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him purchase their necessaries at his shop, he was not to be prerailed upon, then sent in which one of his relations serves. By him another humble deputation, saying that this means, he has a consiant supply of ready they felt themselves perfectly incompetent to money to pay his workmen, and the people the office of electing a governor, if he would about him; and bis profits are about cent. not accept the offer; and they begged that per cent.

He kills one or two bullocks every he would name one for them. This was day, and all the superabundant meat is sold precisely what he had been aiming at; and in the shop. On one occasion, a poor man he accordingly appointed to the office one of who had been to the shop passed by, with a his ignorant gaucho neighbours-a man who very discontented air, the front of the house could neither read nor write. When some where Quiroga was sitting. The latter of bis confidants inquired of him the reason called bim, and asked what was the inatter; for so extraordinary an appointment, he rehe replied that the Capataz (bailiff) had re- plied with much sang froid—“A governor fused to sell him a medio's-worth (2 d.) of is a kind of animal, who will never cease to beef. “ Where is your money?" replied rob as long as he has an opportunity ; no Quiroga ; and the man gave it him. He was threat of punishment will deter him from it, then ordered to throw his lazo over the horns or keep him lionest. Now my friend, Silof a fine fat ox in the coral, worth seventeen vestre Garban, would be as great a rogue in dollars; he did so, and brought the animal the office of governor as any other, but that, to Quiroga, who said—“Take him home, fortunately, he has been brought up entirely and kill him, that you may eat beef.” . The in the Llanos ; so that he does not know poor man in astonishment replied—“ But, bow to steal any thing but catile. Now, as my patron, how shall I ever be able to pay there are no cattle to steal in the town of for it?"_“ Why," replied his patron, “ La Rioja, the presumption is that he will be have got your merlio, and you have got my an honest man, from want of temptation." ox; if you are satisfied, I am; if not, I will" And, as Quiroga had predicted, Silvestre return the money.” The man went away, Garban proved a very excellent King Log and spread the story of Quiroga's generosity sort of a governor; making his mark occafar and near, who was more than repaid sionally, when a public document required for his outlay in the popularity it procured it-like the lion's paw dipped in ink, recorded bi1.

in the Turkish tale. Such apparently generous acts as these, Some time after this, Colonel Araoz de la occasionally performed, enable Quiroga to Madril, a gallant officer in the service of rule, as an absolute and merciless tyrant, Buenos Ayres, was sent to recruit for the with impunity. No one dares to steal any Brazilian war in his native province (Tucuof his herds, which wander unmolested man), which bordered on that of La Rioja. through the plains; but if, by chance, such Having delivered to the governor (Lopez) a a thing occurs, the offender is instantly large sum in dollars for bounty-money, the brought to his house, and shot without mercy, latter misapplied it; and La Madrid, in refreqnently upon the bare allegation of a venge, fomented a revolution amongst the spiteful neighbour. But, as a compensation indignant soldiery; and, after a pitched batfor this, the country people are allowed to tle with Lopez-who, being defeated and seplunder any of the other estate-holders verely wounded, took refuge in Salta-he (estancierne) whenever they can, with im- was elected governor in his room. The conpunity. Quiroga is also a perfect adept in gress would gladly have punished La Madrid gambling, and constantly contrives to have for this act; but, as it was a time of public some of the militia officers in his house to difficulty, and he was moreover a zealous enable him to follow this pursuit, which he advocate for Buenos Ayres, his offence was also turns to profit, and wins the whole of overlooked, and his new dignity confirmed. their money.

A very short time elapsed before a quarrel On the deposition of Agueros, the Cabildo took place between La Madrid and Quiroga; met for the purpose of electing a new go- and, with all the bravery and confidence of a vernor. Their choice, as might have been veteran warrior, the former entered the terexpected, devolved upon Quiroga; but he ritories of his enemy at the head of two again declined the honour, as an office he hundred men, and approached the Llanos, or was inadequate to discharge with credit to plains of La Rioja, without any opposition, himself, or benefit to the community. They when he was suddenly met by Quiroga, at sent a deputation to him a second time, but the head of four hundred of his well-armed he still refused ; and a third deputation was gauchos. The conflict was long and bloody, sent in vain. Like Cæsar on the Lupercal— and, notwithstanding the disparity of num" They thrice presented him a kingly crown,

bers, La Madrid made frequent charges with such success that victory had well nigh de

clared for him ; when a chance carbine-shot In fact, Quiroga was not disposed to give up struck him in the sword-arm, and thus renthe actual power he possessed for any such dered defenceless, he was instantly sabred by pappel-libo office. The Cabildo, finding that several of his surrounding opponents; on

