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1778.

AMERICA AND PRANCE UNITE.

219

cil, on the part of France. The latter gentleman was designed as the first French Minister to the United States, but did not embark for his destination till some weeks afterwards. During some weeks, indeed, it was endeavoured to keep the treaties secret, so as to afford further time for the desired accession of Spain — an accession which, after all, could not at this period be obtained. During some weeks were accordingly postponed the official announcement of the treaties to the Court of St. James's, and the official presentation of the Commissioners to the Court of Versailles.

CHAPTER LVII.

Whatever wish might be felt by the French Ministers to conceal their late negotiation, it did not long remain a secret to the British Ambassador, nor even to the British public. Before the close of January, we find King George agreeing, in his private correspondence with Lord North, that every letter from Paris added to the probability of a speedy declaration of war. Towards the middle of February we may observe Lord North pressed with questions, in the House of Commons, whether a treaty between France and America had not been actually signed. Lord North for some time remained silent: at length he answered, that the conclusion of such a treaty was possible, nay, too probable; but that officially he was not as yet apprised of it.*

No sooner had Parliament met again for business on the 20th of January, than the renewed vigour of Opposition was apparent. The Ministers found themselves assailed by many and various adversaries. First came a motion from Sir Philip Jennings Clerke, against raising troops by subscription without consent of Parliament. Next there was an Address to the Crown, proposed by Mr. Burke, against the employment of savages in the American war. Mr. Fox moved: "That no more of the old corps be sent out of the kingdom." From the same indefatigable orator there proceeded also a renewal of the motion for General Burgoyne's orders and instructions; and a critical commentary on the distribution of our forces in America. All these attacks were borne by Lord North with his usual good humour, and encountered with his usual ability.

* The King to Lord North, Jan. 81. 1778. Appendix — Pari. Hist, vol. xix. p. 775. Gibbon, in a private letter of the 23rd of February, was able to mention nearly the exact day (the 5th instead of the 6th), on which the treaties had been signed at Paris.

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There was one point, however, and that point of vital moment, on which, at this period, there was an utter disaccordance among the chiefs of Opposition. Lord Chatham, as we have seen, had declared himself strongly against allowing the independence of America; from that ground he had lately stated that he could not depart; he held it with no less firmness when the French war was impending, with no less firmness when that war had already commenced. Lord Rockingham, on the contrary, had even last Session, in the House of Lords, questioned the possibility, or therefore the prudence, of continuing to withstand the separation of our insurgent Colonies; and he was greatly confirmed in his unwillingness when he saw our ancient rival determined to engage against us. Before the close of January these two party leaders had come to a written explanation on the subject, each resolutely, though with many civil expressions of regret, adhering to his own opinion.*

Often as of late years they had acted in concert, it seems probable that the Earl and the Marquis continued to look upon each other more as rivals than as friends. But among Rockingham's own nearest followers there were several, and of no slight note, who hoped that the difference was seeming rather than real, and who deemed that at least a trial might be made. "Can you blame Lord Chatham," said his son-inlaw, Lord Mahon, to the Duke of Richmond, — "canyou "blame Lord Chatham for desiring to keep the now distract"ed parts of the empire together, and for attempting to pre"vent such a disgraceful and fatal dismemberment of this "country?" The Duke answered as follows: — "So far "from blaming Lord Chatham for wishing to prevent this "separation, 1 highly applaud him for it, if he has any kind "of reason in the world to think that the thing canberender"ed practicable by any means whatever. And so desirous "am I," added the Duke, "that this may be done, that if

* Of the three letters that passed, the first does not appear to be preserved; the other two are printed in the Chatham Correspondence, vol. iv. pp. 489—493.

"Lord Chatham thinks it right to attempt it, and does at"tempt it, I will certainly be the first to give him every sup"port in my power; but, I must go one step farther, that if "Lord Chatham, after having fully and fairly attempted it, "should fail in his expectations, notwithstanding all the "support that I can give him, I, for my part, in order to put "an end to this war, and procure peace, will be contented "with getting less, if it is out of everybody's power to get "more." *

Throughout the country, indeed, there now began to prevail a great and growing desire that Lord Chatham might be restored to the head of affairs — to avert a war with the House of Bourbon, or to make that war triumphant as the last — and to preserve, if it yet could be preserved, the unity of the empire. Nor was that desire confined to those who had ever followed and revered him; it was no less shared by many once forward as his opponents and gainsayers. Lord Mansfield , for example, declared to Lord Holderness, even with tears, it is said, in his eyes, that the vessel was sinking, and that Lord Chatham must be sent for. Lord Bute, from his retirement, expressed a similar opinion to Sir James Wright, one of his private friends. Sir James Wright, who appears to have been an officious busy-body, repeated Lord Bute's saying, with great emphasis, to Dr. Addington, Lord Chatham's physician and friend; and Dr. Addington, understanding it as a kind of overture or scheme of coalition, conveyed it as such to Hayes. Lord Chatham dictated a few words of reply, with civil thanks for Lord Bute's good opinion, but adding that nothing but a real change — new counsels and new counsellors — could prevent the consummation of the public ruin. When this answer was shown to Lord Bute, he observed that, from the expression, "real "change," Lord Chatham seemed to imagine that Lord Bute had still some influence in the administration. He therefore wished Lord Chatham to be informed that ill

* Lord Mahon to the Earl of Chatham, February 11. 1778, as published in the Chatham Papers.

1778. Lord North's Conciliatory Views. 223

health and family distresses had accustomed him to a perfectly retired life, to which he hoped to adhere as long as he lived; that his long absence from all sorts of public business, and the many years which had intervened since he saw the King, prevented his knowing more of public affairs than he gathered from general conversation or the newspapers; that this total ignorance, notwithstanding his zeal for the country, love for the King, and very high opinion of Lord Chatham, put it out of his power to be of the least use in this dangerous emergency: but that from his heart he wished Lord Chatham every imaginable success in the restoration of the public welfare.

This transaction, which here I have much abridged, is only so far of importance that it gave rise, after Lord Chatham's death, to a keen controversy whether he or Lord Bute had sought the alliance of the other. In that war of pamphlets took part the sons of both the chiefs., Lord Mountstuart and William Pitt. Yet it seems quite clear that neither of the veteran statesmen had been in any degree to blame; and that the fault lay only in the over-zeal of the go-betweens, Sir James Wright and Dr. Addington, who could not afterwards agree in their accounts of their own gossiping interviews, and who at the time, beyond all doubt, misconstrued Lord Bute's private wishes into political overtures. *

Strange though it may be deemed, the fact is certain, that no man at this period could feel a stronger wish to see the Prime Minister displaced, and Lord Chatham called on to succeed him, than did Lord North himself. Even before the close of January he had informed the King, in his secret correspondence, how much his own judgment and feelings pointed to a resignation. In an upright spirit, however, he had resolved first to bring forward and to carry through the conciliatory proposals which he had announced,

* For an accurate summary and just judgment of this transaction, the reader may consult a critic, by no means friendly to Lord Chatham, in the Quarterly Review, No. exxxi. p. 266.

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