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jewellery; go, sell it to them, and purchase whose education has been such as to render with the price, fuel, an earthen boiler, and their success any thing short of a miracle. two platters. Whilst the old woman was very different has been the case in India, gone on this errand, the damsel brayed the with Mr. Assistant-Surgeon Richmond, of grain in a mortar of arjuna wood, with a His Majesty's 4th Light Dragoons, who has pestle of khayar headed with iron, she then for some years held the situation of oculist to winnowed it with the basket, and having well the subordinate station of the Bombay resi. washed it, set it to boil in five times its deney. The couching-needle used by that quantity of water, worshipping the chimney as gentleman is extremely delicate and spear. she placed the boiler. When the rice was pointed, and the handle not quite an inch swollen up properly, she took the boiler from long. The success of his practice is sur. the fire, and separated the scum, then replac, prising, his failures not exceeding one in ing it, kept stirring it till it was quite boiled; twenty. The patients who, before the operaafter which, she placed the boiler with the tion, could only distinguish day from night, mouth downwards, and extinguishing the fire could, after it, clearly and distinctly point with the cold water, sent the old woman to out the figures on the face of a watch, which, dispose of the coals which were unconsumed ; considering the advanced age many of them with the price procured for them, buying had attained, was as much as could reasonvegetables, ghee, curds, oil, myrobalans, and ably be expected from them. Mr. R. dise tamarinds: these she seasoned with condi, penses with all the usual preparations rements : she then placed the scum of the commended by authors, and which are cerrice-water in a new saucer, and cooling it tainly calculated to excite alarm in the mind with a fan added to it perfumes, evaporated of the patient : he thinks not of chairs, on the coals : she then peeled the myrobalan, stools, pillows, speculums, &c.; but, with and added to it lotus perfume, when she his native assistant to raise the upper eye. directed her nurse to desire Sakti Kumara to lids, the patient is seated on the floor of the bathe. When he was bathed, and had room, or, provided there be light sufficient, rubbed himself with oil and myrobalan ; she wherever by accident he may be standing. laid a plank on a part of the floor well-swept Something is given to him to hold, with the and levelled, on which he sat down : she view of diverting his attention; when, kneel. then placed before him on a well trimmed plain., ing, Mr. R. introduces the needle, and tain leaf, two platters. Having given him some quickly removes the lens and its capsule water to drink, she served him with two from the axis of vision. In this position, spoonfuls of rice, to which she added ghee and without any support, he operates, if neand sauce; the rest of the rice he ate with cessary, on both eyes, and uses his right and spices, curds, butter, milk, and rice gruel ; left hand with equal steadiness and dexteshe finally brought him water to drink pure, rity. In this way he has restored more than cool, and fragrant, in a new jug, perfumed 2,000 blind to sight, and examined more with agallochum. The old woman then re- than 3000 cases of cataract. moved the fragments, and cleansing the rience has taught him that that operation ground with fresh cow-dung, spread her gar. will be the most successful which disturbs ment upon it, on which he went to sleep. the eye least, is performed with the greatest When he awoke he expressed his satisfaction, facility, and is attended with the smallest deand being contented to seek no further, he gree of pain, and that is least likely to exmarried the damsel, and took her along with cite subsequent inflammation. Couching, him, when she found herself unexpectedly a Mr. K. observes, is as easily performed as woman of wealth and consequence: she ne- blood-letting; and, when skilfully done, ocvertheless continued to worship her husband casions so little pain, that the patient is often as a god; to pay the most assiduous attention not sensible that an instrument has been to his household affairs; and to superintend introduced into the eye. Secondary catathe regulation of her family : in this way, ract is always the fault of the operator. she acquired the entire confidence of her spouse, who, leaving all his doinestic concerns

to her care, tasted in his corporal form the
joys of Paradise.

SLY Belzebub took all occasions

To try Job's constancy, and patience.

He took his bodour, took bis health ;
He took his children, took his wealth,
His servants, horses, oxen, cows-

But cunning Satan did not take his spouse. A GREAT deal is said in this country about But heaven, that briogs out good from evil, the operation for removing cataract, which is And loves to disappoint the devil, represented by those who practise it as a sort Had pre-determined to restore

Twofold all he had before; of mystery, which but few can exercise. This

His servants, horses, oxen, cowsmay be true, so far as the English oculists Short-sighted devil, not to take his spouse ! are concerned, but few of them being men


Great expeVARIETIES.


