Page images
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors]

1. üi. c

BOOK was found, as the learned Bochartus hath demonstrated

from several authors. This is now the substance of Bochart. Phaleg. me

the generally received account concerning the plantaC. 10. tion of Greece from the posterity of Noah; which if

it be taken as to that people which did at length possess Greece, I see no reason to disapprove it; but, if it be extended to the first plantation of Greece, I see as little to embrace it. That we may therefore judge more freely of the first inhabitants of Greece, it is requisite we take an account of it from those who profess themselves most versed in their own antiquities, who may in a matter of this nature, which is attested by the common consent of the most learned antiquaries of Greece, be the more credited, in that what they thus deliver may be supposed to come from an ancient

and undoubted tradition. XI. It is evident therefore, from the judgment of the

most learned and judicious even of the Greeks themselves, that Greece was first inhabited by a people by them called barbarous, i. e. a people different from them in language and manners. So Ephorus, whom Polybius commends as the best writer of the Greek antiquities, saith that Greece was inhabited by a barbarous people before the Hellens came into it. And Hecatæus Milesius, cited by Strabo concerning Pelo

ponnesus, 8T, Toà Tặp EAA09 mong ay aiTu Báo Baoot, Strabo, which Strabo himself not only believes of Peloponne

**** sus, but of all Greece, that it was KATOLKía Bap Bápæv tò V. Schol. náralov, anciently a plantation of barbarians. The

"same is affirmed by Aristotle, writing of the commonwealth of the Tegeates concerning Arcadia, that before its being possessed by the Arcadians it was inhabited by a barbarous people, who, because they were expulsed their country before moon-rising, the Arcadians called themselves topogénuon. Whether that be the

1. vi

in Apollon. iv. 262.

ground of that vain-glorious boast, (of which many CHAP.

IV. reasons are given by learned men,) I here dispute not; it is sufficient that we find the Grecians were not the first who peopled any of these several places; which is likewise attested by Herodotus, Thucydides, and others, whose testimonies we shall afterwards produce. It being then evident that the Grecians were not the first who inhabited that country after from them called Greece, it follows to be inquired what this barbarous people was, and from whence they came. Strabo hath given us in a large catalogue of the names of many of them; as the Dryopes, Caucones, Leleges, besides the Aones, Tembices, Hyantes, and many others; but these seem not to have been that ancient people, but rather some latter castlings of the Carians, who, as Thucydides tells us, did very often make inroads upon the quarters of Greece. That people which had the largest spread, and greatest antiquity, was the Pelasgi : thence Peloponnesus was anciently called Ilenaoría; Stephanus Byzantius Menottovýoou tpers énwuuuías, Azia, Ilegacyía, and "Apyos; and Apollodorus saith, that the Peloponnesians were anciently called Pelasgi; and Euripides,

Πελασγιώτας ωνομασμένους το πρίν

Aavaoús. And elsewhere,

Πρώτον Πελασγοι, Δαναΐδαι το δεύτερον. These Pelasgi were not only in Peloponnesus, but in Attica too, as appears by Strabo, where he saith the nation of the Pelasgi did inhabit; and by the Athenians (that is after their mixture) they were called melapgoi, Storks, dià Thu Thávny, for their frequent removals Strabo, l.

m ix. p. 273. from place to place: and Pausanias mentions their be-ed. Caing under the Acronoli at Athens : that they were in saub. Thessaly, is evident from Hesychius. Ilenaoyol, oi Ocoσαλοί και ένιοι των βαρβάρων, και γένος από Πελασγού του

JIJ.

ап

427.

BOOK Apkádos yevóuevov Tolutnávy Tov. Arcadia seems to have

been the first or chief place of their residence ; for the Arcadians, who were accounted παλαιότατα έθνη των ελλήvwv, do vindicate the founder of this nation, whom they call Pelasgus, to themselves, and say he was an artóxiw among them, that is, the first who came into that

country; for all those, whose original they knew not, Pausan. in they called Terræ Filios, and Genuinos Terra. PauArcad.

sanias rightly conjectures that he was the first man among them, not as though he was alone, but because

the chief ruler and commander among them, and that Strabo, brought them into the country; but though they might 1. xiii. p.

fix themselves about Arcadia, it is evident they spread further, for Menecrates Eleates, in his book of the founders of cities, affirms, that all the sea-coasts of

Greece called Ionica, beginning from Mycale, were first Idem, 1.vii. inhabited by the Pelasgi: nay, we find them yet much p. 226.

higher in Epirus, who were, as Strabo tells us, the first founders of the famous oracle of Dodona; for so Ephorus in him saith it was Πελασγών ίδρυμα, and that these were των περί την ελλάδα δυναστευόντων αρχαιότατοι :

thence the poet, Iliad. '.

