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Lord Mulgrave, and he tells me in reply, that he be required of him. When he moored in the har. hopes I will stay, for he knows not how to supply bour of Port Mahon, on the 25th February, be my place. The impression which his letter made was in a state of great suffering and debiliy; and upon me was one of grief and sorrow : first, that having been strongly recommended by his medical with such a list as we have including more than a attendants to try the effect of gentle exercise on bundred admirals-there should be ihought to be horseback, he went immediately on shore, accomany difficulty in finding a successor of superior ability panied by his friend Captain Hallowell, who left his to me ; and next, that there should be any obstacle ship to attend him in his illness : but it was then too in the way of the only comfort and happiness that I late. He became incapable of bearing the slightest have to look forward to in this world."
fatigue ; and as it was represented to him that bis
return to England was indispensably necessary for In answer to Lord Mulgrave's statement, the preservation of his life, he, on the 3d of March, he afterwards writes, that his infirmities had surrendered his command 10 Rear Admiral Martin. sensibly increased ; but “I have no object in The two following days were spent in unsuccessful the world that I put in competition with my hon; but on the 6th the wind came round to the public duty; and so long as your lordship thinks westward, and at sunset the ship succeeded in clear. it proper to continue me in this command, my ing the harbour, and made sail for England. When utmost efforts shall be made to strengthen the Lord Collingwood was informed that he was again impression which you now have ; but I still at sea, he rallied for a time his exhausted strength,
and said to those around him, “Then I may yet live hope, that whenever it may be done with con
to meet the French once more. On the morning venience, your lordship will bear in mind my of the 7th there was a considerable swell, and his request.” Soon after he writes thus to his friend Captain Thomas, on entering his cabio, obfamily:-"I am an unhappy creature-old served, that he feared the motion of the vessel disand worn out. I wish to come to England; !urbed him. No, Thomas,' he replied; “I arn now but some objection is ever made to it.” And, in a state in which nothing in this world can
disturb again, “I have been very unwell. The phy. consolatory to you, and all
who love me, to see how sician tells me that it is the effect of constant comfortably I am coming to my end.' He told one confinement—which is not very comfortable, of his attendants that he had endeavoured 10 review, as there seems little chance of its being other- , as far as was possible, all the actions of his past life, wise. Old age and its infirmities are coming and that he had the happiness to say, that nothing on me very fast; and I am weak and tottering times of his absent family, and of the doubtful conon my legs. It is high time I should relurn
which he was about to leave his country in. to England; and I hope I shall be allowed to volved, but ever with calmness and perfect resigna. do it before long. It will otherwise be too late." |tion to the will of God; and in this blessed state of
And it was too late! He was not relieved - mind, after taking an affectionate farewell of bis atand scoring to leave the post assigned to him, tendants, he expired without a struggle at six o'clock while he had life to maintain it, he died at it, of fifty-nine years and six months.
in the evening of that day, having attained the age in March, 1810, upwards of eighteen months
“ After his decease, it was found that, with the after he had thus stated to the government his exception of the stomach, all the other organs of reasons for desiring a recall. The following life were peculiarly vigorous and unimpaired; and is the editor's touching and affectionate ac- from this inspection, and the age which the surviving count of the closing scene—full of pity and of members of his family have attained, there is every grandeur-and harmonising beautifully with lieved from his command, he would still have been the noble career which was destined there to in the enjoyment of the honours and rewards which be arrested :
would doubtless have awajied him on his return to
England." “Lord Collingwood had been repeatedly urged by his friends to surrender his command, and to seek in England that repose which had become so The remainder of this article, containing necessary in his declining health ; but his feelings discussions on the practices of flogging in the on the subject of discipline were peculiarly strong, Navy, and of Impressment (to both which and he had ever exacted the most implicit obedience Lord Collingwood, as well as Nelson, were 10 quit the post which had been assigned to him, opposed), is now omitted; as scarcely possessuntil he should be duly relieved, -and replied, "thai ing sufficient originality to justify its republihis life was his country's, in whatever way it might cation, even in this Miscellany.
Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India from Calcutta to Bombay, 1824,
1825 (with Notes upon Ceylon); an Account of a Journey to Madras and the Southern Provinces, 1826 ; and Letters written in India. By the late Right Reverend REGINALD HEBER, Lord Bishop of Calcutta. Second Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. London: 1828.