Speech of an Indian Chief in reply to a unhappy hereafter. You say that you are Christiun Missionary.-Friend and brother: right, and we are lost. How do we know It was the will of the Great Spirit that we this to be true ? We understand that your should meet together this day. He orders all religion is written in a book. If it was in. things, and has given us a fine day for our tended for us as well as you, why has not the council. He has taken his garment from Great Spirit given to us, and not only to us, before the sun, and caused it to shine with but why did he not give to our forefathers, brightness upon us. Our eyes are opened knowledge of that book, with the means of that we may see clearly ; our ears are un- understanding it rightly? We only know stopped, that we may have been able to hear what you tell us about it. How shall we distinctly the words you have spoken. For all know when to believe, being so often dethese favours we thank the Great Spirit, and ceived by the white people ? Brother-You him only. Brother-Listen to what we say. say there is but one way to worship and serve There was a time when our forefathers owned the Great Spirit. If there is but one religion, this great island. Their seats extended from why do you white people differ so much about the rising to the setting sun. The Great it? Why not all agreed, as you can all read Spirit had made it for the use of Indians. the book : Brother-We do not understand He had created the buffalo, deer, and other these things. We are told that your religion animals, for food. He had made the bear was given to your forefathers, and has been and the beaver. Their skins served us for handed down from father to son. We also clothing. He had scattered them over the have a religion which was given to our fore. earth, and taught us how to take them. He fathers, and was handed down to their chil. had caused the earth to produce corn for dren. We worship in that way. It teaches bread. All this he had done for his red us to be thankful for all the favours we rechildren, because he loved them. But an ceive; to love each other, and to be united. evil day came upon us. Your forefathers We never quarrel about religion. Brother crossed the great water, and landed on this The Great Spirit has made us all, but he has island. Their numbers were small. They made a great difference between his white and found friends, and not enemies. They told red children. He has given us different comus they had fled from their own country for plexions and different customs. To you he fear of wicked men, and had come here to has given the arts. To these he has not enjoy their religion. They asked for a small opened our eyes. We know these things to

We took pity on them, and granted be true. Since he has made so great a diftheir request; and they sat down among us. ference between us in other things, why may We gave them corn and meat; they gave us we not conclude that he has given us a difpoison in return. The white people had now ferent religion according to our understand. found our country. Tidings were carried ing? The Great Spirit does right; he knows back, and more came among us. Yet we what is best for his children. We are satisdid not fear them. We took them to be fied. Brother-We do not wish to destroy friends. They called us brothers. We be- your religion, or take it from you. We only lieved them, and gave them a larger seat. wish to enjoy our own.

Brother - We are At length, their numbers had reatly in- told that you have been preaching to the creased. They wanted more land. They white people in this place. These people are wanted our country. Our eyes were opened, our neighbours. We are acquainted with and our minds became uneasy. Wars took them. We will wait a little while, and see place. Indians were hired to fight against what effect your preaching has upon them. Indians, and many of our people were de. If we find it does them good, makes them stroyed. They also brought strong liquor honest, and less disposed to cheat Indians, among us. It was strong and powerful, and we will then consider again of what you have has slain thousands. Brother-Our seats said. Brother - You have now heard our were once large, and yours were small. You answer to your talk. This is all we have to have now become a great people, and we have say at present. As we are going to part, we scarcely a place left to spread our blankets. will come and take you by the hand, and You have got our country, but are not satis. hope the Great Spirit will protect you on fied ; you want to force your religion among your journey, and return you safe to your us. Brother-Continue to listen. You say friends.- Amer. Common-place Book. that you are sent to instruct us how to wor- Sleep.- Going to bed early has been eulo. ship the Great Spirit agreeably to his mind; gised nearly as much as rising betimes. We and, if we do not take hold of the religion have all been accustomed to hear, " that one which you white people teach, we shall be hour's sleep before ten or eleven, is worth all


the rest after.” Now I cannot subscribe to herdless, the Antinous, and some other standthis. I cannot discover what peculiar virtue ard works of Greek sculpture. there can be in sleeping before midnight, The following are the proportions of the otherwise than the sooner to bed, the earlier Indian artists :--The face nearly round; the one could rise. But, for my part, I am of width of the breast to equal two faces; and opinion that six hours' sleep are quite enough, also that of the loins; the waist one face, &c. rather too much, for any healthy person; The same proportions are used in statues of and therefore those who do not remain loog either sex; but the arms are always (accord. awake, on going to rest at twelve, might get ing to European ideas) made disproportion. up at six abundantly refreshed. Too much ately long.-- Asiatic Journal. sleep is more hostile to longevity than too Universality of Tarution.— Taxes upon little. Some over anxious persons, who can every article which enters into the mouth or live as they choose, trouble themselves a good covers the back or is placed under the foot ; deal about the proper time for breakfast. taxes upon every thing which is pleasant to Were my opinion required, I should say in hear, see, feel, smell, and taste; taxes upon two hours after rising. But the most un. warmth, light, and locomotion; taxes on erring, and wholesome guide is, when one every thing on earth or the waters under the feels a sharp inclination for eating. If break- earth, on everything that comes from fast be postponed, this nipping appetite will abroad, or is grown at home; taxes on the weaken, and one should always take advantage raw material ; taxes on every fresh value that of a keen stomach.--Health Eremplified. is added to it by the industry of man; taxes

