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dians, hui that all such differences should be, endearedly visits you with eternal embraces, and settled by twelve referees, six Indians and six will abide with you for ever : and may the God of planters; under the direction, if need were, my life watch over you, and bless you, and do you of the Governor of the province, and the Chief
, good in this world and for ever!-Some things are or King of the Indians concerned. Under capacities, as I am to one a husband, and to the these wise and merciful regulations, three rest a father, if I should never see you more in this ships full of passengers sailed for the new world. province in the end of 1681. In one of these ** My dear wife! remember thou wast the kre was Colonel Markham, a relation of Penn's,
of my youth, and much the joy of my life; the and intended to act as his secretary when he earthly comforts: and the reason of that love was
most beloved, as well as mosi worthy of all my should himself arrive. He was the chief of
more thy inward than thy outward excellencies, several commissioners, who were appointed to which yet were many. God knows, and thou confer with the Indians with regard to the ces- knowesi it, I can say it was a match of Providence's sion or purchase of their lands, and the terns making; and God's image in us both was the first of a perpetual peace, and was the bearer of hing, and the most amiable and engaging orna.
meni in our eyes. Now I am to leave thee, and the following letter to them from the Governor, that without knowing whether I shall ever see thee a part of which we think worthy of being more in this world, take my counsel into thy bosom, transcribed, for the singular plainness, and and let it dwell with thee in my sicad while thua engaging honesty, of its manner.
livest." “Now, I would have you well observe, that I Then, after some counsel about godliness am very sensible of the unkindness and injustice and economy, he proceeds-which have been too inuch exercised toward you by the people of these parts of the world, who have “And now, my dearest, let me recommend 10 svught themselves to make great advantages by you, thy care my dear children; abundantly beloved of rather than to be examples of goodness and patience me, as the Lord's blessings, and the sweet pledges unto you. This I hear hath been a matter of trouble of our mutual and endeared affection. Above all to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, things endeavour to breed them up in the love of sometimes to the shedding of blood. But I am not virtue, and thai holy plain way of it which we have such a man; as is well known in my own country lived in, that the world in no part of it get into I have great love and regard toward you, and desire my family, I had rather they were homely than to win and gain your love and friendship by a kind, finely bred as to outward behaviour; yet I love just, and peaceable life ; and the people I send are sweetness mixed with gravity, and cheerfulness of the same mind, and shall in all ihings behave tempered with sobriety. Religion in the heart leads themselves accordingly; and if in any thing any into this true civility, teaching men and women to shall offend you or your people, you shall have be mild and courteous in their behaviour ; an ac. a full and speedy satisfaction for the same, by an complishment worihy indeed of praise. equal number of just men on both sides, that by no Next breed them up in a love one of another: means you may have just occasion of being offended tell them it is the charge I left behind me ; and against them.
that it is the way to have the love and blessing of "I shall shortly come to see you myself, at God upon them. Sometimes separate them, but which lime we may more largely and freely confer not long; and allow them to send and give each and discourse of these matters. In the mean time other small things, to endear one another with I have sent my Commissioners to treat with you, Once more I say, tell them it was my counsel they about land, and a firm league of peace. Let me should be tender and affectionate one to another. desire you to be kind to them and to the people, For their learning be liberal. Spare no cost; for and receive the presenis and tokens, which I have by such parsimony all is lost that is saved: but let sent you, as a testimony of my good will 10 you, it be useful knowledge, such as is consistent with and of my resolution to live justly, peaceably, and truth and godliness, not cherishing a vain conversa. friendly with you. I am, your loving Friend, rion or idle mind; but ingenuiry mixed with indus
“William Penn." |'ry is good for the body and the mind 100. Rather In the course of the succeeding year, he keep an ingenious person in the house to teach
them, ihan send them to schools; too many evil prepared to follow these colonists; and ac, impressions being commonly received there. Be cordingly embarked, with about an hundred sure to observe their genius, and do not cross it as other Quakers, in the month of September, to learning; let them not dwell 100 long on one 1682. Before separating himself, however, thing, but let their change be agreeable, and all addressed a long letter of love and admoni- for then there are more snares, both within and from his family on this long pilgrimage, he heir diversions have some little bodily labour in tion to his wife and children, from which we without. When marriageable, see that they have are tempted to make a pretty large extract worihy persons in their eye, of good life, and good for the entertainment and edification of our fame for piery and understanding. I desire no readers. There is something, we think, very dear, fervent, and mutual, that it may be happy tor
