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1778. French squadron under Count D'Estaing 262

Bis designs upon Rhode Island 16.

Settlement of Wyoming destroyed 263

British expedition to Georgia 264

D'Estaing in the West Indies 265

Return of La Fayette to Franoe' 266

The Channel fleet 267

Admiral Keppel and Count D'Orvilliers 268

Action off Ushant it.

Sir Hugh Palliser 269

1779. Court-Martial on Keppel ib.

And on Palliser 271

Keppel resigns his command to.

Proceedings in the House of Commons 272

No-Popery riots in Scotland to.

The Protestant Associations 273

Overture to Lords Shelburne and Camden .... 274

Lord Chancellor Thurlow ib.

War declared with Spain 27S

"Justifying Memorial" by Gibbon 276

Active measures of tne Ministry 277

Royal Proclamation 278

Camp on Cox Heath 279

French army of invasion 281

Allied fleets in the Channel ib.

They retreat 282

Paul Jones 283

Attack on Jersey 284

Return of D'Estaing to France 285

Campaign in America ib.

Washington at Middlebrook 286

American paper money 287

Its growing depreciation to.

Final insolvency 288

Washington's "picture of the times" 289

Meeting of Parliament 290

Resignation of Lord Gower ib.


Voyages Of Discovery.

Vasco Nunez of Balboa 293

First sight of the South Sea ib.

Ferdinand de Magalhaens 293

Commodore Byron 294

Captains Wallis and Carteret ib.

Captain Cook 295

His first voyage ib.

Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander 296

Excursion on Tierra del Fuego 297

Sojourn at Otaheite to.

Otabeite described 298

The Otaheltcans id.

Queen Oberca 300

The Arreoy communities 301

The Society Islands 302

Coast of New South Wales . 303
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w Hile thus for very different reasons and with very different results both Franklin and Fox were dismissed from office, tidings of no common importance had reached England from North America. Throughout that country the appearance of the tea-ships, as planned by Lord North, and as freighted by the East India Company, had provoked not only resentment but resistance. It was believed, or at least it was asserted, that this was only the first step in a course of intended tyranny; that England desired nothing so much as the oppression of her Colonies; that if the local duty on the Teas should be quietly paid, other more odious imposts, — a window-tax, a hearth-tax, a land-tax, and a poll-tax,— were in contemplation, and were sure to be enacted. Even before any one of the tea-ships came in sight mobs had risen in several places, and violently threatened the consignees of the expected cargo. At Philadelphia handbills were dispersed warning the pilots on the Delaware not to bring any of these vessels into harbour, since they had been sent out on purpose to enslave and to poison the Americans! At New York other printed papers declared that the coming ships were laden in semblance only with tea, but in truth with fetters which had been forged for them in England! Mahon, History. VI. 1

Notwithstanding the excitement produced by such exaggerations, the Colonists generally speaking did not overstep the bounds of law. In most places the consignees were so far wrought upon by terror or by shame as to renounce their functions, and enter into a public engagement to send back the cargoes without landing. At Charleston the inhabitants allowed the chests of tea to be brought on shore, but insisted that they should be withheld from sale and stored in cellars, where at last they perished from damp. Such measures, though certainly sufficient for their object, were much too tame and moderate for the prevailing taste at Boston. Three ships freighted with tea having arrived at that port, the captains observing the state of the public feeling were not only willing but anxious to depart with their cargoes. But since they had already entangled themselves with some technical forms of entry, there were difficulties in the way of their return; difficulties in obtaining either a clearance from the Custom House, or a permit from Castle William. Concession on these points was, perhaps unwisely, declined by the Governor, while the compromise adopted elsewhere of allowing the Teas to be landed and placed in store was indignantly rejected by the people. A shorter and simpler expedient was preferred. On the evening of the 16th of December 1773 a great number of persons disguised and painted as Mohawk Indians * boarded the tea-ships, broke open the chests, and flung the contents into the sea, to the value it was computed of 18,000/. After this feat they quietly dispersed, neither inflicting nor yet suffering any other injury. Yet certainly no slight degree of rancorous spirit was rife among the people. Mr. John Adams, who was upon the spot, has noted in his Private Diary: "Many persons wish that as many "dead carcases were floating in the harbour as there are "chests of tea."**

* The readers of the Spectator (now I believe many fewer than there used to be) will recollect the midnight orgies in the streets of London of another race of Mohawks. (No. 324. and 847., March 12. and April 8. 1712.)

** Works, vol. ii. p. 328. ad. 1850.

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The news of this attack upon the tea-ships produced great irritation not only in the British Ministry but also in the British Parliament and people. To understand their feelings at this juncture we must remember, besides the final outrage, the long succession of angry struggles and of studied insults which ever since the passing of the Stamp Act they, their officers, and their adherents had encountered from Boston. The event of the 16th of December therefore was only the last drop in their cup of wrath; the last drop which made the waters of bitterness overflow. On the 7th of March a Royal Message was delivered communicating the principal despatches or other documents received, and recommending the whole matter to the most serious consideration of both Houses. On the 14th of the same month Lord North brought in the measure commonly known by the name of the Boston Port Bill. The preamble declared that in the present condition of the town and harbour of Boston the commerce of His Majesty's subjects could not be safely carried on, nor the customs be duly collected; and the clauses proposed to enact that from and after the 1st of June in this year it should not be lawful for any person to lade or unlade, to ship or unship, any goods from any quay or wharf within the aforesaid harbour. It was in fact intended to transfer the commerce and customs of Boston for a time to Salem, another town and port on the coast of Massachusetts. But a power was reserved to the King in Council, when peace and order should be established at Boston, and after full compensation had been made to the East India Company for the value of the Teas destroyed, to replace the trade of the town as it stood at first.

In supporting this measure Lord North relied in part upon the ground of precedents. "It may be objected," said he, "that the innocent may suffer on this occasion with the "guilty; but where the authority of a town has been as it "were asleep and inactive, it is no new thing for the whole "town to be fined for such neglect. Thus with the City of "London in King Charles the Second's time, when Dr. Lamb


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