Which he did thrice refuse"

which his followers, struck with a sudden many and such various enemies. When the. panic at seeing their hitherto invincible chief water is leaving the pools in which they comfallen, turned their bridles and fled. Upwards monly reside, the yarrows, (a species of of sixty of Quiroga's men perished in the Esox, Linn.) as well as the second species battle, and darkness put an end to the pur- of hassar, to which I shall presently resuit. Quiroga bivouacked for the night round fer, bury themselves in the mud, while a large fire, surrounded by his people on the all the other fishes perish for want of their open plain ; and, in the morning, news was natural element, or are picked up by ra. brought him that La Madrid, though dread- pacious birds, &c. The fiat-head hassars, fully mangled, still breathed. Several of the on the contrary, simultaneously quit the gauchos started from their recumbent pos- place, and march over land* in search of tures, and their half-unsheathed sabres an

water, travelling for a whole night, as is nounced their savage resolves.—“ Stay!' asserted by the Indians, in search of their ob. cried Quiroga ; " by the Virgin of the Holy ject. I have ascertained by trial that they Rosary, I will cleave to the girdle the first will live many hours out of water, even when man who moves. La Madrid is a gallant exposed to the sun's rays. Their motion is foeman; and, by Heaven, I am prouder of described to be somewhat like that of the having conquered him than if I had been two-footed lizard. They project themselves elected president of the congress. Let none forward on their bony arms by the elastic harm him, and let him be treated with every spring of the tail exerted sideways. Their mark of respect. Call all the surgeons of progress is nearly as fast as a man will the province to his assistance, and, if they leisurely walk. The strong scuta, or bands, save his life, I will not forget their reward."

which envelop their body, must greatly faThus did this barbarous chief exhibit a cilitate their march, in the manner of the trait of magnanimity which could not have plates under the belly of serpents

, which are been exceeded in civilized life, and that to

raised and depressed by a voluntary power, wards the foe he liad most reason to dread, in some measure performing the office of at a time when, to hold up his finger would feet. It is said that the other species, the bave sealed his fate, without any odium round-heads, has not been known to attempt attaching to Quiroga himself. As soon as La such excursions, although it is capable of Madrid could be removed, Quiroga caused living a long time out of its element; but as him to be carried to his own house, and I before observed, it buries itself in the mud, carefully attended for several months; when, in the manner of the yarrow's, when the water being in a state of convalescence, he gave is drying up. him his passport and an escort, with which

The Indians say, that these fishes carry he reached in safety the province of Salta.

water with them for a supply on their jour. Since that period, Quiroga has remained in a state of quietude; and it is probable that his ney.

There appears to be some truth in this authority will endure to the end of bis life, bodies of the hassars do not get dry like

statement; for I have observed that the as he will most likely conciliate the congress; those of other fishes when taken out of the rather than set them openly at defiance; and surrounded as he is by men of great physical they are wiped dry with a cloth, they have

water; and if the moisture be absorbed, or powers, and equally great mental ignorance, such a power of secretion, that they become who possess rude feelings of attachment to him from having been long accustomed to instantly moist again. Indeed, it is scarcely regard him as their protector, it would be no possible to dry the surface while the fish is easy matter to extinguish his authority with

living. the strong arm of power alone.

It is asserted by naturalists, that no fishes are known to take any care of their offspring ; both the before-mentioned species of hassar,

however, make a regular nest, in which they DORAS COSTATA.

lay their eggs in a flattened cluster, and

cover them over most carefully. Their care (From the Zoological Journal.—No. XIV.) does not end bere ; they remain by the side

of the nest till the spawn is hatched, with as

much solicitude as a hen guards her eggs; The doras costata (a species of mailed fish), both the male and female hassar, for they are which frequents only the fresh water of pools, monogamous, steadily watching the spawn, lakes, and rivers, and lives by suction, and and courageously attacking any assailant. on aquatic insects, is one of those fishes which Hence the negroes frequently take them by possess the singular property of deserting the putting their hands into the water close to the water, and travelling over land. In those

* In an excursion made by Mr. Campbell, of terrestrial excursions large droves of the Essequibo, with his family, to the sand recis, a spot species are frequently met with during very situaied about six miles aback of the sea coast, they dry seasons, for it is only at such periods fell in with a drove of these animals, which were on that they are compelled to this dangerous They were so numerous that the neurocs filled march, which exposes them as a prey to so several baskets with those they picked up. VOL. I.