wealth. bui sufficiency; and be sure their love be touching and venerable in the affectionateness
them. of its whole strain, and the patriarchal sim- earthly, covetous kindred and of cilies and towns
I choose not they should be married to plicity in which it is conceived; while the of concourse, beware: the world is apt to stick language appears to us to be one of the most close to those who have lived and got wealth
here: beautiful specimens of that soft and mellow a country life and eslate I like best for my children. English, which, with all its redundancy and I prefer a decent mansion of a hundred pounds per cumbrous volume, has, to our ears, a far richer annum, before ten thousand pounds in London, or
such like place, in a way of irade." and more pathetic sweetness than the epigrams and apothegms of modern times. The letter He next addresses himself to his children. begins in this manner
“Be obedient to your dear mother, a woman My dear Wife and Children,
whose virtue and good name is an honour to you; My love, which neither sea, nor land, nor death for she hath been exceeded by none in her time for itself, can extinguish or lessen toward you, most 'her integrity, humanity, virtue, and good under
standing ; qualities not usual among women of her tion, and solemnly to pledge his faith, and worldly condition and quality. Therefore honour to ratify and confirm the treaty, in sight both and obey her, my dear children, as your mother, of the Indians and Planters. For this purand your father's love and delight; nay, love her too, for she loved your father with a deep and pose a grand convocation of the tribes had upright love, choosing him before all her many been appointed near the spot where Philadelsuitors: and though she be of a delicate constitue phia now stands; and it was agreed that he tion and noble spirit, yet she descended to the ut. and the presiding Sachems should meet and most tenderness and care for you, performing the exchange faith, under the spreading branches as a mother and a nurse too. I charge you, before of the river. On the day appointed, accordpainfullest acts of service to you in your infancy; of a prodigious elm-tree thai grew on the bank the Lord, honour and obey, love and cherish your dear mother."
ingly, an innumerable multitude of the InAfter a great number of other affectionate were seen, with their dark visages and brand
dians assembled in that neighbourhood; and counsels, he turns particularly to his elder ished arms, moving, in vast swarms, in the boys.
depth of the woods
which then overshadowed “And as for you, who are likely to be concerned the whole of that now cultivated region. On in the government of Pennsylvania, I do charge the other hand, William Penn, with a modeyou before the Lord God and his holy angels, that rate attendance of Friends, advanced to meet you be lowly, diligent, and tender; searing God, them. He came of course unarmed-in his loving the people, and bating covetousness. Let justice have its impartial course, and the law free usual plain dress-without banners, or mace, passage. Though to your loss, protect no man or guards, or carriages; and only distinguished against it; for you are not above the law, but the from his companions by wearing a blue sash law above you. Live therefore the lives yourselves of silk network (which it seems is still preyou would have the people live, and then shall you served by Mr. Kett of Seething-hall, near have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Norwich), and by having in his hand a roll do your duty, and be sure you see with your own of parchment, on which was engrossed the eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no confirmation of the treaty of purchase and Jurchers ; cherish no informers for gain
or revenge ; amity. As soon as he drew near the spot use no tricks; fly to no devices to support or cover where the Sachems were assembled, the injustice; but let your hearts be upright before the whole multitude of Indians threw down their Lord, Irusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant you.'
weapons, and seated themselves on the ground
in groups, each under his own chieftain ; and We should like to see any private letter of the presiding chief intimated to William Penn, instructions from a sovereign to his heir-appa- that the nations were ready to hear him. Mr. rent, that will bear a comparison with the Clarkson regrets, and we cordially join in the injunctions of this honest Sectary. He con- sentiment, that there is no written, contempocludes as follows:
rary account of the particulars attending this “Finally, my children, love one another with a
interesting and truly novel transaction. He true endeared love, and your dear relations on both assures us, however, that they are still in a sides, and take care to preserve tender affection in great measure preserved in oral tradition, and your children to each other, often marrying within that both what we have just stated, and what ihemselves, so as it be without the bounds forbidden follows,
may be relied on as perfectly accuin God's law, that so they may not, like the forget rate. The sequel we give in his own words.. ting unnatural world, grow out of kindred, and as cold as strangers; but, as becomes a truly natural " Having been thus called upon, he began. The and Christian stock, you and yours after you, may Great Spirit, he said, who made him and ihem, who live in the pure and fervent love of God towards ruled the Heaven and the Earth, and who knew one another, as becoming brethren in the spiritual the innermost thoughts of man, knew that he and and natural relation.