Method of preventing Milk from turning on the sauce that pampers the rich man's apsour.-Put a spoonful of wild horse-radish petite, and the drug that restores him to into a dish of milk; the milk may then be health; on the ermine that decorates the preserved sweet, either in the open air or in judge and the rope that hangs the criminal ; a cellar, for several days, whilst such as has on the poor man's salt, the rich man's spice ; not been so guarded will become sour.- on the brass nails of the coffin and the ri. Quarterly Journal of Science, fc.

bands of the bride ; at bed or board, cou. Chinese Geography._ Till very lately, the chant or levant, we must pay. The school. Chinese, in their maps of the earth, set down boy whips his taxed top, the beardless youth the Celestial Empire in the middle of a large manages his taxed horse with a taxed bridle square, and dotted round it the other king- on a taxed road; the dying Englishman, doms of the world, supposed to be seventy- pouring his medicine which has paid seven two in number, assigning to the latter ridic per cent. into a spoon which has paid fifteen culous or contemptuous names. One of per cent., flings himself back on his chintz bed these, for example, was Siao-gin-que, or the which has paid cwenty-two per cent., makes kingdom of Dwarfs, whose inhabitants they his will on an eight pound stamp, and expires imagined to be so small as to be under the in the arms of an apothecary who has paid necessity of tying themselves together in a license of 1001. for the privilege of putting bunches, to prevent their being carried away him to death. His whole property is then by the kites. In 1668, the Viceroy of Can- taxed immediately, from two to ten per cent. ton, in a memorial to the Emperor, on the Besides the probate of his will, large fees are subject of the Portuguese Embassy, says, demanded for burying him in the chan“We find very plainly that Europe is only cel; his virtues are handed down to posterity two little islands in the middle of the sea." on taxed marble, and he is gathered to his With such ideas of other nations, it is not fathers--to be taxed no more. wonderful that they should consider the em- Almanacs.—The stamp duty upon alma. bassies and presents sent to them as marks nacs for 1828, amounts to the sum of 30,1061. of submission, and hasten to write down the 3s. 9d. which, at ls. 3d. each, exhibits a donors in their maps, as tributaries of the circulation of 451,5931. Chinese Empire.

Gravel Walks. The following cheap im. Ilindu Sculpture.-A writer in the Ma. provement is recommended in the construcdras Gazette, gives the following particulars tion of walks in gardens, lawns, &c. uniting of the rules adopted by Hindu sculptors :- the advantages of great hardness, durability,

In a late conversation with a Hindu sta- and freedom from worms and insects. When tuary, I was informed, that the proportions a new walk is made, or an old one reformed, of the human form, as exhibited in all Indian take the necessary quantity of road scraping sculptures, are derived from an ingenious previously dried in the air, and reduced as rule laid down in the Silpi Sustra, or Prin- fine as possible, mix with the heap enough ciples of the Fine Arts, which is an ancient of coal-tar from a gas-work, so that the Sansarit work. I have compared these pro- whole shall be sufficiently saturated, and then portions with those of some celebrated ancient add a quantity of gravel. With this lay ra. : statues, as given in the Encyc. 'Brit., and ther a thick stratum as a foundation, and then find the rule surprisingly parallel. Their cover it with a thin coating of gravel. In a proportions correspond very nearly to those short time the walk will be as hard as a rock, of the Apollo Belvedere, the Grecian Shep- not affected by wet or disfigured by worms.

