Dialogues between Farmer Fleur-de-lis with which most people dis

Giles and his neighbour Bridget; to which is an.

nexed a copious Glossary By a native of Craven. tinguish the north point of the card. With

6.-Observations on some of the Dialects of the as much reason Dr. Wallis ascribes it to the West of Eogland, particularly Somersetshire, with English, from its name compass, by which a Glossary of words now in use there: and Poems name most nations call it, and which, he James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metro

and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By observes, is used in many parts of England to politan Literary Institution, London, VOL. I.

2 I

a chasm, which has existed in the history of “ An this lile (little ) book'll gi' the onny many literary and Archaiological points. Let plezer cfter a hard day's wark, I sall be feaful us take for example the Dictionary of the fain on't. Bud sud onny outcumlins, Scottish Language of Dr. Jamieson. With- (Germ. Ankömmling, a stranger), ivver awn out such a key, many ancient British MSS. (visit) this outside staany plat, it may happen are totally useless, and many of the old Acts gee'em some inseet into awyer plain mack of Parliament, of the works written at an im. o'talk ; at they may larn, as awyer discowerze portant period of British History, and which hez a meanin in't as weel as theirs ; at they record the valiant deeds—delineate the man- mayn't snert an titter (laugh) at huz, gin ners, or exhibit the religious zeal of the (as if) we wor hauf rocktons, (?) but may periods of their production, would excite but undercumstand, and be insensed by this book, little interest in our time, because they would lile as it is, at ya talk's aqual to another, be in a great measure unintelligible.

seeabetide it explains yan's thoutes. Sud In such a "work, too, many ancient cus- t'lads o'Craven yunce git a gliff (glimpse) toms, popular superstitions, &c., otherwise o'what a seet o’words I've coud togither unknown or involved in obscurity, are ex. (collected) it'll happen mack'em nut so keen, plained and illustrated, under the words at iv'ry like, o’luggin into th' country a which refer to them; and, as the knowledge parcel of outlandish words, er seea shamm'd of ancient manners removes the obscurity of o'talking their awn. For, oʻlat years, young language, reciprocally ancient language often foak are grown seea maachy (proud, Teut.) affords the best elucidation of manners. Thus an see feeafully geen to knackin (speaking the lexicographer, " that harmless drudge,” affectedly,) at their parents er ill set to knaw as Johnson, himself one of the craft, has de. what their barns (Moes. barn, a child,) er signated him, “ that busies himself in tracing javverin about.”- P. v. the original, and detailing the signification of The above is a specimen of the language words," is of necessity an historian-and of the northern portion of England, in its Etymology becomes History.

purity; for, although the dialects of Nor. If we inquire into the character of the vari. thumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, ous provincial dialects existing in Great and Lancashire, vary, in some respects, Britain, we must be struck with the im- from it and from each other, we may place it portant illustrations which the history of our antithetically with the following extract from language is capable of receiving from them. Mr. Jennings’s “ Specimens of the West of These provincial or local words may be con- England Dialects,which is scarcely less sidered as constituting three great divisions ; discrepant from correct English, than the the first, comprising the words, Saxon, passage we have already cited. It is from a Danishi, &c. which may have become ob- piece entitled “ Mary Ramsey, a Monologue solete, partly, from the introduction, from to er Scholards ;" the subject, however, is of time to time, of terms considered more little importance; and, if it were, Mr. Jenfashionable-partly from disuse, and which nings has not afforded us much choice. are consequently retained, only, or chiefly, Now Miss Whitin, the dunces be a gwon, in counties remote from the capital, where let I hire how pirty you can read. I always modern refinements do not easily find their zed that Pâson Tuttle's grandâ ter ood lorn er way, or are not readily adopted-instances of book well. Now, Miss, what ha ye a got these we have in the northern words-ar there? Valentine an Orson. A pirty story, (Dan. ar) a mark or scar---stith (Sax.) bit I be afeard there's naw moril to it. What strong, hard.--Smiddy, or Smithy, (Sax. be all tha tuthermy (other) books you a got smiththa) a blacksmith's shop.-— Prin (Dan. by yer good-hussey (threadcase) there in tha preen) a pin, &c. &c.

basket ? Gee's-zee-'em, (let me see them) niť Under such circumstances, the authors of you please, Miss Polly.---Tha Zeven Chamthe provincial Glossaries before us, are en. pions -- Goody Two Shoes-Pawems vor In. titled to the thanks of all, but especially fant Minds.--Theäzamy here be by vur tha of the philologist and the antiquary, for best. There is a moril to mooäst o’m ; an preserving many ancient and emphatic terms, thâ be pirty bezides - Now, Miss, please ta in danger of total extermination.

read thic. Tha Notorious Glutton--Pal Let us take as an example of variation Came! turn tha glass ! dwont ye zee tha from the correct English, the specimen, as zond (sand) is al hirnd (run) out ;-you'll given in the preface of the Horæ momenta stâ in school tha longer vor't nif you dwon't Crarene, and we will venture to assert, that mine it. Now, all o' ye be quiet to hire Miss without the aid of a glossary, it would be un. Whilin read. There now, what d'ye za to intelligible to all, except to a native of the jitch radin as that ?—There, d' ye hire, Het West Riding, or of some part of Yorkshire; Came! she dwon't drean (drawl)- hum, the mere inversions of sound, and differences hum, hum.--I shood like ta hire er vessy of pronunciation, would of course be compre. (read verses) wi' zum o'ye; bit your bad hended.

radin ood spwile her good."-(Jennings, “ To 'th Connor o' my Book.

p. 186.)