his friends had a hearty desire to live in peace and "So farewell to my thrice dearly beloved wife friendship with them, and to serve them to the and children!
utmost of their power. It was not their custom to “Yours, as God pleaseth, in that which no use hostile weapons against their fellow.creatures,
waters can quench, no time forget, nor distance for which reason they had come unarmed. Their wear away, but remains for ever,
object was not to do injury, and thus provoke the
“ William Penn." Great Spirit, but to do good. They were then met " JVorminghurst, fourth of
on the broad pathway of good faith and good will, sixth month, 1682."
so that no advantage was to be taken on either Immediately after writing this letter, he side, but all was to be openness, brotherhood, and
love. After these and other words, he unrolled embarked, and arrived safely in the Dela- the parchment, and by means of the same interware with all his companions. The country preter conveyed to them, article by article, the con. assigned to him by the royal charter was yet | ditions of the Purchase, and the Words of the Comfull of its original inhabitants; and the prin- pact then made for their eternal Union. Among ciples of William Penn did not allow him other things, they were not to be molested in their to look upon that gift as a warrant to dis- lawful pursuits, even in the territory they had alien
aled, for it was to be common to them and the possess the first proprietors of the land. He English. They were to have the same liberty to had accordingly appointed his commissioners, do all things herein relating to the improvement the preceding year, to treat with them for of their grounds, and providing sustenance for their the fair purchase of a part of their lands, and families, which the English had. If any disputes for their joint possession of the remainder; should arise between the two, they should be setand the terms of the settlement being now English, and half Indians. He then paid them for
tled by twelve persons, half of whom should be nearly agreed upon, he proceeded, very soon the land ; and made them many presents besides, after his arrival, to conclude the transac-l from the merchandize which had been spread before them. Having done this, he laid the roll of parch- added, for the encouragement of industry, ment on the ground, observing again, that the and mutual usefulness and esteem. There ground should be common to both people. He is something very agreeable in the contentThen added, that he would not do as the Maryland. ers did, that is, call them Children or Brothers ment, and sober and well-earned self-com. only; for often parents were apt to chastise their placency, which breathe in the following let. children too severely, and Brothers sometimes ter of this great colonist-written during his would differ: neither would he compare the Friend first rest from those great labours. ship between him and them 10 a Chain, for the rain might sometimes rust it, or a tree might fall
“I am now casting the country in'o townships and break it; but he should consider them as the for large lots of land. I have held an Assembly, same flesh and blood with the Christians, and the in which many good laws are passed. We could same as if one man's body were to be divided into not stay safely till the spring for a Government. I two parts. He then took up the parchment, and have annexed the Territories lately obtained to the presented it to the Sachem, who wore the horn in Province, and passed a general naturalizalion for his chaplet, and desired him and the other Sachems strangers; which hath inuch pleased the people.to preserve it carefully for three generations; that As to outward things, we are satisfied; the land their children might know what had passed between good, the air clear and sweet, the springs plentiful, them, just as if he had remained himself with them and provision good and easy to come at ; an inng. to repeat it."-pp. 341-343..
merable quantity of wild fowl and fish: in fine,
here is what an Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob would The Indians, in return, made long and be well contented with; and service enough for stately harangues—of which, however, no God, for the fields are here while for harvest. 0, more seems to have been remembered, but the anxious and troublesome solicitations, hurries,
how sweet is the quiet of these paris, freed from that “they pledged themselves to live in love and perplexities of woful Europe!”—Pp. 350, 351. with William Penn and his children, as long as the sun and moon should endure." And We cannot persuade ourselves, however, thus ended this famous treaty ;-of which to pursue any farther the details of this edify: Voltaire has remarked, with so much truth ing biography. W. Penn returned to England and severity, " that it was the only one ever after a residence of about two years in his concluded between savages and Christians colony-got into great favour with James II. that was not ratified by an oath—and the only and was bitterly calumniated as a Jesuit, one that never was broken!
