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you are, as you say, rising seventy-five, but I am their way home) whether, now they had seen how rising (perhaps more properly falling) eighty-and much more commodiously the white people lived I leave the excuse with you till you arrive at that by the help of the arts, they would not choose to age; perhaps you may then be more sensible of its remain among us—their answer was, that they were validity, and see fit to use it for yourself.

pleased with having had an opportunity of seeing "I must agree with you that the gout is bad, and many fine things, but they chose to live in their own that the stone is worse. I am happy in not having country: which country, by the way, consisted of them both together; and I join in your prayer, that rock only: for the Moravians were obliged to caryou may live till you die without either. But I doubt ry earth in their ship from New York, for the pur. the author of the epitaph you sent me is a little mis. pose of making there a cabbage garden!"-Vol. iii. taken, when, speaking of the world, he says, that pp. 550, 551. - he ne'er car'd a pin

“You are now seventy-eight, and I am eighty. What they said or may say of the mortal within.'

two. You tread fast upon my heels; but, though It is so natural to wish to be well spoken of, you have more strength and spirit, you cannot whether alive or dead, that I imagine he could not

come up with me till I stop, which must now be be quite exempt from that desire; and that at least soon; for I am grown so old as to have buried most he wished to be thought a wit, or he would not of the friends of my youth; and I now often hear have given himself the trouble of writing so good persons, whom I knew when children, called old an epitaph to leave behind him."-"You see 1 Mr. such a one, to distinguish them from their sons, have some reason to wish that in a future state Iing twelve years beyond David's period, I seem to

now men grown, and in business; so that, by liv. may not only be as well as I was, but a liule better. have intruded myselt into the company of posterity, And I hope it: for I, 100, with your poet, trust

in when I ought to have been abed and asleep. Yet gality as well as wisdom in his works, since he has had I gone at seventy, it would

have cut off twelve been evidently sparing both of labour and materials; of the most active years of my life, employed, too, for, by the various wonderful inventions of propa. I have been doing good or mischief, is for time to

in matters of the greatest importance: bui whether gation, he has provided for the continual peopling discover. I only know that I intended well, and Bis world with plants and animals, without being I hope all will end well

. at the trouble of repeated new creations : and by the natural reduction of compound substances to

"Be so good as to present my affectionate retheir original elements, capable of being employed spects to Dr. Rowley, I am under great obliga. in new compositions, he has prevented the neces will be a pleasure to him to hear that my malady

tions to him, and shall write to him shortly. It sity of creating new matter; for that the earth, does not grow sensibly

worse, and that is a great water, air, and perhaps fire, which being compound. ed, form wood, do, when the wood is dissolved. re: point; for it has always been so tolerable,

as not turn, and again become air, earth, fire and water and, being cheerful in conversation. I owe this in

to prevent my enjoying the pleasures of society, I say, that when I see nothing annihilated, and not even a drop of water wasted, I cannot suspect the a great measure to his good counsels.”—Vol. iii. annihilation of souls; or believe that he will suffer pp. 555, 556. the daily waste of millions of minds ready made

“ Your eyes must continue very good, since you that now exist, and put himself to the continual are able to write so small a hand without spectatrouble of making new ones. Thus finding my cles. I cannot distinguish a letter even of large self to exist in the world, I believe I shall in some print; but am happy in the invention of double shape or other always exist. And with all the in spectacles, which, serving for distant objects as well conveniences human life is liable to, I shall not

as near ones, make my eyes as useful to me as object to a new edition of mine ; hoping, however, ever they were. If all the other defects and in. that the errata of the last may be correcied."-Vol. firmities of old age could be as easily and cheaply ii. Pp. 546–548

remedied, it would be worth while, my friend, 10 live * Our constitution seems not to be well under-a good deal longer. But I look upon death to be as stood with you. If the congress were a permanent necessary to our constitutions as sleep. We shall body, there would be more reason in being jealous rise refreshed in the morning, Adieu, and believe of giving it powers. But its members are chosen me ever, &c."-Vol. iii. pp. 544, 545. annually, and cannot be chosen more than three years successively, nor more than three years in