This is another book for Englishmen 10 be person to whom it relates and that combinaproud of-almost as delightful as the Memoirs tion of gentleness with heroic ambition, and of Lord Collingwood, and indebted for its at- simplicity with high station, which we would tractions mainly to the same cause—the sin- still fondly regard as characteristic of our own gularly amiable and exalted character of the nation. To us in Scotland the combination
seems, in this instance, even more admirable, the rank and opulence which the station imthan in that of the great Admiral. We have plied, were likely to realise this character in no Bishops on our establishment; and have those who should be placed in it, that our been accustomed to think that we are better ancestors contended so strenuously for the without them. But if we could persuade our- abrogation of the order, and thought their selves that Bishops in general were at all like Reformation incomplete till it was finally put Bishop Heber, we should tremble for our Pres. down— till all the ministers of the Gospel byterian orthodoxy; and feel not only venera- were truly pastors of souls, and stood in no tion, but something very like envy fór a com- other relation to each other than as fellowmunion which could number many such men labourers in the same vineyard. among its ministers.
If this notion be utterly erroneous, the The notion entertained of a Bishop, in our picture which Bishop Heber has here drawn antiepiscopal latitudes, is likely enough, we of himself, must tend powerfully to correct admit, not to be altogether just :—and we are it. If, on the other hand, it be in any respect far from upholding it as correct, when we say, just, he must be allowed, at all events, to that a Bishop, among us, is generally supposed have been a splendid exception. We are to be a stately and pompous person, clothed willing to take it either way. Though we in purple and fine linen, and faring sumptu- must say that we incline rather to the latter ously every day—somewhat obsequious to alternative-since it is difficult to suppose, persons in power, and somewhat haughty and with all due allowance for prejudices, that imperative to those who are beneath him- our abstract idea of a Bishop should be in with more authority in his tone and manner, such flagrant contradiction to the truth, at than solidity in his learning; and yet with one who was merely a fair specimen of the much more learning than charity or humility order, should be most accurately character- very fond of being called my Lord, and ised by precisely reversing every thing that driving about in a coach with mitres on the entered into that idea. Yet this is manifestly panels, but little addicted 10 visiting the sick the case with Bishop Heber-of whom we do and fatherless, or earning for himself the not know at this moment how we could give blessing of those who are ready to perish- a better description, than by merely reading
backwards all we have now ventured to set · Families with a sound Of Ladyships--a stranger 10 the poor"
down as characteristic of his right reverend
brethren. Learned, polished, and dignified, decorous in manners, but no foe to luxurious he was undoubtedly; yet far more conspicuindulgences,rigid in maintaining discipline ously kind, humble, tolerant, and laboriousamong his immediate dependents, and in ex. zealous for his church too, and not forgetful of acting the homage due to his dignity from the his station ; but remembering it more for the undiguified mob of his brethren; but perfectly duties than for the honours that were attached willing to leave to them the undivided privi- to it, and infinitely more zealous for the releges of teaching and of comforting their peo- ligious improvement, and for the happiness, ple, and of soothing the sins and sorrows of and spiritual and worldly good of his fellowtheir erring flocks — scornful, if not openly creatures, of every tongue, faith, and comhostile, upon all occasions, to the claims of plexion : indulgeni to all errors and infirmithe People, from whom he is generally sprung ties—liberal, in the best and truest sense of —and presuming every thing in favour of the the word—humble and conscientiously diffiroyal will and prerogative, by which he has dent of his own excellent judgment and neverbeen exalted-setting, indeed, in all cases, a failing charity-looking on all men as the much higher value on the privileges of the children of one God, on all Christians as the few, than the rights that are common to all, redeemed of one Saviour, and on all Christian and' exerting himself strenuously that the teachers as fellow-labourers, bound to help former may ever prevail-caring more, ac- and encourage each other in their arduous cordingly, for the interests of his order than and anxious task. His portion of the work, the general good of the church, and far more accordingly, he wrought faithfully, zealously, for the Church than for the Religion it was and well; and, devoting himself to his duty established to teach-hating dissenters still with a truly apostolical fervour, made no more bitterly than infidels — but combating scruple to forego, for its sake, not merely his both rather with obloquy and invocation of personal ease and comfort, but those domestic civil penalties, than with the artillery of a affections which were ever so much more powerful reason, or the reconciling influences valuable in his eyes, and in the end, we fear, of an humble and holy life-uttering now consummating the sacrifice with his life! If and then haughty professions of humility, such a character be common among the digand regularly be wailing, at fit seasons, the nitaries of the English Church, we sincerely severity of those Episcopal labours, which congratulate them on the fact, and bow our sadden, and even threaten to abridge a life, heads in homage and veneration before them. which to all other eyes appears to flow on in If it be rare, as we fear it must be in any almost unbroken leisure and continued in church, we trust we do no unworthy service dulgence!