Zkūãva, Aweweis, llenavyıxé.
And Hesiod,
Hesiod.

Awocórn onyóv te llenadywv é@pavou nav.
Fragment. c.. . .
ed. Oxon.

• Strabo further makes it evident that they were a barbarous people, which lived about Dodona, from the

description Homer gives of them, Iliad. a'.

αμφί δε Σελλοί 234.

Eoi valous' ÚTopītas, ávit Tóno&es, xquanzūvas. Philostr. in Which Philostratus best interprets, when he saith they Imag.

were aitooxédvor TIVES KAN GÜTE KATEO KEVNOMÉVEL Tòv Biov, such that thought the gods were best pleased with their simplicity and severity of life, and therein far different from the Grecian humour. Suidas in Thessalicis (cited

233.

likewise by Strabo) saith that the temple of Dodona CHAP.

IV. was removed from Scotusa in Pelasgia to Thessala ; which is confirmed by Herodotus in Euterpe, where he largely speaks of the temple and oracle at Dodona. These Pelasgi confined not themselves to Greece neither, but were dispersed into the neighbour islands, as Chios, Crete, Lesbos, Lemnos, Imbro, Samos, as will appear afterwards; and at last came into Italy, as is well known, and are thought to be the same with the Tyrrhenians, and by some conceived to be the first founders of Rome. We see what a large spread the Pelasgi had over Greece, which was divided, after the Hellens began to appear, into το πελασγικών and το ελληvikov, as Herodotus witnesseth; and so these two appear to be a very different people from one another, and not the same, under different names, as is commonly thought. Which sufficiently appears from their language, XII. .

Herod. 1. i. which was quite different from one another. So He-c. 21. rodotus, 'Hoav oi lledaoyoi Bápßapov yaworau CEVTES, they" used a barbarous language, i. e. a language not understood by the Hellens, who at first had their chief residence in Thessaly ; from whence by degrees they came forwards into Greece, as Thucydides shews. For although the name of Hellens at last spread itself over all the people of Greece, yet it was at first peculiar to that part of Thessaly called Pthiotis; and thence Homer calls them properly Hellens which followed Achilles from thence: and it appears by Homer, that there was a city there called "Eanas, which, as Stephanus de Urbibus tells us, was there built by “Elans; although he will not have him to be Hellen the son of Deucalion, but the son Phthius, wherein he is mistaken; for Thucydides plainly shews that it was from Hellen, the son of Deucalion, that the name "Emanues

[ocr errors]

XII.

ed. Wess.

VSE

IlI.

BOOK came; and this Hellen lived in Phthiotis. But al

though they were first in Phthiotis, yet they daily increasing in numbers and power, by degrees they got all Thessaly into their hands, of which one part was called IlenaoyiūTIS; afterwards under Dorus, the son of Hellen, they conquered Hestiæctis, that part of Thessaly which lies under the mountains Ossa and Olympus; from thence they were beaten back by the Cadmeans into Pindus, where the Greeks were first called Makeovoi, as Herodotus tells us; from hence they went into Dryopis, and thence into Peloponnesus, and there had the name Dorians; but before their coming hither, they had first secured themselves of the Hellens lying between Thessaly and Peloponnesus, and there they dispossessed the Pelasgi in all the Attic region, who were now forced to submit or to fly. They who submitted, as most of them did, were incorporated into the Greeks, and became one people with them; and so by degrees lost that former language which was peculiar to themselves, and wholly distinct from the Greek tongue. That the Hellens did thus gradually come into Peloponnesus, is evident from the names of people and places common to Thessaly and Peloponnesus; which came from hence, that though the Greeks left the cities behind them, yet they carried most of the names along with them. Thus the Achæi, Ionians, and Æolians, and Dorians in Peloponnesus came from those of the same names in Thessaly; and so likewise the names of these following regions and cities were common to both, as Ellopia, Estiæa, Eretria, and Oro

pos, Graia, Larissa, Psophis, Iton, Echalia, and very Salmas. de many others. Salmasius seems to be of opinion, that Hellen. p. 315.

the Pelasgi never used any language distinct from the Hellens; but besides that it is directly contrary to the testimony of Herodotus, the arguments he produceth

« PreviousContinue »