2 G

nest, on agitating which the male hassar and silently dropped off, and was as carefully springs furiously at them, and is thus cap- put by until the returning fine weather entured. The round-head forms its nest of abled the luckless proprietor to replace them grass, the flatpead of leaves; both at certain for a brief and nearly a Lapland summer. seasons burrow in the bank ;* they lay 8o insinuating is the nature of this humidity, their eggs only in wet weather. I have been that the boots or shoes, which on the presurprised to observe the sudden appearance ceding night you have deposited by your bed. of numerous nests in a morning after rain side when retiring to rest, are the next occurs, the spot being indicated by a bunch morning furred with mould. A few such of froth, which appears on the surface of the days and nights in England would suffice to water, over the nest; below this are the eggs, throw half the nation into a consumption ; placed on a bunch of fallen leaves, or grass, yet, strange as it may appear, no bad effects if it be the littoral species, which they cut and are experienced from a continuance for many collect together. By what means this is months of this damp atmosphere at Tavoy. eftected seems rather mysterious, as the species The crows were another fertile source of are destitute of cutting teeth.

annoyance, amounting, in fact, to a positive nuisance. Buried in a jungle of lofty trees as Tavoy is, every part of it was a complete

rookery, and the depredations committed in SKETCHES OF TAVOY.

the poultry yard by these daring birds were

very extensive. If a chicken ventured even (From the Asiatic Journal.- No. CLVI.)

at a short distance from the protecting wing of the parent, it instantly paid the penalty

incurred by its imprudence, and no exertion of TAE common lot of humanity was our's, for vigilance on the part of the hen could sucwe were not without our grievances at Tavoy; cessfully combat the combined and harassing and, although in recital they may appear in- attacks made upon her infant brood by this significant, the constancy of their recurrence thievish throng. Any one, who has not been rendered them nevertheless matters of such similarly circumstanced, would be astonished serious annoyance as to detract materially at the imperturbable audacity of these fea. from the few comforts we possessed. One of thered plunderers, who hop into the house, these evils was to be found in the penetrating sans cérémonie, and watch their opportunity for nature of the damps of the monsoon, which, stealing any thing which attracts their cupi. gaining a free access through our airy man. dity. If your eye be averted but for an in. sions, effectually spoiled every thing contained stant from the breakfast table, even although beneath our humble and almost primitive you be seated thereat, they make a rapid dart roofs. So relaxed did the glue become by at the viands, and generally with too much the humidity of the atmosphere, that every success: the butter vanishes in a twinkling article of furniture dropped to pieces; and beneath the attack of one of these harpies many a bachelor, whose clamped and strong the eggs, borne through mid-air by others camp-furniture effectually defied these de. who have secured them by forcibly driving vastating effects of the climate, and conse. their beaks into them, share the same fate, quently enabled him to lounge securely at whilst the cawing and filth of the disaphome, has made a ludicrous appearance when pointed remainder, perched in every part of he has incautiously thrown himself back in the room, give the concluding touches to this the more light and elegant furniture of his picture of " lurury in the East." married companions. Their backs almost The large black ant, which measures fully invariably gave way, and the lover of ease had half an inch long, swarms abundantly in generally to compound for his inclinations by every old house, and, indeed, no dwelling is à sudden and awkward prostration on the entirely free froin them. These insects are floor. Woe unto such as in the pride of incessantly running over your person, and, if their hearts had brought over beaded or ve- disturbed by even an unconscious movement, neered furniture ! Every ornament gradually sting most severely. The pain is fully equal

to that inflicted by a wasp, and the venom of The flesh of this hassar is yellow, firin, and

it is considerable. A sting in the wrist fresavoury, especially esteemed by the Creoles in their quently causes the whole extent of the arın soups, which they prepare with the addition of to swell, and in many cases the inflammation several vegetable articles, such as the okra, calabac, does not entirely subside until three or four ed into a sort of plain pudding. The whole'is sea. days afterwards. In a house where they are soned with pepper, salt, and lime juice, and forms in reality one of the best dishes of the country, alıbough tenant is so fortunate as to escape receiving

numerous, scarcely a day elapses in which the many Europeans, out of a most ignoble pride and affectation, pretend to dislike it, for no other reason, personal annoyance more than once before however, than its being a common dish amongst the nightfall from these large ants, whilst his slaves, and lower ordeis.

There are Creoles also who affect the same dislike trunks, &c. are blackened in the interior by or disgust to the fou-fow and okra soup, and yet myriads of the puny pismires of the same swallow it enormously in private.

species that is to be found in England.