in pointing it out for honour and imitation to This, or something like this, we take to be all, and in praying that the example, in all the notion that most of us Presbyterians have its paris, may promote the growth of similar been used to entertain of a modern Bishop: virtues among all denominations of Christians, and it is mainly because they believed that I in every region of the world.
But though the great charm of the book be ed; and have for the most part seen even derived from the character of its lamented those, only in the course of soine limited proauthor, we are not sure that this is by any [fessional or official occupation, and only with means what will give it its great or most per- the eyes of their peculiar craft or profession.
manent value. Independeintly of its moral|They have been traders, or soldiers, or taxattraction, we are inclined to ihink it, on the gatherers—with here and there a diplomatic whole, the most instructive and important agent, an engineer, or a naturalist—all
, tco publication that has ever been given to the busy, and too much engrossed with the special world, on the actual state and condition of our object of their several missions, to have time Indian Empire : Not only exhibiting a more to look to the general condition of the country clear, graphic, and intelligible account of the and almost all moving through it, with a reticountry, and the various races by which it is nue and accompaniment of authority, wbich peopled, by presenting us with more candid, excluded all actual contact with the People, judicious, and reasonable views of all the and even, in a great degree, the possibility of great questions relating to its destiny, and our seeing them in their natural state. We have interests and duties with regard to it, than are historical memoirs accordingly, and accounts any where else to be met with. It is the result
, of military expeditions, of great value and no doubt, of a hasty and somewhat superficial accuracy; and are beginning to have reports survey. But it embraces a very wide and of the culture of indigo, of the general profits various range, and thus affords the means of of trade, and of the heights and structure of correcting errors, which are almost insepara- mountains, that may be depended on. But, ble from a narrower observation; and has, with the exception of Mr. Elphinstone's Cauabove all, the inestimable advantage of being bul and Sir John Malcolm's Central Indiagiven while the freshness of the first impres- both relating to very limited and peculiar dission was undiminished, and the fairness of tricts—we have no good account of the country the first judgment unperverted by the gradual or the people. But by far the worst obstrucaccumulation of interests, prejudices, and de- tion to the attainment of correct information ference to partial authorities; and given by is to be found in the hostility which has prea man not only free from all previous bias, vailed for the last fifteen or twenty years, bebut of such singular candour, calmness, and tween the adversaries and the advocates of deliberation of judgment, that we would, in the East India Company and its monopoly; almost any case, take his testimony, even and which has divided almost all who are now on a superficial view, against that of a much able and willing to enlighten us on its concleverer person, who, with ampler opportuni- cerns, into the champions of opposite factions; ties, had surveyed or reported with the feel characterised, we fear we must add, with a ings, consciously or unconsciously cherished, full share of the paatiality, exaggeration, and of an advocate, a theorist, a bigot, or a partisan. inaccuracy, which has at all times been
Unhappily, almost all who have hitherto chargeable upon such champions. In so large had the means of knowing much about India, and complicated a subject, there is room of have been, in a greater or less degree, subject course, for plausible representations on both to these influences; and the consequence has sides; but what we chiefly complain of is, a portion of our own—and though we may make a case for themselves, that neither of find, in every large town, whole clubs of in- them have thought of stating the whole facts, telligent men, returned after twenty or thirty so as to enable the public to judge between years' residence in it in high situations, it is them. They have invariably brought forward nearly impossible to get any distinct notion only what they thought peculiarly favourable of its general condition, or to obtain such in- for themselves, or peculiarly unfavourable for formation as to its institutions and capacities the adversary, and have fought to the utteras may be furnished by an ordinary book of ance upon those high grounds of quarrel ; but travels, as to countries infinitely less important have left out all that is not prominent and reor easy of access. Various causes, besides markable-that is, all that is truly characterthe repulsions of a hostile and jealous reli-istic of the general state of the country, and gion, have conspired to produce this effect. the ordinary conduct of its government; by In the first place, the greater part of our reve- reference to which alone, however, the real nans have been