both by churchmen and sectaries--went on Such, indeed, was the spirit in which the "doing good and preaching Quakerism-was negotiation was entered into, and the corres- sorely persecuted and insulted, and deprived ponding settlement conducted, that for the of his Government, but finally acquitted, and space of more than seventy years—and so honourably restored, under King William, long indeed as the Quakers retained the chief lost his wife and son-travelled and married power in the government, the peace and amity again—returned to Pennsylvania in 1699 for which had been thus solemnly promised and two years longer-came finally home to Engconcluded, never was violated ; -and a large land-continued to preach and publish as and most striking, though solitary example copiously as ever-was reduced to a state of afforded, of the facility with which they who kindly dotage by three strokes of apopleryare really sincere and friendly in their own and died at last at the age of seventy-two, in views, may live in harmony even with those the year 1718. who are supposed to be peculiarly fierce and
He seems to have been a man of kind affecfaithless. We cannot bring ourselves to wish tions, singular activity and perseverance, and that there were nothing but Quakers in the great practical wisdom. Yet we can well world-because we fear it would be insup- believe with Burnet, that he was a little portably dull;—but when we consider what puffed up with vanity;" and that "he had a tremendous evils daily arise from the petu- tedious, luscious way of talking, that was apt lance and profligacy, and ambition and irri- to tire the patience of his hearers." He was tability, of Sovereigns and Ministers, we can- very neat in his person ; and had a great hornot help thinking that it would be the most ror at tobacco, which occasionally endangered efficacious of all reforms to choose all those his popularity in his American domains. He ruling personages out of that plain, pacific, was mighty methodical, too, in ordering his and sober-minded sect.
household; and had stuck up in his hall a William Penn now held an assembly, in written directory, or General Order, for the which fifty-nine important laws were passed regulation of his family, to which he exacted in the course of three days. The most re- the strictest conformity. According to this markable were those which limited the num- rigorous system of discipline, he requiredber of capital crimes to two-murder and
“That in that quarter of the year which included high treason—and which provided for the part of the winter and part of the spring, the memreformation, as well as the punishment of bers of it were to rise at seven in the morning, in offenders, by making the prisons places of the next at six, in the next at five, and in the last compulsive industry, sobriety, and instruc- fast, twelve for dinner, seven for supper, and ten
Nine o'clock was the hour for break. tion. It was likewise enacted, that all child to retire to bed. The whole family were to assemdren, of whatever rank, should be instructed ble every morning for worship. They were to be in some art or trade. The fees of law pro- called together at eleven again, that each might ceedings were fixed, and inscribed on public read in turn some portion of the holy Scripture, or tables ; -and the amount of fines to be levied of the Martyrology, or of Friends' books; and for offences also limited by legislative au- in the evening. On the days of public meeting, no
finally they were to meet again for worship at six thority. Many admirable regulations were
one was to be absent, except on the plea of health
or of unavoidable engagement. The servants were the pious and philanthropic principles that to be called up after supper to render to their mas. ter and mistress an account of what they had done that great settlement which still bears his
were undoubtedly his chief guides in forming in the day, and to receive instructions for the next; and were particularly exhorted to avoid lewd dis: name, and profits by his example. Human courses and iroublesome noises."
virtue does not challenge, nor admit of such
a scrutiny! And it should be sufficient for We shall not stop to examine what dregs the glory of William Penn, that he stands of ambition, or what hankerings after worldly upon record as the most humane, the most prosperity, may have mixed themselves with moderate, and the most pacific of all rulers.
( May, 1828.) A Selection from the Public and Private Correspondence of Vice-Admiral Lord Collingwood:
interspersed with Memoirs of his Life. By G. L. NEWNHAM COLLINGWOOD, Esq. F. R. S. 2 vols. 8vo. Ridgway. London : 1828.