Purification from Sin by Squeezing.– world receives from us that which will not Multitudes of pilgrims annually visit Mala- bear a comparison with what we have given bar Point, near Bombay, for the sole pur- them before. Yet these sufferings have their pose of squeezing themselves through a nar- rewards. To bear up against ill health by a row cleft in the rock, apparently not wide sudden and strong effort, to shake off low enough to receive the body of a child, as a spirits, and drive away the mists which lie sure way of squeezing out their sins !–Gra. thick and heavy upon the mind, gives a new ham's Journal.

state of being to the soul cheerful as the The Jaculator Fish of Java.-An ac. light. To sit at home in our easy chair and count is given, in the last number of the Edin. send our gay thoughts abroad, as it were, on burgh Journal, of these extraordinary animals, wings to thousands—to imagine them laughby a gentleman who found them in the ing over the odd fancies and drolleries which possession of a Javanese chief. The fish had made us vain and happy in secret, mulwere placed in a small circular pond, from

tiplies and spreads our sympathies quie:ly the centre of which projected a pole upwards

and bappily through the world. In this way, of two feet in height. At the top of this

too, we can pour out before the world thoughts pole were inserted small pieces of wood,

which had never been laid open even to a sharp-pointed, on each of which were placed

friend, and make it feel our melancholy, and insects of the beetle tribe. When all had

bear our griefs, while we still sit in the become tranquil after the placing of the

secret of our souls. The heart tells its story beetles by the slaves, the fish came out of abroad, yet loses not its delicacy; it lay's their holes, and swam round about the pond.

itself bare, but is still sensitive.-- American One of them came to the surface of the wa.

Common Place Book. ter, rested there, and, after steadily fixing his

Writing down a Face.-" I once," says a

late traveller in Italy, “ asked a Neapolitan eyes for some time on an insect, it discharged from its mouth a small quantity of watery

fisherman to sit for me to paint him. He

did not in the least understand the nature of fluid, with such force and precision of aim, as to force it off the twig into the water, and

my proposition ; but after some difficulties in an instant swallowed it. After this, an.

on his side, and many assurances on mine

that I would not hurt him, he consented, and other fish came, and performed a similar followed me. When I had finished, his astofeat, and was followed by the others, till

nishment at beholding his portrait was amusthey had seized all the insects. He observed, ing; and, descending with me to the street, that if a fish failed in bringing down its prey I heard him exclaim to his comrades, “that at the first shot, it swam round the pond till

Signore has written down my face.' So it came opposite the same object, and fired

high is their idea of writing, that they can again. In one instance, he remarked one of imagine no superior or more lofty name, for the animals return three times to the attack

what appears to them a similar sort of conbefore it secured its prey ; but, in general, juration." they seemed to be very expert gunners, bring- Vehicular State.-When the lamp of life ing down their prey at the first discharge. is extinguished, the immortal part, enclosed This fish, in a state of nature, frequents in an invisible integument, escapes to its the shores and sides of the sea and rivers, in aërial habitation. Here communication with search of food. When it spies a fly set- one another is conducted either by forming tling on the plants that grow in shallow characters on the exterior of the vehicles, or water, it swims on to the distance of from sending out small particles of the fluids, five or six feet from them; and then, with which surround them, or by a thousand surprising dexterity, it ejects out of its tubu- methods we have no conception of; and can lar mouth a single drop of water, which transport themselves from place to place after never fails to strike the fly into the sea, the manner of a ship. The vehicles having where it soon becomes its prey.

been in the body for a longer or shorter A Periodical Editor.-To know that our time, are stamped with the character of the hour for toil is come, and that we are weak person to whom they may have belonged. and unprepared : to feel that depression or Thus we unknowingly fit ourselves for imlassitude is weighing us down when we must mortality. To this opinion, I have a great feign lightness and mirth; or to mock our predilection on account of the numbers that secret griefs with show of others not akin, pass without any preparation, wbich proves must be the fate of him who labours in such the soul to be formed previous to the body. a work. This is not all. When our work is When a vehicle arrives, the oldest inhabitants done, and well done, the excitement which instruct the soul in its new duties.--Tucker. the employment had given us is gone, the Royal African Titles.—

The Sultan of spirits sink down, and there is a dreadful Durfoor is styled the “Buffalo;" “ the offvoid in the mind. We feel as powerless as spring of a Buffalo;" “ the Bull of Bulls;" infancy till pushed to the exertion of our “ the Elephant of superior strength!!!". powers again ; even great success has its Bulletin des Sciences Geog. terrors. We fear that we shall never do so well again ; and know how churlishly the


INVENTION OF THE MARINER'S signify a circle. But the greatest number COMPASS.

of competent inquirers have concurred in attributing this invaluable discovery to

Gioja. The invention of the Mariner's Compass is generally attributed to Flavio Gioja, an ingenious Italian mathematician.