too long in the other world, magnitude of the alleged' benefits or abuses to be able to describe it in such a way as to can ever be truly estimated. be either interesting or intelligible to the in- It is chiefly for these reasons that we have habitants of this. They have been too long hitherto been shy, perhaps to a blamable ex. familiar with its aspect to know how they cess, in engaging with the great questions of would strike a stranger; and have confounded, Indian policy, which have of late years enin their passive and incurious impressions, the grossed so much attention. Feeling the er. practices and principles that are in the highest our judgment, we have been conscientiously degree curious, and of the deepest moral con- unwilling to take a decided or leading part in cernment. In the next place, by far the greater discussions which did not seem to us to be part of these experienced and authoritative conducted, on either part, in a spirit of perresidents have seen but a very small portion fect fairness, on a sufficient view of well-es. of the mighty regions with which they are tablished facts, or on a large and comprehentoo hastily presumed to be generally acquaint-Isive perception of the principles to which
they referred. With a strong general leaning the bath, after having spent the morning in against all monopoly and arbitrary restrictions, the offices of religion, on the 3d of April of we could not but feel that the case of India that year. was peculiar in many respects; and that more The work before us consists of a very cothan usual deliberation was due, not only to pious journal, written for and transmitted to its vast practical importance, but to the weight his wife, during his long peregrinations; and of experience and authority that seemed ar- of several most valuable and interesting letrayed against our predilections; and we long- ters, addressed to her, and to his friends in ed, above all things, for a calm and dispas- England, in the course of the same journey; sionate statement of facts, from a recent and all written in a very pleasing, and even eleintelligent observer, unconnected, if possible, gant, though familiar style, and indicating in either by interest or any other tie, with either every line not only the clear judgment and of the parties, and untainted even by any various accomplishments of the writer, but preparatory study of their controversies; but the singular kindness of heart and sweetness applying his mind with perfect freedom and of temper, by which he seems to have been fairness to what fell under his own immediate still more distinguished. He surveys every observation, and recording his impressions thing with the vigilance and delight of a culwith that tranquil sincerity which can scarcely tivated and most active intellect- with the ever be relied on but where the record is eye of an artist, an antiquary, and a naturalist meant to be absolutely private, and is conse- -the feelings and judgment of an English quently made up without any feeling of re- gentleman and scholar—the sympathies of a sponsibility, ambition, or deference.
most humane and generous man—and the Such a statement, and much more than piety, charity, and humility of a Christian. such a statement, we have in the work before The work is somewhat diffuse, and exhibits us; and both now, and on all future occasions, some repetitions, and perhaps some inconsiswe feel that it has relieved us from the chief tencies. It is not such a work, in short, as difficulty we have hitherto experienced in the author would himself have offered to the forming our opinions, and supplied the most public. But we do not know whether it is valuable elements for the discussions to which not more interesting than any that he could we have alluded. The author, it must be ad- have prepared for publication. It carries us mitted, was more in connection with the Gov- more completely into the very heart of the ernment than with any party or individual scenes he describes than any such work could opposed to it, and was more exposed, there have done, and it admits us more into his infore, to a bias in that direction. But he was, timacy. We pity those, we confess, who find at the same time, so entirely independent of it tedious to accompany such a man on such its favours, and so much more removed from a journey. its influence than any one with nearly the It is difficult to select extracts from a work same means of observation, and was withal like this; or, rather, it is not worth while to of a nature so perfectly candid, upright, and stand on selection. We cannot pretend to conscientious, that he may be regarded, we give any abstract of the whole, or to transfer think, as altogether impartial; and we verily to our pages any reasonable proportion of the believe has set down nothing in this private beauty or instruction it contains. journal, intended only for his own eye or that only justify our account of it by a few speciof his wife, not only that he did not honestly mens, taken very much at random. The fol. think, but that he would not have openly lowing may serve to show the unaffected and stated to the Governor in Council, or to the considerate kindness with which he treated Court of Directors themselves.