There is something extremely amiable in seven, and any of them may be recalled at any time, old age, when thus exhibited without queruwhenever their constituents shall be dissatisfied lousness, discontent, or impatience, and free, with their conduct. They are of the people, and at the same time, from any affected or unbereturn again to mix with the people having no coming levity. We think there must be more durable preeminence than the different grains of sand in an hour-glass. Such an assembly can many more of Dr. Franklin's letters in existnot easily become dangerous to liberty. They are ence, than have yet been given to the public; the servants of the people, sent together to do the and from the tone and tenor of those which people's business, and promote the public welfare ; we have seen, we are satisfied that they their powers must be sufficient, or their duties can- would be read with general avidity and imnot be performed. They have no profitable approvement. pointments, but a mere payment of daily wages, such as are scarcely equivalent to their expenses ;

His account of his own life, down to the so that,

having no chance of great places and enor? year 1730, has been in the hands of the pubmous salaries of pensions, as in some countries, lic since 1790. It is written with great simthere is no intriguing or bribing for elections. I plicity and liveliness, though it contains too wish Old England were as happy in its govern. many trifling details and anecdotes of obscure ment, but I do not see it. Your people, however, individuals. It affords however a striking think their constitution the best in the world, and example of the irresistible force with which good opinion of one's self, and of every thing that talents and industry bear upwards in society; belongs to us; to think one's own religion, king, as well as an impressive illustration of the and wise, the best of all possible wives, kings, and substantial wisdom and good policy of invariareligions. I remember three Greenlanders, who ble integrity and candour. We should think had travelled two years in Europe, under the care it a very useful reading for all young persons Germany, Denmark, Holland, and England : when of unconfirmed principles, who have their I asked them at Philadelphia (when they were in fortunes to make or to mend in the world.

Upon the whole, we look upon the life and | cess; and has only been found deficient in writings of Dr. Franklin as affording a striking those studies which the learned have geneillustration of the incalculable value of a rally turned from in disdain. We would not be sound and well directed understanding; and understood to say any thing in disparagement of the comparative uselessness of learning of scholarship and science; but the value and laborious accomplishments. Without the of these instruments is apt to be over-rated slightest pretensions to the character of a by their possessors; and it is a wholesome scholar or a man of science, he has extended mortification, to show them that the work the bounds of human knowledge on a variety may be done without them. We have long of subjects, which scholars and men of sci- known that their employment does not insure ence had previously investigated without suc- l its success.

(September, 1816.) The Works of JONATHAN Swift, D. D., Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin. Containing Addi

tional Letters, Tracts, and Poems not hitherto published. With Notes, and a life of the Author, by WALTER Scott, Esq. 19 vols. 8vo. "Edinburgh: 1815.

By far the most considerable change which that they are declined considerably from the has taken place in the world of letters, in our high meridian of their glory,' and may fairly days, is that by which the wits of 'Queen be apprehended to be 'hastening to their sei. Anne's time have been gradually brought ting. Neither is it time alone that has down from the supremacy which they had wrought this obscuration ; for the fame of enjoyed, without competition, for the best part Shakespeare still shines in undecaying brightof a century. When we were at our studies, ness; and that of Bacon has been steadily some twenty-five years ago, we can perfectly advancing and gathering new honours during remember that every young man was set to the whole period which has witnessed the rise read Pope, Swift, and Addison, as regularly and decline of his less vigorous successors. as Virgil

, Cicero, and Horace. "All who had There are but two possible solutions for any tincture of letters were familiar with their phenomena of this sort. Our taste has either writings and their history; allusions to them degenerated-or its old models have been abounded in all popular discourses and all fairly surpassed; and we have ceased to adambitious conversation; and they and their mire the writers of the last century, only becontemporaries were universally acknow- cause they are too good for us or because ledged as our great models of excellence, and they are not good enough. Now, we confess placed without challenge at the head of our we are no believers in the absolute and pernational literature. New books, even when manent corruption of national taste; on the allowed to have merit, were never thought contrary, we think that it is, of all faculties, of as fit to be placed in the same class, but that which is most sure to advance and im. were generally read and forgotten, and passed prove with time and experience; and that, away like the transitory meteors of a lower with the exception of those great physical o sky; while they remained in their brightness, political disasters which have given a chech and were supposed to shine with a fixed and io civilization itself, there has always been a unalterable glory.