The second division of provincialisms, con- periods—an investigation calculated to illus. sists of words derived directly from some trate our ancient poems and romances, and foreign language, as from the Latin, French, to recal to memory the narrations to which, German, &c.; but so corrupted by passing at different periods of life, each of us must through the mouths of the illiterate, as to have occasionally listened, either in the have their origin scarcely recognizable. The nursery, or when of larger growth, we trust above quotations have afforded examples of that an historical sketch may be formed, this character ; and the following are addi. which may be deemed not uninteresting. In tional. Brownleemers-a word used in the some instances, it will be remarked, that the North of England, and signifying ripe, brown, superstitions are of such remote antiquity, as nuts, from the French bruns, brown, and to have actually outlived the knowledge of lesmurs, ripe ones ;-the Jackalegs, a large the causes that gave them origin ; wbilst clasped knife, corrupted from Jacques de others shed light on ancient customs, and Liege, the Cutler-the word Riff-raff, from point out the analogy between those of dif. the Danish Rips-raps, the dregs of the ferent nations ; so striking, indeed, it will be people-Quandary, from the French qu'en found, is the coincidence between the man. dirai ? what shall I say of it ?-Bob Kulý, ners of our ancestors, and those of the inin the western country, corrupted from Bois habitants of some other countries, that, if we brulé, burnt wood, so called by the French had no other historical record, it would sufbecause of the quantity of burnt wood in the ficiently evidence the connexion which must neighbourhood : or the sign of the Bull and have originally existed between them. Mouth, in Bull and Mouth-street, London, The reader who has not reflected on the corrupted from Boulogne Mouth, or Har: subject, will be astonished to find so many bour—and of the Bull and Gate, corrupted of the festivals in the calendar, of ethnic ori. from Boulogne Gate-or of the Bell Savage, gin; but, on investigation, his astonishment commonly represented by a black man and a

will cease. At the time of the triumph of bell, but really corrupted from the French, Christianity, the heathens were of course Belle Sauvage - the beautiful savage-or that delighted with the festivals of their gods, and of the Swan with two Necks, intended for, unwilling to part with those delights; and, and corrupted from the Swan with two Nicks, as for the attainment of so important an or Notches, in its bill, as marks by which it object as the supplanting of Paganism, by might be known; or a thousand others, of the religion of our Lord and Saviour, it bethe like nature, that might be enumerated. came a matter of moment to sacrifice what

The third and last division consists of mere were esteemed to be minor points, Gregory, arbitrary words, not accurately deducible from (Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocæsarea, who any primary source or language, but ludi- died in 265,) to facilitate their conversion, crous nominations from some apparent qualis instituted annual festivals to the saints and ties in the object or thing, being at first martyrs. Hence it happened, that, for exscarcely current out of a district, but, by ploding the festivals of the heathens, the time and use, gradually extending themselves, principal festivals of the Christians' sue. such as, perhaps, Bridewain-applied to a ceeded in their room, as the celebration of waggon laden with furniture, which was Christmas with joy and feasting, &c. in the formerly given to the bride, where the father room of the Bacchanalia and Saturnalia : could afford it, when she left his house the celebration of May-day with flowers, in Devil's dung, for assafætida, &c. &c. the room of the Floralia ; and that of the

But the portion of the works before us, to festivals to the Virgin Mary, John the Bapwhich we are more immediately desirous of tist, and divers of the Apostles, in the room drawing attention, is that which treats of of the solemnities at the entrance of the sun popular rites and ceremonies ; on which into the signs of the Zodiac, in the old points, each of them affords us some in. Julian Calendar. formation, especially those of Dr. Forster and The strong attachment of a people to their of Mr. Hone, which, indeed, as their titles ancient festivals, is, as we have mentioned, a import, are devoted almost exclusively to sufficient excuse, in most instances, for the such inquiries. From the unconnected and continuance of them, even when, as in the consequently unsatisfactory manner in which case before us, of an ethnic character : but, the former of these is thrown together, the at the same time, it must ever be accounted, facts are frequently so vaguely detailed, as to as a general principle, a dangerous policy be unavailable ; whilst the latter comprises which retains the superstition, whilst it only a few subjects, and these perhaps of in- merely changes the object or the name. ferior interest to the general reader: these Before referring to particular superstitions, deficiencies, it will be our endeavour, in the we may remark, that the belief, that some following pages, to supply; and, by pursu. human beings could attain the power of in. ing the order adopted by Dr. Forster, in the ficting ills on their fellow creatures, and of Perennial Calendar, and tracing not only controlling the operations of nature, is one of the observances of particular days by the the highest antiquity.* Christian world to their sources, but also the popular superstitions connected with those * Turner's History of the Anglo-Saxons, iii. '

THE NEW YEAR.