his attendants, and all the inferior persons The Bishop sailed for India with his family, who came in contact with him; and the effects in 1823; and in June 1824, set out on the of that kindness on its objects. visitation of his Imperial Diocese, having been obliged, much against his will, to leave his in much the same way with myself. I had treated
“Two of my sepoys had been ill for several days, wife and children, on account of their health, them in a similar manner, and ihey were now doing behind him. He ascended the Ganges to well: But being Brahmins of high caste, I had Dacca and Benares, and proceeded by Oude much difficulty in conquering their scruples and and Lucknow to Delhi and Agra, and to Al- doubts about the physic which I gave them. They morah at the base of the Himalaya mountains, both said that they would rather die ihan taste wine.
They scrupled at my using a spoon to measure their and so onward through the newly-acquired castor-oil, and insisted that the water in which their provinces of Malwah, to Guzerat and Bombay, medicines were mixed, should be poured by them. where he had the happiness of rejoining Mrs. selves only. They were very grateful however, Heber. They afterwards sailed together to particularly for the care I took of them when I was Ceylon; and after some stay in that island, re- myself ill, and said repeatedly that the sight of me turned, in October 1825, to "Calcutta. In Jan- in good health would be better to them than all
medicines. They seemed now free from disease, uary 1826. the indefatigable prelate sailed but recovered their strength more slowly than I did; again for Madras, and proceeded in March to and I was glad to find that the Soubahdar said he the visitation of the southern provinces; but was authorized, under such circumstances, to engage had only reached Tanjore, when his arduous a hackery at the Company's expense, to carry them and exemplary career was cut short, and all till they were fit to march. He mentioned this in his labours of love and duty brought to an end, which they were afraid of trying"
consequence of my offering them a list on a camel, by a sudden and most unexpected death- “I had a singular instance this evening of the having been seized with a fit in stepping into | fact how mere children all soldiers, and I think pur.
ticularly sepoys, are, when put a little out of their , and occurrences; the price of passage in the bost usual way.
On going to the place where my es. was only a few cowries; but a number of country cort was hutted, I found that there was not room for folk were assembled, who could not, or would man them all under its shelter, and that four were prepay, and were now sitting patiently by the brink. paring to sleep on the open field. Within a hun. I waiting till the torrent should subside, or, what was dred yards stood another similar hut unoccupied, a far less likely to happen, till the boatmen should little out of repair, but tolerably tenantable. Why take compassion on them. Many of these poor do you not go thither ?' was my question. • We people came up to beg me to make the boaimse like to sleep altogether,' was their answer. •Bui iake them over, one woman pleading that isme why not bring the branches here, and make your 'malik our bucher,' (literally master, or bord, and own hut larger ? see, I will show you the way.' young one) had run away from her, and she wanted
They started up immediately in great apparent de to overtake them; another that she and her !un light; every man brought a bough, and the work grandchildren were following her son, who was a was done in five minutes being only interrupted Havildar in the regiment which we had passed just every now and then by exclamations of Good, before; and some others, that they had been in'er. good, poor man's provider !'".
