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III.

BOOK are suffered to live, and not to retain many of their old

- words among them, and so make the language mixed

of both, as it is in all nations conquered by the Romans; the Roman not being purely spoken by any, but corrupted with a mixture of the former language in use among them. The second argument is from the different pronunciation and dialects in use in the Greek language; of which no account so likely can be given, as the mixture with different languages. This is most evident in the Doric dialect ; for the Dorians inhabiting probably where most of the Pelasgi had been, their pronunciation and dialect comes the nearest to the eastern of any of the Greeks; for in the Doric dialect the Iliatelaopòs, or broad pronunciation, is most taken notice of. So he in Theocritus upbraids the Dorians, ότι πλατειάσδoυσιν άπαντα, they speak every thing very broad; which answers to the pronunciation of the eastern languages: besides, the Doric dialect delights much in adding a to the end of words, which besides that it is the custom of eastern tongues, especially the Syriac, it doth much widen the pronunciation. The third argument is from the remainders of the eastern tongues in those places, especially where the Pelasgi had been. The Pelasgi are much taken notice of for their frequent removes, and travelling from one place to another; which I suppose was chiefly after the Hellens had conquered the country

where they dwelt, then they were forced to go seek Strabo, better habitations abroad : thence Strabo calls the na1. xiii. p. 247. tion of the Pelasgi nonúr havov kai taxù tò člvos após én ava1d. 1. xii. στάσεις : and elsewhere, that they were πολλαχού της Εύp. 394.

ρώπης το παλαιον πλανώμενοι, they went up and down to a great part of Europe : but we may suppose them to have made their first and chief resort to the neighbour islands to Greece; where we shall see what evidence

153

Hom. Odyss. 1'. 175

they left of their language there. The first island we CHAP.

IV. meet with them in, is Crete; so Strabo speaking of_" them, Kairyàp tñs Kpýrns čolkov yeyóvaoiv, ás proir "Oum- Strabo, 1. v. pos, that a colony of them lived in Crete, for which he voucheth Homer's authority:

*Anand carwr ya@ora lejesyuévno v peều ’Axanol, . 'Ev 8 'Eteóxpntes psyarýtopes, év dè Kúowves,

Δωριέες τε τριχάϊκες, διοί τε Πελασγοί. It is evident then that the Pelasgi were in Crete. Now most of the Cretan words are of an eastern extraction, if we believe the learned Bochartus, who hath pro- Bochart. de

| Phen. Col. mised a discourse on that subject : besides Crete, wel. i. C. 15. find the Pelasgi in Chios, kai Xion oikuotas éautāv TIEhaoyous faoi tous êk Oettarías, saith Strabo; the inhabitants of Chios say that the Pelasgi of Thessaly were their first inhabitants; and here the forenamed learned person hath derived the name Chios, the mountain Pelinæus, and the wine Arvisium, all from the eastern languages. The next we find them in, is Lesbos, kai yup Thy Aeoßòr Henaoylav eipukaon, which from them was called Pelasgia, saith Strabo, whose name is likewise Strabo, 1.v. fetched out of the east. By Bochartus further we finds them in Lemnos and Imbros. So Anticlides in Strabo, πρώτους φησί Πελασγούς τα περί Λέμνον και "Ίμβρον κτίσαι ; concerning whose names, see Bochartus, 82. I know Bochart.

Geogr. p. ii. that learned author makes the Phænicians the authors 1.1.C.12." of all these names, from no other ground generally, but because they are of an eastern derivation ; but according to what we have laid down we may yield to the thing itself, and upon clearer grounds; for of some of these islands he ingenuously confesseth he can find no evidence of the Phoenicians being in them. Phoe-Id. 1. i. c.9. nices in his insulis habitasse nusquam legimus: but we find it very plain, that in those very islands the Pelasgi inhabited; and whether account then be more

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Wess.

BOOK probable, let the reader judge. One thing more I shall

insist on, which is the original of the Samothracian mysteries. That these were, as to their names, from the eastern languages, is now acknowledged by all learned men; the Cabiri being so evidently derived

from 7920, which signifies strength and power, i.e. the Tertull. de Dii potes, so Cabiri is explained by Varro and TertulSpect. c. 8.

lian, and the particular names of the several Cabiri mentioned by the Scholiast on Apollonius, ’Agrepòs,

Agiókepoa, 'AgióKepoos, and Kádudas, are very handsomely Bochart. explained by that learned and excellent Bochartus, from Geogr. p.ii.in 1.1.6. 12. the eastern languages: only he will needs have them Herod. 1. ii. derived from the Phænicians; whereas Herodotus exc. 51. ed.