About six or seven weeks previous to the last burrow iuto the hen-houses, and are ansetting-in of the rainy season, the candles are other formidable enemy to the poultry. The no sooner introduced than the flying ants, snakes are frequently to be met with on the green bugs, and a numerous host of other roads in the evening ; but, although several insects, pour into the apartment, and settle in species are highly venomous, I never heard every direction. As the wings of the first- of any accident resulting from an unexpected mentioned insects are merely ephemeral, they rencontre with them. They occasionally inare shed abundantly upon your table and wroduce themselves into the houses by wreathperson, to the total destruction of all comfort. ing themselves round the posts on which the During our occupation of Rangoon I chanced buildings are perched, and ascending in a to form one of a party that was invited to an spiral direction. These visits can, in a great evening entertainment given by some officers measure, be guarded against by the simple stationed on the banks of a lake. Even at expedient of strewing coarse gravel, or any the time I speak of, a really good dinner was rough material, around the house; the pain far from being an every-day occurrence, and incurred by crawling over this substance will we consequently saw it placed on the table generally deter the reptile from making any with no small degree of satisfaction. This, attempt to cross it. Of this numerous class however, was speedily exchanged for an equal there is one species which is reckoned harmportion of chagrin. Whilst we were in the less by the natives, and if the assertion be aet of sitting down to table these detestable founded in truth, it is fortunate that it is so, insects came flying in at every possible ave. for these snakes, in addition to growing to a nue. In an instant, soups, gravies, and formidable size, manifest an extreme par. sauces were converted into solid masses, and tiality to human habitations, for there they every dish completely strewn with countless principally find rats, lizards, &c., which are hosts of wings and bodies. After a few in. their food. I was seated one day quietly diseffectual efforts to banish these intruders we cussing a fowl, for at Tavoy, with a slight were compelled to separate, leaving the repast variation of the phrase, it was “toujours per, untouched. Some idea may be formed of drix,” when I was suddenly aroused by the this multitudinous invasion, when I state, noise made by a large rat springing from the that we found it an utter impossibility to rafters into the middle of the floor. The pour out and drink even a glass of wine : example was instantaneously followed by before it reached our lips at least half a dozen four or five of its progeny, and I raised my insects were floating on the surface.

eyes to ascertain the cause of this hasty and This partiality of the flying ants to lights unusual decampment. The mystery was is not unnoticed by the Burmese, who take solved in a minute. With the head hanging advantage of it, and secure vast numbers of down, and preparing for a dart upon such of them. During that breathless stillness of the young fry as were still struggling on the evening, which is so peculiarly characteristic floor, a large snake was coiled upon the of the period immediately preceding the rafter. I threw the first thing that came to monsoon, it is delightfully soothing and hand at him, and snatched up a bamboo, but sublime to stroll beneath the moonlight, the snake escaped. tinged trees and listen to the fine contrast At a certain season of the year the Burbetween the deep, croaking bass of the bull. mese are busily employed in the manufacture frogs, which harbour amidst the swamps of of their favourite zest, na-pui, a species of the fort, and the shrill, plaintive cry by which balachong, the principal ingredient of which the natives endeavour to attract the wandering is putrid fish, and the offensive odour arising insects to their lures. These merely consist in consequence from every house may more of lights placed near basins of water; dazzled easily be imagined than described. by the light to which they appear irresistibly To atone, as it were, in some measure, attracted, the ants fall in shoals into the for these serious drawbacks to comfort, water, and the delighted Burmah conveys amongst which the scarcity of provisions, al. them into his dwelling for the purpose of ready adverted to, may be fairly included, converting them, sans wings, into curry. A Tavoy yields a vast variety of exotic fruits. brother officer of mine had the curiosity to To enumerate the whole of them would be a partake of this dish, which he did with an in- task of time and some difficulty ; but amongst finite goût, declaring that it was the most de- the more conspicuous may be named the licious curry that he had ever tasted. For pine-apple, the hard and the soft jack-fruit, my own part, I confess that neither his ena the doriante, the rambootan, and the mango. comiums, nor the novelty of the dish, could The first of these fruits spreads so luxu. subdue the repugnance that I entertained to riantly that it is repeatedly partially extirthe principal ingredients.

pated to prevent its overrunning the ground; With noxious reptiles, such as snakes and and the fruit, which is such a scarce luxury centipedes (the latter extremely large), Tavoy in England, can here be purchased at the is well stored, and the overgrown and dis- rate of nearly a hundred for a rupee. The gusting species of rat, termed the bandicoot, wood of the hard jack-tree makes handsome is likewise to be found in abundance. These furniture, being of a bright yellow, subsid.