sensible progress in this particular; and tha All this, however, we take it, is now pretty the general taste of every successive genera well altered ; and in so far as persons of our tion is better than that of its predecessors antiquity can judge of the training and habits There are little capricious fluctuations, of the rising generation, those celebrated doubt, and fits of foolish admiration or fasti writers no longer form the manual of our stu- diousness, which cannot be so easily account dious youth, or enter necessarily into the in- ed for: but the great movements are all pro stitution of a liberal education. Their names, gressive: and though the progress consists a indeed, are still familiar to our ears; but their one time in withholding toleration from gros writings no longer solicit our habitual notice, faults, and at another in giving their hig and their subjects begin already to fade from prerogative to great beauties, this alternatiò our recollection. Their high privilieges and has no tendency to obstruct the general proud distinctions, at any rate, have evidently vance; but, on the contrary, is the best an passed into other hands. It is no longer to the safest course in which it can be coi them that the ambitious look up with envy, ducted. or the humble with admiration ; nor is it in We are of opinion, then, that the write their pages that the pretenders to wit and who adorned the beginning of the last ce eloquence now search for allusions that are tury have been eclipsed by those of our on sure to captivate, and illustrations that cannot time; and that they have no chance of ev be mistaken. In this decay of their reputa- regaining the supremacy in which they ha tion they have few advocates, and no imita- thus been supplanted. There is not, howeve tors : and from a comparison of many obser- in our judgment, any thing very stupendo vations, it seems to be clearly ascertained, I in this triumph of our contemporaries;

the greater wonder with us, is, that it was so beth, it received a copious infusion of classical long delayed, and left for them to achieve. images and ideas: but it was still intrinsically For the truth is, that the writers of the former romantic-serious—and even somewhat lofty age had not a great deal more than their judg- and enthusiastic. Authors were then so few ment and industry to stand on; and were in number, that they were looked upon with always much more remarkable for the few- a sort of veneration, and considered as a kind ness of their faults than the greatness of their of inspired persons; at least they were not beauties. Their laurels were won much more yet so numerous, as to be obliged to abuse by good conduct and discipline, ţhan by en- each other, in order to obtain a share of disterprising boldness or native force;—nor can tinction for themselves; and they neither it be regarded as any very great merit in those affected a tone of derision in their writings, who had so little of the inspiration of genius, nor wrote in fear of derision from others. to have steered clear of the dangers to which They were filled with their subjects, and dealt that inspiration is liable. Speaking generally with them fearlessly in their own way; and of that generation of authors, it may be said the stamp of originality, force, and freedom, that, as poets, they had no force or greatness is consequently upon almost all their producof fancy-no pathos, and no enthusiasm ;- tions. In the reign of James I., our literature, and, as philosophers, no comprehensiveness, with some few exceptions, touching rather depth, or originality. They are sagacious, no the form than the substance of its merits, apdoubt, neat, clear, and reasonable; but for pears to us to have reached the greatest perthe most part cold, timid, and superficial. fection to which it has yet attained; though They never meddle with the great scenes of it would probably have advanced still farther nature, or the great passions of man; but in the succeeding reign, had not the great nacontent themselves with just and sarcastic tional dissensions which then arose, turned representations of city life, and of the paltry the talent and energy of the people into other passions and meaner vices that are bred in channels-first, to the assertion of their civil that lower element. Their chief care is to rights, and afterwards to the discussion of avoid being ridiculous in the eyes of the their religious interests. The graces of literawitty, and above all to eschew the ridicule ture suffered of course in those fierce contenof excessive sensibility or enthusiasm—to be tions; and a deeper shade of austerity was at once witty and rational themselves, with thrown upon the intellectual character of the as gooit a grace as possible; but to give their nation. Her genius, however, though less capcountenance to no wiselom, no fancy, and no tivating and adorned than in the happier days morality, which passes the standards current which preceded, was still active, fruitful, and in good company. Their inspiration, accord commanding; and the period of the civil wars, ingly, is little more than a sprightly sort of besides the mighty minds that guided the good sense; and they have scarcely any in- public councils, and were absorbed in public vention but what is subservient to the pur-cares, produced the giant powers of Taylor, poses of derision and satire. Little gleams and Hobbes, and Barrow-ihe muse of Milof pleasantry, and sparkles of wit, glitter ton—the learning of Coke—and the ingenuity through their compositions; but no glow of of Cowley. feeling-no blaze of imagination—no flashes The Restoration introduced a French court ui genius, ever irradiate their substance. They —under circumstances more favourable for never pass beyond “the visible diurnal the effectual exercise of court influence than sphere," or deal in any thing that can either ever before existed in England: but this of lift us above our vulgar nature, or ennoble its itself would not have been sufficient to acreality. With these accomplishments, they count for the sudden change in our literature may pass well enough for sensible and polite which ensued. It was seconded by causes writers,-but scarcely for men of genius; and of far more general operation. The Restorait is certainly far more surprising, that per- tion was undoubtedly a popular act;-and, sons of this description should have maintain- indefensible as the conduct of the army and ed themselves, for near a century, at the head the civil leaders was on that occasion, there of the literature of a country that had pre- can be no question that the severities of Cromviously producel a Shakespeare, a Spenser, a well, and the extravagancies of the sectaries, Bacon, and a Taylor, than that, towards the had made republican professions hateful, and end of that long period, doubts should have religious arlour ridiculous, in the eyes of a arisen as to the legitimacy of the title by great proportion of the people. All the emiwhich they laid claim to ihat high station. nent writers of the preceding period, however, Both parts of the phenomenon, however, we had inclined to the party that was now overdare