He was born at Pasitano, near Amalfi, in the kingdom of Naples, about the year 1300. He is

POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS.* said to have first discovered the directive power of the magnet, and to have applied it to the

CHAPTER I. purposes of navigation, under the form of a compass, though in a rude and imperfect state. And to show this instrument to have been the invention of a subject of the king of From the long array of lexicographical Naples, who at that time was a junior works, placed at the foot of this page, it must branch of the royal family of France, he not be imagined, that we are about to enter marked the North point with a Fleur-de-lis. into an elaborate, and necessarily dry and As a memorial of this discovery, the terri. tedious analysis of the etymological portion of tory of Principato, in which Gioja was born, their contents; valuable as such an analysis bears a compass for its arms. Some authors, would in some respects unquestionably be. it is true, ascribe the invention to the Chinese; Etymological researches, have, indeed, been and Gilbert, in his book de Magnete, affirms

too much neglected ; and this has chiefly hapthat Marco Paolo, a Venetian, making a jour- pened, from the prevalent but erroneous idea ney to China, brought back the invention with of the uncertainty which must ever attend him, in 1260. What strengthens this conjec- them. To the authors of the works of this ture is, that at first they used the compass in description before us, we are indebted for the same manner as the Chinese still do, viz. many important facts, adapted for supplying letting it float on a small piece of cork, instead of suspending it on a pivot. It is # 1.-The Perennial Calendar and Companion added, that their Emperor Chiningus, a cele

to the Almanac, illustrating the events of every day

in the year, as connected with History, Chronology, brated astrologer, had a knowledge of it 1120 Botany, Natural History, Astronomy, Popular years before Christ. But Ludi Vertomanus Customs and Antiquities, with useful rules of affirms, that when he was in the East Indies, Health; Observations on the Weather ; Expla

mations of the Fasts and Festivals of the Church, about the year 1500, he saw a pilot of a ship and other miscellaneous useful Information, condirect his course by a compass, fastened and piled from Scientific Authorities, as well as from the framed as those now commonly used. And Manuscripts of several distinguished persons, and Barlow, in his book called the Navigator's A. s., M.M. R , &c. of Corpus Christi College, CamSupply, anno 1597, says, that in a personal bridge. conference with two East Indians, they at- 2-Ancient Mysteries described, especially the Enfirmed, that instead of our compass, they use

glish Miracle Plays, founded on Apocryphal New Tes.

tainent Story, extant among the unpublished manu. a magnetical needle of six inches, and longer, scripts in the British Museum; including Notices upon a pin in a dish of white earth filled of Ecclesiastical Shows; the Festivals of Fools and with water ; in the bottom of which they have Asses; the English Boy Bishop; the Descent into two cross lines for the four principal winds, Giants: Christmas Carols, &c. By William Houe. the rest of the divisions being left to the skill 3.-Supplement to the Etymological Dictionary of their pilots. Also in the same book, he says

of the Scoiuish Language, illustrating the words, in

their different significations, by examples from Anthat the Portuguese, in their first discovery of cient and Modern Writers: showing their attivity the East Indies, got a pilot of Mahinde, who to those of other Languages, and especially the brought them from thence in thirty-three Northeru;, explaining many terms, which though days, within sight of Calicut. But Fan.

now obsolete in England, were formerly common to

both countries; and elucidating National Rites, chette relates some verses of Guyot de Pro. Customs, and Institutions, in their analogy to those vence, who lived in France, about the year of other nations. By John Jamieson, D. D. Fellow 1200, which seems to make mention of the

of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, &c. &c

4.-A Glossary of North Country Words in use; compass under the name of marinette, or from an origin./ manuscript. in the library of Jolin mariner's stone; which shows it was used in George Lambton, Esq. M. P. with cousideiable adFrance near one hundred years before either ditions. By John Troiter Brockett, F. S. A London

and Newcastle the Malphite or Venetian one. The French

5.- Horæ Momenta Cravence, or the Craven Dia. even lay claim to the invention, from the lect, exemplified in two Dialogues between Farmer Fleur-de-lis with which most people dis

Giles and bis neighbour Bridget; to which is an.

nexed a copious Glossary By a native of Craven. tinguish the north point of the card. With

6.-Observations on some of the Dialects of the as much reason Dr. Wallis ascribes it to the West of England, particularly Somersetshire, with English, from its name compass, by which a Glossary of words now in use there: and Poeros name most nations call it, and which, he

and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By

James Jeuning, Honorary Secretary of the Metroobserves, is used in many parts of England to politan Literary Institution, London. VOL. I.

2 I

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