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ing, by exposure to the atmosphere, into a and crafty countenance of the Chinese in light mahogany colour: the fruit of it is juxta-position with the Malayan features of more esteemed than that of the soft species ; the Burman ; and here men bowing beneath but both kinds fetch high price, varying, the load of life and its innumerable and com. according to the size, from a quarter of a ru- plicated infirmities, and urchins who had pee to a whole one, for each fruit. The Bure barely numbered half a dozen seasons, pressed mese are exceedingly solicitous regarding the forward with equal avidity to the tables, and preservation of this tree, especially within the appeared alike intent upon the revolutions of walls of the fort ; owing, it is said, to a tra- the game. It might be cor:jectured that these dition current amongst them that, during a walls were so tainted as to defy farther pol. season of famine induced by a blockade, the lution, but such a supposition would be erpopulation was - saved from the horrors of roneously charitable, for another part of the starvation by means of the abundance of this building is devoted to still viler purposes ; fruit within the town.

for it is appropriated to the wretched victims The dorianne is considered by many peo. of sensuality, who, mingling themselves ple to be a delicious fruit ; but I could never amidst the throng of already excited gameprevail upon myself to taste it a second time. sters, throw an additional and irresistible Its smell, when cut in two, is so powerfully temptation in the way of their overheated pas. offensive, that this part of the operation is sions ! generally performed in the open air, where What native of an eastern clime, whose the fruit is suffered to remain for two or three morality is constitutionally and proverbially hours previous to its being produced on the relax, and whose religion is too imperfect to table; and even then it is far from being en- act as a salutary restraint upon the passions, tirely divested of its odoriferous qualities : the can hope to escape the contaminating influflavour of it strongly resembles that of a very ence of such a place as this? The first step tough custard deeply impregnated with gar- once taken, the gradations of vice become imlic. Of the well-known fruits, the ram bootan perceptible, and it may safely be averred that, and mango, no particular notice is requisite ; if we wished to effect the ruin of the character but it is a singular fact connected with the of a people whom the chances of war have history of the mangusteen (that prince of brought under our domination, we could oriental fruits) that, although in clear wea. have devised no happier plan. But this ther Mergui can be seen from Tavoy island, gambling monopoly may be viewed in anwhich lies a little beyond the mouth of the other equally destructive light, namely, as river, this fruit, which thrives in perfection at being productive of an effect exactly the rethe former place, cannot be introduced at Ta- verse of what was originally expected from voy, nor indeed at any part of the Tenasse- the measure. Considering the subject in rim coast which lies above Mergui, that a superficial manner, it appears both politic island being situated in the highest latitude and reasonable that, where the love of gamin which the mangusteen will flourish. bling is too inherent in the people's nature to

It is well known that the passion for gam- admit of its total extirpation, the government bling rises to a most extravagant pitch should turn it into a source of revenue, and among the eastern nations. This phrenzy, accordingly this gambling-house was taxed as it may be termed, at Tavoy, the British at the rate of (I speak from memory) 1000 government has converted into a source of rupees per morith ; and a British sipahee conrevenue, by licensing a gambling house under stantly mounted over the building. a monopoly so strict, that not only is the Although this is undoubtedly a large sum erection of a similar edifice prohibited, but for the proprietor to pay, it dots not operate gaming in private houses is forbidden. The

as a check upon gambling; whilst, taking it etfects of an institution of this nature upon in a pecuniary light, it makes but an inconsi. the morals of a people may easily be con- derable item in the amount of revenue at the ceived. The more respectable class of the expiration of the twelvemonth. On the other inhabitants, who would otherwise gamble for hand, the paralization of industrious babits, small sums in their own domestic circle, are occasioned by the loose and idle manners thus forced into collision with the most repro- arising from this fountain of impurity, debate and dissolute of their fellow-creatures ; tracts silently but incalculably from the wealth and the constant recurrence of obscenity and which would flow into the government trea. profanity, in their presence, completes most sury from other sources. effectually that demoralization, the foundation of which was previously laid in the pernicious habits of gaming. It is a curious but painful employment to

On seeing a Lady, in Thin Shoes, walking visit this den of infamy. In that portion of

over a Macadamized crossing on a Wet the building which is set apart for gambling,

Day. may be seen various groups lolling over the That wet feet are injurious, physicians declare,

And too many bave cause to believe. tables, and staking different sums upon the

So gentlemen all, of the ladies take care, game. Here might be seen the sharp eye Or Mac Adam will leave you no Eve.

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