cepted the previous day by this torrent, and had “ A little before five in the morning, the servants neither money nor food till they had reached their came to me for directions, and to say that the good homes. Four anas purchased a passage for the careful old Soubahdar was very ill, and unable 10 whole crowd, of perhaps thirty people, and they leave his tent. I immediately put on my clothes were really very thankful. I bestowed two anas and went down to the camp, in my way in which more on the poor deseried woman, and a whimseal they told me, that he had been taken unwell at scene ensued. She at first took the money with night, and that Dr. Smith had given him medicine. eagerness, then, as if she recollecied herself, sie He opened a vein, and with much humane patience, blushed very deeply, and seemed much confused, continued to try different remedies while any chance then bowed herself to my feet, and kissed my hands, remained; but no blood flowed, and no sign of life and at last said, in a very modest tone, it was not could be detected from the time of his coming up, fit for so great a man as I was, 10 give her two anas, except a feeble Autter at the heart, which soon and she hoped that I and the 'chora Sahib,' (lle ceased. He was at an advanced age, at least for lord) would give her a rupee each!' She was an an Indian, though apparently hale and robust. 1 extremely pretty lille woman, but we were inexorfelt it a comfort ihat I had not urged him to any ex. able; partly, I believe, in my own case at least, ertion, and that in fact I had endeavoured to persuade because we had only just rupees enough to take us him to lie still till he was quite well. But I was to Cawnpoor, and to pay for our men's provisions; necessarily much shocked by the sudden end of one however, I gave her two more anas, my sole rewho had travelled with me so far, and whose con. maining stock of small change.' duct had, in every instance, given me satisfaction. Nor, while writing this, can I recollect without a
These few traits will do, we believe ; but real pang, his calm countenance and grey hairs, as we must add a few more, to let the reader he sate in his tent door, telling his beads in an after. fully into the noble humanity and genuine noon, or walked with me, as he seldom failed to softness of this man's heart. do, through the villages on an evening, with his own silver-hilted sabre under his arm, his loose cot. “In the course of this evening a fellow, who ton mantle folded round him, and his golden neck said he was a gao.wala brought me iwo poor lile lace and Rajpoot string just visible above it. levereis, which he said he had just found in a field.
“ The deaih of the poor Soubahdar led to the They were quite unfit to eat, and bringing them question, whether there would be still time to send was an act of cruelty of which there are few in. on the baggage. All the Mussulmans pressed our stances among the Hindoos, who are generally immediate departure; while the Hindoos begged humane to wild animals. In this case, on my scold. that they might be allowed to stay, at least, till ing the man for bringing such poor liule things from sunset. I determined on remaining, as, in my opin their mother, all the crowd of camel-drivers and ion, more decent and respectful to ihe memory of a camp-followers, of whom no inconsiderable number good and aged officer."
were around us, expressed great satisfaction and an “In the way, at Futtehgunge, I passed the tents entire concurrence in my censure. It ended in the pirched for the large party which were to return to. man promising to take them back to the very spot wards Cawnpoor next day, and I was much pleased (which he described) where he had picked them up, and gratified by the Soubahdar and the greater and in my promising him an ana if he did so. To number of the sepoys of my old escort running into see him keep his word iwo stout waggoner's bors the middle of the road to bid me another farewell, immediately volunteered their services, and I have and again express their regret that they were not no doubt kept him to his contract. going on wiih me 'to the world's end.' They who “The same adviser wanted me to take off a joint ialk of the ingratitude of the Indian character, of Câbul's tail, under the hair, so as not to injure should, I think, pay a little more attention to cases his appearance. It was known,' he said, 'thai by of this sort. These men neither got nor expected how much the tail was made shorter, so much the any thing by this little expression of good-will. If taller the horse grew.? I said I could not believe I had offered them money, they would have been that God gave any animal a limb too much, or one bound, by the rules of the service, and their own which tended to its disadvantage, and that as He dignity, not to take it. Sufficient civility and re. had made my horse, so he should remain.' This spect would have been paid if any of them who speech, such as it was, seemed to chime in wonderhappened to be near the road had touched their fully with the feelings of most of my hearers; and caps, and I really can suppose them actuated by no one old man said, that during all the twenty-two motive but good. will. I had not been excited, so years that the English held the country, he had no far as I know, by any particular desert on my part: heard so grave and godly a saying from any of them but I had always spoken to them civilly, had paid before. I thought of Sancho Panza and his wise some attention to their comforts in securing them apophthegms! ienis, firewood, and camels for their knapsacks. and Our elephants were receiving their drink at a had ordered them a dinner, after their own fashion, well, and I gave the largest some bread, which, on their arrival at Lucknow, at the expense of, I before my illness, I had ofien been in the habit of believe, not more than four rupees ! Surely if doing. He is glad to see yon again,' observed the good-will is to be bought by these sort of attentions, goomashta, and I certainly was much struck by the it is a pity that any body should neglect them."- calm, clear, attentive, intelligent eye which he fixed
“In crossing a nuddee, which from a ford had on me, both while he was eating, and afterwards become a ferry, we saw some characteristic groups / while I was pauing his trunk and talking about him.