pressly tells us, that they were from the Pelasgi, whose words are these: 63Ti; đề Kate pan Jerta ut uốn ai, Σαμοθρήίκες επιτελέoυσι παραλαβόντες παρά Πελασγών. And again, την γαρ Σαμοθρηίκην οικεον πρότερον Πελασγοί ούτοι, τοί περ Αθηναίοισι σύνοικοι εγένοντο, και παρά τούτων Σαμοθρήίκες õpyla napadaußávovor. We see evidently by this, that the Samothracians derived their mysteries from the Pelasgi ; and without all question they had their names from thence, whence they derived their mysteries. And to this purpose it is further observable, that, as the old

Hetrurians were certainly a colony of the Pelasgi, upon Vossius de their removal out of Greece, so Vossius observes, that Idol. 1. ii. c. 57.

the old Hetruscan language (fere a Syris habet cuncta sacrorum nomina) hath almost all the sacred appella

tions from the eastern tongues. For which purpose Grot. An- it is further observable, which Grotius takes notice of,

* that the jus pontificum Romanorum was taken a great part from the Hetrusci, and the Hetrurians had it ab Hebræis out of the eastern parts.

By all which I cannot conceive but this opinion, notwithstanding its novelty, is advanced to as high a degree of probability as any that stands on the like

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IV.

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Idol. 1. i.

c. 13.

foundations; and not only so, but it is an excellent clue Chap. to direct us to the labyrinth of antiquities, and gives us a fair account whence the eastern tongues came to be so much used among both the ancient Greeks and Hetrurians. One thing more this will help us to understand far better than any salvo hath been yet used for it; which is the affinity spoken of by Arius, king of Lacedæmon, in his letters to Onias, between the Jews and Lacedaemonians : Ευρέθη εν γραφή περί τε των Ι Μaccab. Σπαρτιατών και Ιουδαίων, ότι εισίν αδελφοί, και ότι είσιν εκ xii. 21. yévous Aßpaép. which is explained by Josephus thus : Joseph. AnΈντυχόντες γραφή τινι, εύρομεν ως εξ ενός είεν γένους Ιουδαίοι kai Aakedasjóvios, ék tñs após 'Appápov oikeuótntus. They Oxon. had found in a book that the Jews and Lacedæmonians were of the same stock, from their mutual relation to Abraham. Vossius thinks the original of this Voss. de was from those of the posterity of Anak, who came do into Greece, and peopled Sparta, and would seem to have been of the posterity of Abraham; or that they were partly of the posterity of Abraham by Agar or Ceturah, and partly of the Canaanites, driven out by Joshua. But how unlikely a thing is it (supposing Sparta peopled by the Canaanites, which yet is not evident) that they should give out themselves to be of that stock which they had been expelled their country by? And for the true posterity of Abraham coming thither, as we have no ground for it but the bare assertion, so we have this strong evidence against it, that all that came from Abraham were circumcised, as the Ishmaelites, Hagarens, &c. which we never read of among the Lacedæmonians. Hugo Grotius differs not much from the opinion of Vossius concerning the ground of this kindred between the Jews and Spartans; for in his notes on that place in the Maccabees, where it is spoken of, he gives this account of it. The

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III.

BOOK Dorians, of whom the Spartans were a part, came from

the Pelasgi; the language of the Pelasgi was different from that of the Greeks, as appears by Herodotus in his Clio: 'Hoav llenaryoà Báo Bapor ya@TTAV LEVtes. Now the Pelasgi (saith he) are nba dispersi, a scattered nation; thence he supposeth these Pelasgi, or banished people, to have come from the confines of Arabia and Syria, in which the posterity of Abraham and Ceturah had placed themselves. But, 1. It is uncertain whether the posterity of Abraham, by Ceturah, were placed so near Canaan or no. I know Junius endeavours to find the seat of all the sons of Ceturah in Arabia; but Mercer gives several not improbable reasons why he conceives them placed not in the east of Canaan, but in the eastern parts of the world. 2. We have no evidence at all of any remove of these sons of Abraham by Ceturah out of the parts of Arabia, supposing them placed there, nor any reason why they should be banished thence. 3. That which was the badge of Abraham's posterity, was never, that we read of, in use among the Spartans ; which was circumcision. Indeed, in much later ages than this we speak of, we read of a people among the Thracians who were circumcised, whom the Greeks themselves judged to be

Jews. So Aristophanes brings the Odomantes in: Aristoph. Acharnen. Tís tüv 'OcqucVTWD més ÁTOTéOpaxev öv• SC. 4. &totélpakev, (saith the scholiast,) i. e. ävétede, emeaivauto

δε και απετάλλοντο οι Θράκες τα αιδοία και αποσεσυρμένα είχαν avrá, Whereby it is plain that circumcision was in use among the Thracians; for these Odomantes were (saith the scholiast) a people of Thrace: paoi avtous Plovdalous eival. It seems it was a tradition among them, that they were Jews. If so, it seems most probable that they were some of the ten tribes, who were placed about Colchis, and the adjacent places : for Herodotus

act. i.

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