say, hail causes which better expounders thrown; and their writings had not merely might explain to the satisfaction of all the been accommodated to the character of the world. We see them but imperfectly, and government under which they were produced, have room only for an imperfect sketch of but were deeply imbued with its obnoxious what we see.

principles, which were those of their respectOur first literature consisted of saintly le- ive authors. When the restraints of authority gends, and romances of chivalry, - though were taken off, therefore, and it became proChancer gave it a more national and popular fitable, as well as popular, to discredit the Character, by his original descriptions of ex- fallen party, it was natural that the leading ternal nature, and the familiarity and gaiety authors should affect a style of levity and of his social humour. In the time of Eliza- derision, as most opposite to that of their op

ponents, and best calculated for the purposes and to this praise they are justly entitled. they had in view. The nation, too, was now This was lefi for them to do, and they did it for the first time essentially divided in point well. They were invited to it by the circam. of character and principle, and a much greater stances of their situation, and do not seem to proportion were capable both of writing in have been possessed of any such bold or rige. support of their own notions, and of being in- ous spirit, as either to neglect or to oulgo the fluenced by what was written. Add to all invitation Coming into life immediately after this, that there were real and serious defects the consummation of a bloodless rerolution, in the style and manner of the former gener- effected much more by the cool sense, ihan ation; and that the grace, and brevity, and the angry passions of the nation, they seem vivacity of that gayer manner which was now to have feli that they were born in an age of introduced from France, were not only good reason, rather than of feeling or faney; and and captivating in themselves, but had then that men's minds. though considerably diall the charms of novelty and of contrast; vided and unsettled upon many points mere and it will not be difficult to understand how in a much better temper to relish judicious it came to supplant that which had been es- argument and cutting satire, than ihe glow tablished of old in the country,—and that so of enthusiastic passion, or the richness of a suddenly, that the same generation, among luxuriant imagination. To those accondingly whom Milton had been formed to the severe they made no pretensions; but, writing with sanctity of wisdom and the noble independ- infinite good sense, and great grace and vi. ence of genius, lavished its loudest applauses vacity, and, above all, writing for the worst on the obscenity and servility of such writers time in a lone that was peculiar to the upper as Rochester and Wycherly.