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last."

CHAPTER II.

among the Romans, but generally by the dice. Horace alludes to this Rer convirii,

or Rex bibendi, on different occasions. The preceding remarks will introduce us to

" Quem Venus arbitrum a superstition practised in the south of Scot

Dicet bibend,?"

Carm. lib. ii. 7. land, on the morning of the New Year, To whom shall beauty's queen assign (January 1). The instant the clock has

To reign the monarch of our wine!" Francis struck the midnight hour, one of a family goes to the well as quickly as possible, and

The chief magistrates were not exempted carefully skims it: this they call getting from yielding obedience, if the lots gave an“ the scum or ream (cream) of the well.”

other pre-eminence ; whence Agesilaus, king

of Lacedæmon, being present at an entertain" Twall struck-twa neebour hizzies raise

ment, was not declared Rex till the lots had An' liltin, gaed a sad gate: The flower o' the well to our house gaes,

fallen upon him. An' i'll tbe boniest lad get."

The Monday following the twelfth day is This flower o' the well signifies the first called Plough Monday, in Great Britain, pailful of water, and the girl who is so fortu. from its being about the period at which the nate as to obtain that prize, is supposed to ground is begun to be ploughed up. have more than a double chance of gaining " Plough Monday next, after that the twelfth tide the most accomplished young man in the is past, parish. As they go to the well they chant

Bids out with the plough, the worst husband is

Tusser. over the two last of the above liues.

This is an old superstition, and is proba. In celebration of this agricultural combly derived from the worship of wells by the mencement, in the north of England, the Picts. It was known to the Romans : the Fool Plough goes about—a pageant, con. act of skimming water with the hand, being sisting of a number of sword dancers, dragone of the rites necessary for successful ging a plough, with music, and one, some. augury.

times two, fantastically clothed : the Fool Many persons make a point of wearing being covered with skins, and wearing a new clothes on New Year's Day, and esteem hairy cap, with the tail of some animal hangany omission of this kind extremely unlucky. ing from his back.-(Forster, p. 13). The salutations of this day are of remote an. St. Agnes's Day (January 21st), is fruit. tiquity, as well as the custom of “ New ful in love superstitions. The following are Year's Gifts,"* as we shall find hereafter. the most common. On St. Agnes's night,

The custom of eating twelfth cake, and es- take a row of pins, and pull out every one, pecially of drawing for king and queen, on one after another, saying a paternoster, and the Epiphany, or twelfth day, or twelfth tide, sticking a pin in your sleeve, and you will or old Christmas day (January 6), as it is dream of him or her you shall marry. Old variously termed, is antique. In the ancient Ben, in one of his Masques, refers to this Calendar of the Romish Church, is an obser- superstition. vation on the fifth day of January, the vigil of the Epiphany, “ Kings created or elected

“ And on sweet Agnes' night

Please you with the promised sight, by beans;" and the sixth is called “ The

Some of busbands, some of lovers, Festival of Kings,” with the additional re

Wbicb an einpty dream discovers." mark, “ that the ceremony of electing kings was continued with feasting for many days."

Another divinatory method employed by In the cities and ncademies of Germany, the love-sick maidens, is to sleep in a county in students and citizens choose one of their which they do not usually reside, where they number for king, providing a most magnific knit the left leg garter round the right leg cent banquet on the occasion. In France, stocking, leaving the other garter and stockduring the ancient regime, one of the cour.

ing untouched ; they then repeat the followtiers was chosen a king, and the nobles at- ing lines, knitting a knot at each comma, tended at an entertainment at which he pre

“ This knot I knit, sided ; and with the Freuch, Le Roi de la

To know the thing I know not yet, Fève, still signifies a twelfth-night king.

That I may see,

The man ibat shall my husband le, The above ceremonies are probably the re

How he gres and what he wears, mains of those for choosing, amongst the Greeks, Aud what he does all the days." the συμποσίαρχος βασιλευς, &c., and amongst the Romans, the Rex modimperator, &c. the

The next dream, it is believed, will reveal king-whose business it was, at feasts, to de

to the lady's gaze her future spouse, bearing termine the laws of good fellowship, and to

a badge of his occupation. A lady acknowobserve whether every one drank his propor. ledged to Aubrey, (MSS.) that she had praction, whence he was also called 00902nos--the tised this incantation, and was favoured with eye. He was commonly appointed by lots, a vision about two or three years afterwards. occasionally perhaps by beans, as was usual Being one Sunday at church, up popped a

young Oxonian into the pulpit; she instantly Ovid fast. lib. i. 63–74.

cried out to her sister, " that is the very face

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