We do not know when we have met with of a still higher rectitude. Inferior, perhaps, so delightful a book as this,-or one with to Nelson, in original genius and energy, and which we are so well pleased with ourselves in that noble self-confidence in great emerfor being delighted. Its attraction consists gencies which these qualities usually inspire, almost entirely in its moral beauty; and it he was fully his equal in seamanship and the has the rare merit of filling us with the deep- art of command; as well as in that devotedest admiration for heroism, without suborning ness to his country and his profession, and our judgments into any approbation of the that utter fearlessness and gallantry of soul vices and weaknesses with which poor mortal which exults and rejoices in scenes of treheroism is so often accompanied. In this re- mendous peril, which have almost ceased to spect, it is not only more safe, but more agree- be remarkable in the character of a British able reading than the Memoirs of Nelson; sailor. On the other hand, we think it will where the lights and shadows are often too scarcely be disputed, that he was superior to painfully contrasted, and the bane and the that great commander in general information antidote exhibited in proportions that cannot and accomplishment, and in those thoughtful but be hazardous for the ardent and aspiring habits, and that steadiness and propriety of spirits on which they are both most calculated personal deportment, which are their natural to operate,
fruit. His greatest admirers, however, can It is a mere illusion of national vanity ask no higher praise for him than that he stood which prompts us to claim Lord Collingwood on the same lofty level with Nelson, as to that as a character peculiarly English? Certainly generous and cordial appreciation of merit in we must admit, that we have few English- his brother officers, by which, even more, permen left who resemble him; and even that haps, than by any of his other qualities, that our prevailing notions and habits make it great man was distinguished. It does one's likely that we shall have still fewer hereafter. heart good, indeed, to turn from the petty Yet we do not know where such a character cabals, the paltry jealousies, the splendid decould have been formed but in England;- tractions, the irritable vanities, which infest and feel quite satisfied, that it is there only almost every other walk of public life, and that it can be properly valued or understood. I meet one, indeed, at every turn in all scenes The combination of the loftiest daring with of competition, and among men otherwise the most watchful humanity, and of the no- i eminent and honourable,—to the brother-like blest ambition with the greatest disdain of frankness and open-hearted simplicity, even personal advantages, and the most generous of the official communications between Nelson sympathy with rival merit, though rare enough and Collingwood; and to the father-like into draw forth at all times the loud applause terest with which they both concurred in fosof mankind, have not been without example, tering the glory, and cheering on the fortunes in any race that boasts of illustrious ances- of their younger associates. In their noble tors. But, for the union of those high quali- thirst for distinction, there seems to be absoties with unpretending and almost homely lutely no alloy of selfishness; and scarcely simplicity, sweet temper, undeviating recti- even a feeling of rivalry. If the opportunity tude, and all the purity and sanctity of do- of doing a splendid thing has not come to mestic affection and humble content--we can i them, it has come to some one who deserved look, we think, only to England, -or to the it as well, and perhaps needed it more. It fabulous legends of uncorrupted and unin- will come to them another day--and then the structed Rome. All these graces, however, heroes of this will repay their hearty congraand more than these, were united in Lord tulations. There is something inexpressibly Collingwood: For he had a cultivated and beautiful and attractive in this spirit of mageven elegant mind, a taste for all simple en- nanimous fairness; and if we could only bejoyments, and a rectitude of understanding, | lieve it to be general in the navy, we should which seemed in him to be but the emanation i gladly recant all our heretical doubls as to the
superior virtues of men at sea, join chorus to the poor child, spoke to him in terms of much all the slang songs of Dibdin on the subject, encouragement and kindness; which, as Lord and applaud to the echo all the tirades about Collingwood said, so won upon his heart, thal, British tars and wooden walls, which have so taking this officer to his box, he offered him often nauseated us at the playhouses. in gratitude a large piece of plumcake which