ranks of society, and upon subjects that were This change, however, like all sudden almost exclusively interesting to them, iley changes, was too fierce and violent to be long naturally figured, at least while the manner maintained at the same pitch; and when the was new, as the most accomplished, fashioua. wits and profligates of King Charles had suf- ble, and perfect writers which the world had ficiently insulted the seriousness and virtue ever seen; and made the wild, luxuriant, and of their predecessors, there would probably humble sweetness of our earlier authors ap have been a revulsion towards the accustomed pear rude and vntutored in the comparison. taste of the nation, had not the party of the Men grew ashamed of admiring, and airaid of innovators been reinforced by champions of imitating writers of so little skill and smartmore temperance and judgment. The result ness; and the opinion became general, not seemed at one time suspended on the will only that their faults were intolerable, bat of Dryden-in whose individual person the that even their beauties were puerile and bar. genius of the English and of the French school barous, and unworthy the serious regard of a of literature may be said to have maintained polite and distinguishing age. a protracted struggle. But the evil principle These, and similar considerations, will go prevailed! Carried by the original bent of far to account for the celebrity which those his genius, and his familiarity with our older authors acquired in their day; but it is not models, to the cultivation of our native style, quite so easy to explain how they should to which he might have imparted more steadi- have so long retained their ascendant. Oue ness and correctness—for in force and in cause undoubtedly was, the real excellence sweetness it was already matchless he was of their productions, in the style which they unluckily seduced by the attractions of fash- had adopted. It was hopeless to think of ion, and the dazzling of the dear wit and gay surpassing them in that style; and, reconrhetoric in which it delighted, to lend his mended as it was, by the felicity of their exepowerful aid to the new corruptions and re- cution, it requiread some courage to depart finements; and in fact, to prostitute his great from it, and to recur to another, which seenied gifts to the purposes of party rage or licentious to have been so lately abandoned for its sake. ribaldry.

The age which succeeded, 100, was not the The sobriety of the succeeding reigns al- age of courage or adventure. There nerer layed this fever of profanity; but no genius was, on the whole, a quieter time than the arose sufficiently powerful to break the spell reigns of the two first Georges, and the greatthat still withheld us from the use of our own er part of that which ensued. There were peculiar gifts and faculties. On the contrary, two little provincial rebellions indeed, and a it was the unfortunate ambition of the next fair proportion of foreign war; but there was generation of authors, to improve and perfect nothing 10. stir the minds of the people at the new style, rather than to return to the old large, to rouse their passions, or excite their one;—and it cannot be denied that they did imaginations-nothing like the agitations of improve it. They corrected its gross indecen- the Reformation in the sixteenth century, or cy—increased its precision and correctness of the civil wars in the seventeenth. They -made its pleasantry and sarcasm more pol- went on, accordingly, minding their old busi. ished and elegant—and spread through the ness, and reading their old books, with great whole of its irony, its narration, and its re- patience and stupidity: And certainly there flection, a tone of clear and condensed good never was so remarkable a dearth of original sense, which recommended itself to all who talent—so long an interregnum of native gehad, and all who had not any relish for higher nius-as during about sixty years in the beauties.

middle of the last century. The dramatic This is the praise of Queen Anne's wits- art was dead fifty years before and poetry