We feel excessively obliged to the editor his mother had given him! Almost iron of this book; both for making Lord Colling. this early period he was the intimate friend wood known to us, and for the very pleasing, and frequent associate of the brave Nelson; modest, and effectual way he has taken to do and had his full share of the obscure perils it in. It is made up almost entirely of his and unknown labours which usually form the Lordship’s correspondence; and the few con-noviciate of naval eminence. He was made necting statements and explanatory observa- commander in 1779; and being sent to the tions are given with the greatest clearness and West Indies after the peace of 1783, was only brevity; and very much in the mild, concili- restored to his family in 1786. He married atory, and amiable tone of the remarkable in 1791; and was again summoned upon person to whom they relate. When we say active service on the breaking out of the par that this publication has made Lord Collings with France in 1793; from which period to wood known to us, we do not mean that we. the end of his life, in 1810, he was continually or the body of the nation, were previously in employment, and never permitted to see ignorant that he had long served with distinc- that happy home, so dear to his heart, and so tion in the navy, and that it fell to his lot, as constantly in his thoughts, except for one short second in command at Trafalgar, to indite that interval of a year, during the peace of Amiens. eloquent and touching despatch which an. During almost the whole of this period he nounced the final ruin of the hostile fleets, was actually afloat; and was frequenily, for and the death of the Great Admiral by whose a year together, and once for the incredible might they had been scattered. But till this period of twenty-two months, without dropcollection appeared, the character of the man ping an anchor. He was in almost all the was known, we believe, only to those who great actions, and had more that his share of had lived with him; and the public was gene- the anxious blockades, which occurred in that rally ignorant both of the detail of his ser- memorable time; and signalised himself in vices, and the high principle and exemplary all, by that mixture of considerate vigilance diligence which presided over their perform- and brilliant courage, which may be said to
Neither was it known, we are per- have constituted his professional character. suaded, that those virtues and services actually His first great battle was that which ended in cost him his life! and that the difficulty of Lord Howe's celebrated victory of the 1st of finding, in our large list of admirals, any one June, 1794; and we cannot resist the temptafit to succeed him in the important station tion of heading our extracts with a part of which he filled in his declining years, induced the account he has given of it, in a letter to the government, — most ungenerously, we his father-in-law, Mr. Blackett—not so much must say, and unjustly,—to refuse his earnest for the purpose of recalling the proud feelings desire to be relieved of it; and to insist on which must ever cling to the memory of our his remaining to the last gasp, at a post which first triumph over triumphant France, as for he would not desert so long as his country the sake of that touching mixture it presents, required him to maintain it, but at which, it of domestic affection and family recollections was apparent to himself
, and all the world, with high professional enthusiasm, and the that he must speedily die. The details now kindling spirit of war. In this situation he before us will teach the profession, we hope, says: by what virtues and what toils so great and so pure a fame can alone be won; and by “ We cruised for a few days, like disappointed rendering in this way such characters less people looking for what we could not find, until the rare, will also render the distinction to which morning of little Sarah's birth-day, between eight
and nine o'clock, when the French fleet, of iwenty. they lead less fatal to its owners: While they five sail of the line was discovered 10 windward. cannot fail, we think, to awaken the govern- We chased them, and they bore down within about ment to a sense of its own ingratitude to those five miles of us. The night was spent in watching who have done it the noblest service, and of and preparation for the succeeding day; and many the necessity of at last adopting some of the a blessing did I send forth to my Sarah, lest I should suggestions which those great benefactors proach on the enemy, then drew up, dressed our
never bless her more! At dawn, we made our ap. have so long pressed on its attention.
ranks, and it was about eight when the Admiral We have not much concern with the gene- made ihe signal for each ship to engage her oppoalogy or early history of Lord Collingwood. nent, and bring her to close action, and then down He was born in 1750, of an honourable and we went under a crowd of sail, and in a manner ancient family of Northumberland, but of that would have animated the coldest heart, and
struck terror into the most intrepid enemy. The slender patrimony; and went to sea, under ship we were to engage was two ahead of the the care of his relative, Captain, afterwards French Admiral, so that we had to go through his Admiral Brathwaite, when only eleven years fire and that of the two ships next him, and received old. He used, himself, to tell, as an instance all their broadsides two or three times before we of his youth and simplicity at this time, served to the Admiral, that about that time our “that as he was sitting crying for his sepa- wives were going to church, but that I thought that ration from home, the first lieutenant ob- the peal we should ring about the Frenchman's ears served him; and pitying the tender years of I would outdo their parish bells! Lord Flowc began