seemed verging to a similar extinction. The which it gave occasion—the genius of Ed. few sparks that appeared, too, showed that mund Burke, and some others of his land of the old fire was burnt out, and that the altar genius—the impression of the new literature must hereafter be heaped with fuel of another of Germany, evidently the original of our quality: Gray, with the talents, rather of a láke-school of poetry, and many innovations critic than a poet—with learning, fastidious- in our drama-ihe rise or revival of a more ness, and scrupulous delicacy of taste, instead evangelical spirit, in the body of the people of fire, tenderness, or invention--began and -and the vast extension of our political and ended a small school, which we could scarce-commercial relations, which have not only ly have wished to become permanent, admir- familiarized all ranks of people with distant able in many respects as some of its produc- countries, and great undertakings, but have tions are-being far too elaborate and artifi- brought knowledge and enterprise home, not cial, either for grace or for fluency, and fitter merely to the imagination, but to the actual to excite the admiration of scholars, than the experience of almost every individual.--All delight of ordinary men. However, he had these, and several other circumstances, have the merit of not being in any degree French, so far improved or excited the character of and of restoring to our poetry the dignity of our nation, as to have created an effectual seriousness, and the tone at least of force and demand for more profound speculation, and energy. The Whartons, both as critics and more serious emotion than was dealt in by as poets, were of considerable service in dis- the writers of the former century, and which, crediting the high pretensions of the former if it has not yet produced a corresponding race, and in bringing back to public notice supply in all branches, has at least had the the great stores and treasures of poetry which effect of decrying the commodities that were lay hid in the records of our older literature. previously in vogue, as unsuited to the altered Akenside attempted a sort of classical and condition of the times. philosophical rapture, which no elegance of Of those ingenious writers, whose characlanguage could easily have rendered popular, teristic certainly was not vigour, any more but which had merits of no vulgar order for than tenderness or fancy, Swift was indisthose who could study it. Goldsmith wrote putably the most vigorous and perhaps the with perfect elegance and beauty, in a style least tender or fanciful. The greater part of of mellow tenderness and elaborate simplíci- his works being occupied with politics and ty. He had the harmony of Pope without his personalities that have long since lost all inquaintness, and his selectness of diction with terest, can now attract but little attention, out his coldness and eternal vivacity. And, except as memorials of the manner in which last of all, came Cowper, with a style of com- politics and personalities were then conductplete originality,—and, for the first time, made ed. In other parts, however, there is a vein it apparent to readers of all descriptions, that of peculiar humour and strong satire, which Pope and Addison were no longer to be the will always be agreeable—and a sort of models of English poetry.

heartiness of abuse and contempt of mankind, In philosophy and prose writing in general, which produces a greater sympathy and anithe case was nearly parallel. The name of mation in the reader than the more elaborate Home is by far the most considerable which sarcasms that have since come into fashion. occurs in the period to which we have al- Altogether his merits appear to be more unique luded. But, though his thinking was English, and inimitable than those of any of his conhis style is entirely French; and being natu- temporaries; and as his works are connected rally of a cold fancy, there is nothing of that in many parts with historical events which it eloquence or richness about him, which char- must always be of importance to understand, acterizes the writings of Taylor, and Hooker, we conceive that there are none, of which a and Bacon-and continues, with less weight new and careful edition is so likely to be acof matter, to please in those of Cowley and ceptable to the public, or so worthy to engage Clarendon. Warburton had great powers; the attention of a person qualified for the and wrote with more force and freedom than undertaking. In this respect, the projectors the wits to whom he succeeded—but his of the present publication must be considered faculties were perverted by a paltry love of as eminently fortunate-the celebrated perparadox, and rendered useless to mankind by son who has here condescended to the funcan unlucky choice of subjects, and the arro- tions of an editor, being almost as much gance and dogmatism of his temper. Adam distinguished for the skill and learning re. Šmith was nearly the first who made deeper quired for that humbler office, as for the reasonings and more exact knowledge popu- creative genius which has given such unexlar among us; and Junius and Johnson the ampled popularity to his original compositions first who again familiarized us with more -and uniting to the minute knowledge and glowing and sonorous diction-and made us patient research of the Malones and Chalfeel the tameness and poorness of the serious merses, a vigour of judgment and a vivacity style of Addison and Swift.

of style to which they had no pretensions. This brings us down almost to the present In the exercise of these comparatively humble times-in which the revolution in our litera- functions, he has acquitted himself, we think, ture has been accelerated and confirmed by on the present occasion, with great judgment the concurrence of many causes. The agita- and ability. The edition, upon the whole, is tions of the French revolution, and the discus- much better than that of Dryden. It is less sions as well as the hopes' and terrors to loaded with long notes and illustrative quota

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